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Printing lecture
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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • This project includes processes, techniques and datas of yarn and carpet printing technologies. • First part of the project includes yarn printing techniques and their compares between each other. • Second part of the project includes carpet printing techniques,used chemicals and processess.
  3. 3. YARN PRINTING • Yarn printing is the special type of printing process. • Yarns are dyed in package form or hank form by yarn dyeing process. • It is slighlty difference from woven or knit printing for the purpose of producing certain decorative patterns in weaving.
  4. 4. Yarn Dyeing Types and Properties Process Solution Dyed Yarn Hang,Skein or Package Dyeing Space Dyeing • Extruded synthetic yarn from a colored solution; the filament is impregnated with pigment. • Carpet yarns are wound onto a skein or put as a cone into a kind of dye beck. • Process whereby different colors are “printed” along the length of the yarn before it is manufactured into carpet.
  5. 5. Yarn Dyeing Types and Properties
  6. 6. Space Dyeing • Space dyed carpet is a yarn dyeing process in which different colors are applied along a length of yarn at intervals. • Space dyed yarn produces, in its subsequent tufted fabric form, an effect of random,unorganized design and multi-colored. • Space dyed yarn is sometimes referred to as dip dyed yarn.
  7. 7. Space Dyeing • Spaced dyed yarn is most commonly used for knitting and crocheting. • When space dyed yarn is made to make a knitted or crocheted item, the resulting project features uneven horizontal stripes that produce a collage-like effect. • Two space printing methods are available which are knit-de-knit and warp printing methods.
  8. 8. Types of Space Printing Process Line Knit-de-knit Printing Warp Printing Dyeing & Printing Dyeing & Printing Steaming Warping Washing Extracting Tufting Steaming Drying Washing Drying
  9. 9. Multi Colored Yarn Dyeing • The secret to space dyeing yarn involves the use of a special chemical called a mordant. • The purpose of a mordant is to help permanently fix the dye to the yarn after the space dyeing. This makes it possible to dye the same skein of yarn many different colors.
  10. 10. Multi Colored Yarn Dyeing System Properties • Cylindrical machines, the printing system has felt and mechanical shears. • Dye transfer printing process rollers and felt each other through the cylinder pressure is performed. • Mechanical pressure system and synchronized with scissors quiet study have been provided with the pattern of change during the time loss is prevented.
  11. 11. CARPET PRINTING • The initial development of the printing of carpet in the UK after the introduction of tufted carpet production, which followed the in the USA from the early 1950s on wards. Methods of carpet printing Direct printing Discharge printing Resist printing Pigment printing
  12. 12. Methods of carpet printing Direct printing Discharge printing Resist printing Pigment printing
  13. 13. 1-Direct Printing • Direct printing is a white fabric or directly on the predyed fabric printing. The latter is called overprinting. • The complete pattern including the base color. • In screen printing the base color can also be applied with a padder.
  14. 14. Direct Printing Advantage Simple method Disadvantage In screen printing only dark colors on light shade
  15. 15. Process of Chromojet Direct Printing Padder - for pre Gum Applicator Dye Applicator Printing Machines Padder wetting of high pile carpet for shading effects for the base color for accent colors and designs
  16. 16. Chromojet Direct Printing Machine
  17. 17. Methods of carpet printing Direct printing Discharge printing Resist printing Pigment printing
  18. 18. 2-Discharge Printing • Discharge printing is characterized by a dark ground shade highlighted by light and bright printed. • This makes the carpet look more attractive. • The condition for performing the displacement technique is the use of dyestuffs with different affinity to polyamide and cationic resist agent.
  19. 19. Discharge Printing Methods: • Discharge printing can be done in two ways: 1st way 2nd way • the fabric piece dyed color • Using a padder for the ground shade and printer to overprint • the pattern printed on the fabric. • Printing the spot colors and over dyeing with a dye applicator after printing. This is the common method.
