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Regional Analysis of Asia

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This regional analysis reviews progress in the Asia-Pacific region towards achieving the expected outcomes. The presentation gives detailed idea about all the countries through a rigorous PESTEL analysis.

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Regional Analysis of Asia

  1. 1. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF ASIA
  2. 2. ASIA
  3. 3. ASIA48.5COUNTRIES
  4. 4. ASIA49COUNTRIES
  5. 5. ASIA60%POPULATION
  6. 6. ASIA28%GDP CONTRIBUTION Continents GDP (US$) Percentage GDP Europe 24.4 trillion 34% North America 20.3 trillion 28% Asia 18.5 trillion 26% South America 4.2 trillion 6% Africa 2.6 trillion 4% Oceania 1.8 trillion 2% Antarctica N/A -
  7. 7. ASIA4Billionaire cities are in Asia10OUT OF
  8. 8. ASIA7Largest cities are in Asia10OUT OF
  9. 9. DIVISIONof the countries BOTTOM TIER HDI 0.65 –0.75 HDI > 0.75 MIDDLE TIER TOP TIER HDI < 0.65 Source: HDI 2013 as per UNDP
  10. 10. Afghanistan] 0.468 Syria 0.658 Kazakhstan 0.754 Yemen 0.500 Philippines 0.660 Turkey 0.759 Myanmar 0.524 Uzbekistan 0.661 Lebanon 0.765 Pakistan 0.537 Indonesia 0.684 Malaysia 0.773 Nepal 0.540 Palestine 0.686 Russia 0.778 Bangladesh 0.558 Maldives 0.698 Oman 0.783 Lao PDR 0.569 Mongolia 0.698 Kuwait 0.814 Bhutan 0.584 Turkmenistan 0.698 Bahrain 0.815 Cambodia 0.584 China 0.719 UAE 0.827 India 0.586 Thailand 0.722 Saudi Arabia 0.836 Tajikistan 0.607 Armenia 0.730 Republic of Cyprus 0.845 Timor 0.620 Georgia 0.744 Qatar 0.851 Kyrgyzstan 0.628 Jordan 0.745 Brunei Darussalam 0.852 Vietnam 0.638 Azerbaijan 0.747 Israel 0.888 Iraq 0.642 Iran 0.749 Japan 0.890 Sri Lanka 0.750 South Korea 0.891
  11. 11. ASIAESTLEOLITICAL
  12. 12. FACTORSconsidered Republic Constitutional Monarchy Absolute Monarchy TheocracyTypes of government
  13. 13. FACTORSconsidered Corruption perception index Transparency international Lower the value, higher the corruptionCorruption
  14. 14. FACTORSconsidered Freedom of the press report 2014 Freedom House Not free (0 to 30); Partly Free (31 to 60); Free (61 to 100) Freedom of press
  15. 15. BOTTOM TIER Type of Government: •Laos and Vietnam: Republic, but singleparty dominated •Bhutan and Cambodia: Constitutionalmonarchy •11 other countries follow either Presidential or Parliamentary Republic
  16. 16. BOTTOM TIER Corruption •Average CPI: 27 •136thposition out of 176 •Worst position: Afghanistan(CPI of 8) •Bangladesh’sCPI: 27 Global Average CPI: 43
  17. 17. BOTTOM TIER Freedom of the Press •There is no country that is “FREE” •Average: 65 •Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indiaand Timorare “PARTLY FREE” •10 others are “NOT FREE” •Worst position: Laosand Vietnam(scores: 84) Global Average: 48 (Partly Free)
  18. 18. MIDDLE TIER Type of Government: •Presidential Republic and Theocracy in Iran •Military Regime since May, 2014 in Thailand •Communist Party as government in China •Constitutional monarchy in Jordan •12others: Republic (Presidential or Parliamentary)
  19. 19. MIDDLE TIER Corruption •Average CPI: 32 •114thposition out of 176 •Worst position: Syriaand Uzbekistan(CPI of 17) Global Average CPI: 43
  20. 20. MIDDLE TIER Freedom of the Press •There is no country that is “FREE” •Average: 70 •Philippines, Indonesia, Maldives, Mongoliaand Georgiaare “PARTLY FREE” •11 others are “NOT FREE” •Worst performance: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Syriaand Iran Global Average: 48 (Partly Free)
  21. 21. TOP TIER Type of Government: •Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Brunei have absolute monarchy •Malaysia, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE, Japan have constitutionalmonarchy •No SingleParty Republic
  22. 22. TOP TIER Corruption •Average CPI: 53 •49thposition out of 176 •Highest: Singapore(CPI is 83) is 5thin the world Global Average CPI: 43
  23. 23. TOP TIER Freedom of the Press •Only one “FREE” country is Japan •Average: 61 •SouthKorea, Israel, Kuwaitand Lebanonare “PARTLY FREE” •11 others are “NOT FREE” •Worst performance: Bahrainand Kazakhstan Global Average: 48 (Partly Free)
  24. 24. ASIAPSTLECONOMICAL
  25. 25. FACTORSconsidered 1.GDP Growth Rate •Source: World Bank 2013 2.Per Capita GDP •Source: World Bank 2013 3.Inflation Rate •Source: Trading Economics 2014 4.Unemployment Rate •Source: World Bank 2012
  26. 26. BOTTOM TIER GDP Growth Rate: •Average GDP Growth rate 2011 to 2013 is 5.9% •Constant GDP over these years: Bangladesh (6.5%), Laos (8.1%), Cambodia (7.3%) •Decreasing growth rates: Iraq, Timor •-15.1% in Yemen in 2011 due to reduction in oil production •-0.1% in Kyrgyzstan in 2012 due to reduction in gold production
  27. 27. BOTTOM TIER Per Capita GDP •Average Per Capita GDP: $1,705 •Lowest Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh •But among these 3Bangladesh is the best off •That of Nepal and Afghanistan decreasedin 2013 Global Average: $10,513
  28. 28. BOTTOM TIER Inflation Rate: •Average inflation rate: 5.88% •Lowest in Timor (0%) •Highest in Nepal and Bhutan (9.45%) •Bangladesh: 6.91% Global Average: 3.91%
  29. 29. BOTTOM TIER Unemployment Rate: •Average unemployment rate: 6.13% •Double digits: Yemen, Tajikistan, Iraq •Reason for Yemen: Undergoing consequences of revolution in 2011 •Bangladesh: 4.5% (very good) Global Average: 8.4%
  30. 30. MIDDLE TIER GDP Growth Rate: •Average GDP Growth rate 2011 to 2013 is 6.3% (highest among all tiers) •Constant GDP over these years: Uzbekistan (8.2%), Indonesia (6.2%), Jordan (7.3%) •Most number of double digit growths: Mongolia, Turkmenistan; but their rates declining •Reason for Mongolia: their Coal export is declining
  31. 31. MIDDLE TIER Per Capita GDP •Average Per Capita GDP: $4,675 •Increased from Bottom Tier •None of them are below 3digits •Lowest is in Uzbekistan: $1,878 Global Average: $10,513
  32. 32. MIDDLE TIER Inflation Rate: •Average inflation rate: 4.74% •Lowest in Armenia (0.8%) •Double digit inflations: Iran, Syria, Mongolia •Reason for Iran: Multi tier exchange rate system Global Average: 3.91%
  33. 33. MIDDLE TIER Unemployment Rate: •Average unemployment rate: 9.99% (highest amongst the tiers) •Highest in Palestine (23%) and Armenia (18.5%) •Reason for Armenia: Very high wealth gap Global Average: 8.4%
  34. 34. TOP TIER GDP Growth Rate: •Average GDP Growth rate 2011 to 2013 is 3.9%(lowest among all tiers) •Biggest reductions: Qatar and Saudi Arabia (oil dependency) •Example of increasingGDP growth rate: Bahrain (due to a very strong financial industry)
  35. 35. TOP TIER Per Capita GDP •Average Per Capita GDP: $31,997 •Highest: Qatar $93,352 (number 1 in the world, expected to double by 2025, due to low cost of gas production and the FIFA world cup) •Second highest: Singapore $55,182 (number 3 in the world) Global Average: $10,513
  36. 36. TOP TIER Inflation Rate: •Average inflation rate: 2.96% •Lowest in Brunei (-0.3%) •Highest in Russia 9.54% (most recent reason: ban on Western food import) Global Average: 3.91%