  20. 20. Discharge Printing • Discharge printing is common with screen printing to overcome the problem of low penetration of printed colors. Advantage High penetration value Disadvantage High water usage
  21. 21. Schematic Representation Of Discharge Printing
  22. 22. Methods of carpet printing Direct printing Displacement printing Resist printing Pigment printing
  23. 23. 3-Resist Printing • Resist printing ,including a two-stage process st 1 Step 2nd Step • printed on white fabric can stop or prevent dye penetration into the fabric of chemical agents or waxy resin. • piece-dyed fabrics. Its purpose is to dye the white background to bring out the pattern.
  24. 24. Quick Change of Resist Printing • The advantage of this process is that printing can be done in large runs and the base colour can be done at a later stage in short runs by winch or continuous using an overflow applicator ( Quick Change). Advantage Disadvantage Best definition of color separation of prints Long process, high cost
  25. 25. Methods of carpet printing Direct printing Displacement printing Resist printing Pigment printing
  26. 26. 4-Pigment Printing • Paint pigment printing is direct printing, the printing process is often called dry method, as distinct from wet printing. • Pigment printing is the printing production of the most inexpensive way of printing. • The printing is relatively simple because the coating, the process required at least, usually does not require steaming and washing
  27. 27. PRINTING MACHINES • Nowadays,printing industry develops rapidly and new technology adds new equipments and systems on this printing machines. • Here are the most commonly used carpet printing machines in textile industry ; -flat-screen printing machine -rotary-screen printing machine -spray and jet printing machines
  28. 28. Flat-Screen Printing Machine Flat-screen printing machines can be manual, semi-automatic or completely automatic. One type of machine, which is still commonly found in printing houses, can be described as follows. The fabric is first glued to a moving endless belt. A stationary screen at the front of the machine, is lowered onto the area that has to be printed and the printing paste is wiped with a squeegee.
  29. 29. Flat-Screen Printing Machine Process The printed fabric moves forward step by step and passes through a dryer. The machine prints only one color at a time. When the first color is printed on the whole length of the fabric, the dried fabric is ready for the second cycle and so on until the pattern is completed.
  30. 30. Rotary Screen Printing Machine A combination of roller and screen printing in which a perforated cylindrical screen isused to apply color. Color is forced from the interior of the screen onto the cloth. ROTARY SCREENS PASTE FEEDING MECHANISM PRINTED CARPET PRINT PASTE SUPPLY
  31. 31. Schematic Figure Of Rotary Screen Printing Machine
  32. 32. Spray and Jet Printing Machines • Jet printing is a non-contact application system originally developed for printing carpets. • This system can be likened to an injection dyeing process. • Spray printing systems and first generation jet printing methods cannot be controlled to produce a pre-specified pattern.
  33. 33. Jet Printing Machine
  34. 34. Process of Jet Printing
  35. 35. Chemicals For Carpet Printing Antifoams to avoid foaming Penetration and Leveling Agents to control pH variations Resist Chemicals for resist printing Preservation Chemicals to avoid bacteria and fungus Acid Donors to achieve a lower pH Retarding Chemicals to avoid that the dye is fixed
  36. 36. Chemicals For Carpet Printing Dispersing and Leveling Agents affinity to fiber, affinity to dyestuff Wetting Agents to improve penetration of prints Anti-frosting Agents to avoid frosting Carriers for disperse dyeing of Polyester carpets Flame Retardants or Other Finishing Products to avoid combustibility of fabric Foaming Agents for foam finishes
  37. 37. CONCLUSION • In this project,we explain carpet and yarn printing technology; Yarn printing methods and types Carpet printing methods,machines and chemical agents • We support the our presentation with multimedia and schematic figures and photos. • Nowadays,carpet printing does not widely use in our country because of inadequate printing suppliers in textile industry.
  38. 38. REFERENCES 1- http://www.floorbiz.com/carpet/carpet-buying-guide/dyemethods/space-dyeing.html 2- http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-space-dyeing.html 3- http://www.floorpromotion.se/en/technology.html 4- http://chinalogomats.com/Article/119.html 5- http://www.zimmer-austria.com J.Zimmer Maschinanbau GmbH Kufstein 6- http://www.ineris.fr/ippc/sites/default/interactive/bref_text/br eftext/anglais/bref/BREF_tex_gb10.html