  37. 37. TOP TIER Unemployment Rate: •Average unemployment rate: 5.4% (lowest among tiers) •No country with double digit unemployment rate •Lowest unemployment in Qatar (0.6%) •Reason for Qatar: Runs on expatriates (94% of working population expatriates as of 2012) Global Average: 8.4%
  38. 38. ASIAPETLEOCIAL
  39. 39. •Population under poverty Line •Rural Population with Water Access •Urban Population with Water Access •Urban Population with Sanitation Access •Ratio of Female to Male Primary Enrollment •Ratio of Female to Male Secondary Enrollment •Ratio of Female to Male Tertiary Enrollment •Life Expectancy at Birth in years INDICATORS CONSIDERED
  40. 40. •Average population under the poverty line: 28% •Bhutan, Pakistan, & Vietnam: 12%, 12.4% & 17.2% •Timor-Leste, Tajikistan, & Afghanistan: 49.9%, 47.2%, % 35.8% BOTTOM TIER
  41. 41. •Average rural population with water access: 75.6% •Bhutan, Vietnam, & India: 97%, 94%, and 91% •Yemen, Afghanistan, Timor-Leste: 47%, 56%, 61% •Bangladesh: 84% BOTTOM TIER
  42. 42. •Average Water Access to Urban Population: 91.5% •Bhutan, Vietnam and Kyrgyzstan: near 100% •Yemen, Bangladesh, Afghanistan: 72%, 85%, 89% •All countries are faring well BOTTOM TIER
  43. 43. •Average Urban Access to Sanitation: 75% •Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal: 46%, 55%, 51% •Tajikistan, Vietnam, Yemen: 93%, 93%, 92% BOTTOM TIER
  44. 44. •Average ratio of female to male in Primary Enrollment: 95% •All countries are above or near Tier Average •Except Afghanistan and Yemen with 71%and 82% BOTTOM TIER
  45. 45. •Average ratio of female to male in secondary enrollment: 90% •Pakistan, Laos, Yemen, Afghanistan are far behind with 73%, 87%, 65%, and 55%respectively. •Bangladesh has the highest enrollment at 113%in the first tier BOTTOM TIER
  46. 46. •Average ratio Female to Male in tertiary enrollment: 76.9% •Exceptional performance: Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, and Vietnam with 124%, 134%, and 101% respectively. •Afghanistan and Yemen are still falling behind BOTTOM TIER
  47. 47. •Average Life Expectancy in the Tier is 67years •Afghanistan and Yemen behind with 61and 63years •Bangladesh above average: 70years BOTTOM TIER
  48. 48. •Average population under the poverty line: 17.7% •Syria and Armenia having the highest with 35.2%and 32.4% MIDDLE TIER
  49. 49. •Average water access to rural population: 84.6% •Turkmenistan, Mongolia, and Azerbaijan with 54%, 61%, and 71% are falling behind MIDDLE TIER
  50. 50. •Average Urban population with water access: 95.4% •Except for Turkmenistan with 89%all the countries are near the average MIDDLE TIER
  51. 51. •Average Sanitation Access for urban population: 87.8% •Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan at 100% •Mongolia, Indonesia, and China falling behind with 65%, 71%, and 74% MIDDLE TIER
  52. 52. •Average ratio of female to male in Primary Enrollment: 98% •Lacking of a few country data •All countries lie near the average MIDDLE TIER
  53. 53. •Average for secondary enrollment: 101% •Armenia at a staggering 120% MIDDLE TIER
  54. 54. •Tertiary enrollment ratio of female to male in average: 116% •Sri Lanka in the lead with 165%and Armenia at 157% •Uzbekistan falling behind with 64% MIDDLE TIER
  55. 55. •Average Life Expectancy: 72years •Turkmenistan lacking behind with 65years •All other countries are around the average. MIDDLE TIER
  56. 56. •Most countries can be said to have no population below the poverty line •Average at 0.93% •Lebanon with the highest at 28.6% TOP TIER
  57. 57. •Rural Population with water access in average: 96.8% •While Kazakhstan has the lowest at 86% •Bahrain, Israel, Japan, Lebanon, Qatar, Cyprus, and UAE stands at 100% TOP TIER
  58. 58. •Urban Population with Water Access in Average: 99% •All countries are near the 100%in this indicator TOP TIER
  59. 59. •Urban Population with access to sanitation in average: 96.4% •Russian and S. Korea are lacking behind with 74%and 87% TOP TIER
  60. 60. •Ratio of female to male in primary enrollment is 99% •Lebanon only at 91% TOP TIER
  61. 61. •Average in secondary enrollment: 98.6% with Turkey lacking behind with 94% TOP TIER
  62. 62. •Tertiary enrollment in average: 171% with Qatar taking the lead at 676% •Turkey lacking behind with 85% TOP TIER
  63. 63. •Average life expectancy: 76years •All countries near the average TOP TIER
  64. 64. •Maximum Poverty Population in Asia is 50% •In Timor-Leste •Due to the country obtaining freedom only recently in 2002 from Indonesia •Lowest Poverty Population in Asia is 1.7% in Malaysia TIER COMPARISON
  65. 65. •Yemen has the lowest in terms of Rural Population with Water Access at 47% in Asia •Due to the War the infrastructure to Yemen was horribly hit. TIER COMPARISON
  66. 66. •In terms of Urban Population with Water Access, Asia as a whole enjoys an average of 90% accessibility. •Only Yemen and Laos are falling behind. •While Yemen’s fall in infrastructure is caused by the war. TIER COMPARISON
  67. 67. •In terms of Urban Sanitation, Tier 1 and Tier 2 are performing very poorly with only 81% •Only Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have 100% in the two Tiers. TIER COMPARISON
  68. 68. •Gender Equality in terms of Primary Enrollment is quite high in Asia as a whole •Only Afghanistan lacking behind with 71% •Bangladesh has the second highest female to male ratio in secondary enrollment in Asia. Armenia is in the lead •Tier 1 countries are only ones lacking behind in gender equality in tertiary education. TIER COMPARISON
  69. 69. •Life Expectancy has an average of 72years. •None of the Tiers experience a life expectancy over 80years in average •Only a few Tier 3 countries experience Life Expectancy over 80. TIER COMPARISON
  70. 70. ASIAPESLEECHNOLOGICAL
  71. 71. Country HDI Access to Electricity (% of the population) Internet Users (per 100 people) Roads Paved Afghanistan 0.468 30.0% 5.9 36% (2010) Bangladesh 0.558 59% 6.5 - Bhutan 0.584 - 29.9 34.2% (2010) Cambodia 0.584 34% 6 - India 0.586 75% 15.1 53.8% (2010) Iraq 0.642 98% 9.2 - Kyrgyzstan 0.628 - 23.4 - Lao PDR 0.569 78% 12.5 - Myanmar 0.524 48% 1.2 48% Nepal 0.54 76% 13.3 - Pakistan 0.537 68% 10.9 72.6% (2010) Tajikistan 0.607 - 16 - BOTTOM TIER
  72. 72. ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY Highest 3 Access to Electricity Iraq 98% (2011) Vietnam 96% Lao PDR 78% Lowest 3 Access to Electricity Afghanistan 30.0% Cambodia 34% Timor 38%
  73. 73. INTERNET USERS Highest Internet User Vietnam 43.9 Bhutan 29.9 Kyrgyzstan 23.4
  74. 74. MIDDLE TIER Armenia 0.73 - 46.3 - Azerbaijan 0.747 - 58.7 55.6 China 0.719 99.00% 45.8 63.7 Georgia 0.744 - 43.1 - Indonesia 0.684 72.00% 15.8 57 Iran 0.749 98.00% 31.4 74.3 Jordan 0.745 99.00% 44.2 100 Maldives 0.698 - 44.1 - Mongolia 0.698 88.00% 17.7 - Palestine 0.686 46.6 100 Philippines 0.66 70.00% 37 - Sri Lanka 0.75 85.00% 21.9 - Syria 0.658 92.00% 26.2 64.9 (2010) Thailand 0.722 99.00% 28.9 -
  75. 75. ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY Highest 3 Access to Electricity China 99% Jordan 99% Thailand 99% Lowest 3 Access to Electricity Phillipinnes 70% Indonesia 72% Sri Lanka 85%
  76. 76. INTERNET USERS Highest Internet User Azerbaijan 58.7 Palestine 46.6 Armenia 46.3
  77. 77. TOP TIER Bahrain 0.815 99.00% 90 83.7 Brunei Darussalam 0.852 99.00% 64.5 82.3 Israel 0.888 99.00% 70.8 100 Japan 0.89 - 86.3 - Kazakhstan 0.754 - 54 88.7 Kuwait 0.814 100.00% 75.5 - Lebanon 0.765 99.00% 70.5 - Malaysia 0.773 99.00% 67 80.9 Oman 0.783 98.00% 66.5 49.3 Qatar 0.851 99.00% 85.3 - Republic of Cyprus 0.845 65.5 65.8 Russia 0.778 - 61.4 - Saudi Arabia 0.836 99.00% 60.5 - Singapore 0.901 100.00% 73 100
  78. 78. ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY Highest 3 Access to Electricity Singapore 100% UAE 100% Kuwait 100%
  79. 79. INTERNET USERS Highest Internet User Bahrain 90 Japan 86.3 Qatar 85.3
  80. 80. ASIAPESTEEGAL
  81. 81. Employment overview AfghanistanNo limit0.0About 8 hours - 40 hours a week on 6.0BangladeshNo limit119.68 or 9 hours - According to Section 6.0Brunei DarussalamNo limit0.08 hours (Sect. 65 Employment Order, 6.0Cambodia2443.08 hours6.0ChinaNo limit242.48 hours6.0Hong Kong, ChinaNo limit782.88 hours6.0IndiaNo limit52.49 hours6.0Indonesia36232.08 hours for 5 workdays/week or 7 hours 6.0Iran, Islamic Rep.No limit400.18 hours6.0IraqNo limit92.38 hours - Art. 55, Labor Code6.0
  82. 82. Asian TAX •Low tax revenues: lowest tax burdens in the world •Tax composition: higher share of indirect taxes-Small tax base-Inefficiency of tax collection-High tax evasion-Large informal sector •Weak personal income tax/property tax •Limited social security contributions •Inefficient tax system and administration
  83. 83. Asian TAX systems
  84. 84. Economy Ease of Doing Business Rank Filtered Rank Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Getting Electricity Registering Property Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Singapore 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 Hong Kong SAR, China 2 2 2 1 1 14 2 2 1 Malaysia 6 3 3 8 5 6 1 3 7 Taiwan, China 16 4 4 3 3 5 11 6 10 Thailand 18 5 11 4 4 4 11 4 12 Tonga 57 6 7 7 8 20 6 16 8 Brunei Darussalam 59 7 17 10 7 17 6 16 4 Samoa 61 8 6 13 10 7 20 6 15 Fiji 62 9 18 14 14 10 6 8 16 Vanuatu 74 10 15 11 19 16 6 13 5 Mongolia 76 11 5 19 25 2 6 5 13 China 96 12 21 25 16 8 11 15 22 Solomon Islands 97 13 9 15 20 22 14 8 5 Vietnam 99 14 14 5 23 9 4 20 25 Palau 100 15 16 9 13 1 14 22 14 Philippines 108 16 22 18 9 19 14 19 23 Papua New Guinea 113 17 12 24 6 13 14 12 20 Marshall Islands 114 18 8 6 12 23 14 20 18 Indonesia 120 19 23 16 17 15 14 8 24 Kiribati 122 20 20 21 24 11 23 8 3 Cambodia 137 21 24 23 21 18 4 13 11 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 156 22 13 12 15 23 20 22 17 Lao PDR 159 23 10 17 22 12 22 25 21 Timor-Leste 172 24 19 20 11 23 23 16 9 Myanmar 182 25 25 22 18 21 25 24 19 East Asia & pacific
  85. 85. Middle east & north Africa Economy Ease of Doing Business Rank Filtered Rank Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Getting Electricity Registering Property Getting Credit United Arab Emirates 23 1 1 2 1 1 2 Saudi Arabia 26 2 6 3 2 2 1 Bahrain 46 3 7 1 7 4 9 Oman 47 4 5 6 9 3 2 Qatar 48 5 9 5 3 5 9 Tunisia 51 6 4 10 8 7 6 Morocco 87 7 2 7 14 17 6 Malta 103 8 17 16 16 8 16 Kuwait 104 9 16 12 10 10 9 Lebanon 111 10 12 18 6 14 6 Jordan 119 11 11 9 5 11 14 Egypt, Arab Rep. 128 12 3 14 15 12 2 Yemen, Rep. 133 13 10 8 17 6 14 West Bank and Gaza 138 14 15 11 13 15 13 Iraq 151 15 19 4 4 13 16 Iran, Islamic Rep. 152 16 8 17 20 18 2 Algeria 153 17 18 13 19 19 9 Djibouti 160 18 13 15 18 16 16 Syrian Arab Republic 165 19 14 19 12 9 16 Libya 187 20 20 19 11 20 20
  86. 86. South Asia Economy Ease of Doing Business Rank Filtered Rank Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Getting Electricity Registering Property Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Sri Lanka 85 1 2 4 1 5 3 4 8 Maldives 95 2 3 1 6 6 6 5 4 Nepal 105 3 6 3 3 1 2 5 5 Pakistan 110 4 7 5 7 4 3 2 7 Bangladesh 130 5 4 2 8 8 5 1 2 India 134 6 8 8 5 3 1 2 6 Bhutan 141 7 5 6 1 2 6 7 3 Afghanistan 164 8 1 7 4 7 8 8 1
  87. 87. Paying taxes economyName Rank Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Profit tax (%) Labor tax and contributions (%) Other taxes (%) Total tax rate (% profit) East Asia & Pacific .. 25 208 16.4 10.7 7.4 34.5 Europe & Central Asia .. 26 246 9 22.6 7 38.7 Latin America & Caribbean .. 30 369 20.5 14.7 12.1 47.3 Middle East & North Africa .. 18 220 12.4 16.3 3.6 32.3 OECD high income .. 12 175 16.1 23.1 2 41.3 South Asia .. 33 328 16.8 9 14.8 40.6 Sub-Saharan Africa .. 38 314 18.4 13.7 21.3 53.3
  88. 88. ASIAPESTLNVIRONMENTAL
  89. 89. BOTTOM TIER TIER 1 (HDI < 0.65) Countries Access to Electricity Forest Area (sq.km) Agro Land Average Rainfall (mm/yr) Afghanistan 30.0 % 13,500 58. 1% 327 Yemen 39.9 % 5,490 44.4 % 167 Myanmar 48.8 % 314,634 19.2 % 2681 Pakistan 68.6 % 16,440 34.4 % 255 Nepal 76.3 % 36,360 29.7 % 1500 Bangladesh 59.6 % 14,394 70.1 % 2,666 Lao PDR 78.0 % 156,728 10.3 % 1,834 Bhutan 32,598 13.5 % 2,200 Cambodia 34.0 % 99,666 32.0 % 1,904 India 75.3 % 685,790 60.5 % 1,083 Tajikistan 4,100 34.7 % 691 Timor 38.0 % 7,308 24.2 % 1,500 Kyrgyzstan 9,707 55.3 % 533 Vietnam 96.1 % 139,410 35.0 % 1821 Iraq 98.0 % 8,250 18.9 % 216
  90. 90. MIDDLE TIER Countries Access to Electricity Forest Area (sq.km) Agro Land (% of total) Average Rainfall (mm/yr) Syria 92.8 % 4970 75.5 252 Philippines 70.2 % 77,198 40.6 2348 Uzbekistan 32,716 62.7 206 Indonesia 72.9 % 937,470 30.1 2702 Palestine 91.7 43.3 402 Maldives 9.0 23.3 1972 Mongolia 88.2 % 108,160 73.1 241 Turkmenistan 41,270 69.5 161 China 99.8 % 2,096,239 55.7 645 Thailand 99.0 % 189,868 41.2 1622 Armenia 2578 60.1 562 Georgia 27,397 35.5 1026 Jordan 99.4 % 975 11.3 111 Azerbaijan 96.1 % 9,360 57.7 447 Iran 98.3 % 110,750 30.1 228 Sri Lanka 85.4 % 18,454 41.8 1,712
  91. 91. TOP TIER Countries Access to Electricity Forest Area (sq.km) Agro Land (% of total) Average Rainfall (mm/yr) Kazakhstan 33,034 77.5 250 Turkey 114,528 49.7 593 Lebanon 99.9 1369.8 62.4 661 Malaysia 99.5 203,692 24.0 2,875 Russia 8,091,500 13.1 460 Oman 98.0 20 5.7 125 Kuwait 100.0 63.9 8.5 121 Bahrain 99.4 5.4 11 83 UAE 100.0 3,183 4.8 78 Saudi Arabia 99.0 9,770 80.6 59 Republic of Cyprus 1732 12.8 498 Qatar 99.6 0.0 5.7 74 Brunei Darussalam 99.7 3782 2.2 2,722 Israel 99.7 1538 24.1 435 Japan 249,878 12.5 1668 South Korea 62,154 18.1 1054 Singapore 100.0 23 1.0 2,497
  92. 92. GENERIC EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTALCHANGE •Agriculture: Changes in seasonal rainfall patterns, rising temperatures and increasing water stress will pose a risk of declining yields and farm revenues •Fisheries: A general decline in fishery production is expected. •Human health: Increased rains, frequent floods and sea level rise will lead to more water-borne infectious diseases, diarrhea and malnutrition. •Biodiversity and ecosystems: Changes have been observed that could produce greater risks in terms of water supply, food security, and impacts from natural disasters. •Heavily populated mega-deltas: These areas are at greater risk from flooding every year due to sea level rise and flooding from rivers.
  93. 93. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
  94. 94. •RISKS TO CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS: damage to physical structures and assets such as production facilities or buildings. increase cost of operations impact quality of product or service •RISKS TO THE VALUE CHAIN: Availability of production inputs Changing consumer demands Availability and quality of natural resources such as water, utilities, logistics networks, health and safety of human resource •RISKS TO LOCAL CIMMUNITIES Affect the livelihood of local communities Directly impacts corporate community investment programs •RISKS FROM ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGES Risks of humanitarian crisis, conflicts and instability Refugees might migrate, increased competition for resources, rise in ethnic tensions BUSINESS RISKS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
  95. 95. BUSINESSES DEPENDENT ON WEATHER SENSITIVE RESOURCES Agriculture, forestry, agro-forestry, fishing, aquaculture, and tourism sectors in South and Southeast Asia BUSINESSES THAT MAKE LONG TERM INVESTMENTS AND OPERATE LONG LIFE ASSETS BUSINESSES WITH EXTENDED SUPPLY CHAINS BUSINESSES THAT ARE GLOBAL IN NATURE MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES These include utilities such as energy or transport, industrial facilities, and ports with a long operational life Businesses that rely heavily on logistics and supply networks. Lean manufacturing based on JIT delivery and single source supply chain management are risk prone Global supply chains are easily disrupted by problems in any one link in the chain. Off-shore production likely to suffer The impact of a natural hazard can put these types of enterprises out of business TYPES OF BUSINESSES LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED BY CLIMATE CHANGES
  96. 96. LOGISTICS PHYSICAL ASSETS Weather changes can disrupt logistics, including transport arrangements, supply chains, utilities, inventories etc. Retail industry: disruptions in the supply chain and distribution network Logistics companies: failure to meet contracts for delivery; loss of cargo Physical assets, factory premises at risk from environmental anomalies. Buildings may be corroded, floods might short electric lines Tannery Clusters in Dhaka: Neighborhoods prone to acid rain. Real Estate and Construction: Design criteria may be subject to change; cannot rely on historical data RISKS TO BUSINESSES IN SPECIFIC AREAS OF OPERATION
  97. 97. EFFICIENCY OF OPERATIONS COMPETITION OVER RESOURCES REPUTATIONAL RISKS Some industrial processes and business activities are temperature or climate sensitive and some require constant cooling. Increased cost due to investment in new technology or damage control Climate change will act as another stressor in regions already experiencing water stress; put pressure on water resources. Competition may lead to conflict, disapproval from local communities especially if water is diverted away from local houses and farmers. Conflicts over protection of assets. For example, if businesses forcefully acquire resources. Example: Tata Nano-Singur Controversy Food industry:increased need for cooling for food preparation and storage ICT: increased need for cooling in data centers Manufacturing: increased need for cooling in process environment. Electric utilities: greater uncertainty over water supply for cooling power plants Food and beverage: access to key resources, water, and other natural resources This is a particular risk factor in countries vulnerable to climate change, with large parts of the population depending on climate-sensitive resources.
  98. 98. FINANCIAL DRIVERS INCREASED INSURANCE COSTS Operational costs and business continuity costs can increase. Institutional investors and banks are increasingly concerned about climate change Electric utilities, properties, mining and extractive industries, agriculture, and forestry Insurance might no longer be available for certain assets in vulnerable areas. Premiums may increase. All sectors that will not be able to insure weather- related damages as they become uninsurable; small insurance companies more likely to be affected WORKFORCE Extreme weather events and changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases can lead to more lost days. Health and safety risks may increase where business operations are prone to extreme weather events. Sectors that have outdoor field work e.g. construction, geological research, scientific expeditions, rural development projects in Africa and other regions
  99. 99. “Costs of Climate Change and Adaptation in South Asia” ADB, 2014 “Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka -will see an average economic loss of around 1.8 percent of their collective annual gross domestic product (GDP) by 2050, rising sharply to 8.8 percent by 2100 if the world continues on its current fossil fuel-intensive path.” “The Maldives would be the worst affected, and could be losing 12.6 percent of its economy annually by 2100. Average annual economic losses could amount to up to 9.4 percent in Bangladesh by 2100.” “The losses in Nepal could rise to 9.9 percent -largely because of melting glaciers –while they could total 8.7 percent in India, 6.6 percent in Bhutan, and 6.5 percent in Sri Lanka” “The East Asian economy would lose 5.3 percent; the Southeast Asian economy would lose 6.7 percent, and the Pacific 12.7 percent”
  100. 100. TAKE AWAYS SINGLE PARTY REPUBLIC COUNTRIES PER CAPITA GDP SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DISTRIBUTION CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, VALUE CHAIN, LOCAL COMMUNITIES
  101. 101. SINGLE PARTY REPUBLIC COUNTRIES PER CAPITA GDP SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DISTRIBUTION CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, VALUE CHAIN, LOCAL COMMUNITIES TAKE AWAYS
  102. 102. PER CAPITA GDP SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DISTRIBUTION CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, VALUE CHAIN, LOCAL COMMUNITIES SINGLE PARTY REPUBLIC COUNTRIES TAKE AWAYS
  103. 103. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DISTRIBUTION CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, VALUE CHAIN, LOCAL COMMUNITIES PER CAPITA GDP SINGLE PARTY REPUBLIC COUNTRIES TAKE AWAYS
  104. 104. CORE BUSINESS FUNCTIONS, VALUE CHAIN, LOCAL COMMUNITIES SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DISTRIBUTION PER CAPITA GDP SINGLE PARTY REPUBLIC COUNTRIES TAKE AWAYS
  105. 105. ASIATHANK YOUFOR YOUR PATIENCE AND TIME

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