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L1 origin and classification of poultry-1.pptx

  1. Origin & genetic classification of poultry Dr WaqarZaib DVM,MPHIL(UAF) Lecturer
  2. Domestication Species Period Country Chicken 5400 BC 2500 to 2100 BC China – cishan culture,but, the contribution of these birds to modern birds doubtful From harappan culture of indus valley ; the world Geese and mallard ducks 2500 BC 1500 BC China Egypt – separately domesticated ; in west,mallard duck was not till middle ages Ring necked pheasants 1300 BC Greece Turkeys 200 BC to 700 AD Mexico muscovy ducks 16th century Columbia , peru Japanese quail 11th century Japan,china korea Guinea fowl West African birds introduced to by Portuguese explorers
  3. Effects of domestication ▶ Seed/grass eating species are preferred. ▶Reproduction in captivity : reproduction became less dependant on climatic and environmental factors. ▶ Ability to imprint ▶ Development of social order
  4. consequences ▶ Increase in bone length ▶ Noticeable changes in plumage ▶Alterations to the limbs involving length ,muscle attachments and joint structure . ▶Changes in skin covering ,muscling, fat deposition and brain size ; these were accomplished at a later stage.
  5. Purpose and utilization of domestic birds  ▶ Initially used primarily for cultural needs (religion,superstition),decorative arts and entertainment.  ▶ Later used as human food  ▶In ancient rome ; geese were sacred initially & later on became a table delicacy. ▶ In spain ,turkeys – cultural activities ▶ Japanese quails – song birds food food
  6. Domestication – chicken or domestic fowl ▶ Only 3 fossils of Gallus species have been recorded . ▶ Two of them from UK and one from Greece & Black sea region . ▶ Fossil from UK is coracoid bone resembling Gallus gallus ▶ Assigned to new species gallus europaeus. ▶ Fossil from Greece and Black sea region is tarsometatarsus bone similar to Gallus gallus & coracoid bone much longer. ▶ Assigned to new species Gallus aesculapi. ▶ Totally 4 species are known to modern ornithology .
  7. Genetic classification ▶ Kingdom: Animalia ▶ Phylum : chordate ▶ Class : aves ▶ Order : Galliformes ▶ sub order : Galli ▶ Family : phasianidae ▶ Sub family : phasianinae ▶ Tribe : phasianini ▶ Genus : Gallus
  8. Wild Gallus species ▶4 recognised species under genus Gallus : ▶G.gallus – Red Jungle Fowl ,RJF ▶G.sonneratti -grey or sonnerats ▶G .lafayetti – old name G.stanleyi, in Ceylon ▶G.varius –green, old name G.furcatus
  9. Gallus gallus ▶ 5 Subspecies in males ▶ G.g.gallus –Cochin – Chinese RJF ▶ G.g.spadiceus – Burmese RJF ▶ G.g.jabouillei – T okinese RJF ▶ G.g.murghi – Indian RJF ▶ G.g.bankiva – Javan RJF ▶ These differ in ▶ Color of ear lobes ( white to red ) ▶ Shape and neck hackle feathers in males & ▶ Shade of red plumage in males (golden yellow to mahogany)
  10. Origin of modern poultry ▶ Not clear ▶ Might have begun in Burma ▶ In Harappan culture (2500 -2100 BC ) of the indus valley reared chicken and later on diffused westward to other parts of the world at a rate of 1.5- 3 km /year. ▶ Except for Egypt ,diffusion of chicken into Africa is unknown. ▶ India is likely to be source leads to well developed trade between India & Africa
  11. Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl ) ▶ Comb is single upright ,serrated blade; a pair of wattles. ▶ Male exhibit spectacular coloring whereas females have drab color but feathers have identical morphology in both the sexes .
  12. Gallus lafayetti[Ceylon jungle fowl] ▶ Male plumage is similar to RJF except that breast feathers are pointed and fringed .males have a peculiar patch of bluish purple feathers on the upper breast. ▶ Plumage of the females is similar to those of RJF
  13. Ceylon jungle fowl - female
  14. Gallus sonneratti [grey jungle fowl ▶ Male plumage is different from other species ▶ “sealing wax” spots on rachis ;those that are ▶ subterminal being white ▶ terminal spots being shredded and yellow. ▶ Occurs in neck hackle ,saddle, and wing coverts. ▶ Body feathers are black with a white shaft and a grey border. ▶ Wing and tail feathers are black ; bird appears grey. ▶ Female plumage differs from RJF ▶ in breast feathers which are white with broad black/brown borders.
  15. Gallus varius[green jungle fowl] ▶ Most primitive of four species ▶ Plumage consists of 16 tail feathers rather than 14 in other species. ▶ Short truncate neck hackle feathers in males. ▶ Male plumage is glossy black , but hackle and saddle feathers are edged with bronze and yellow imparting a distinctly green coloration to the bird. ▶ In females feathers of the back and rump are penciled (similar to dark Cornish), ▶ upper breast feathers have dark edging , ▶ lower breast feathers are pale and ▶ rest of the plumage has irregular barring.
  16. Female green jungle fowl
  17. Gallus gallus Gallus sonneratti Gallus lafayetti Gallus varius Adult weight Males, g 800 -1360 790-1136 790-1140 454-795 Females ,g 485 – 740 705-790 510-625 454 -795 Age at sexual maturity in captivity (years) 1-2 2 2 1-2 Clutch size 4-8 4-8 2-4 6-10 Egg size,mm 45.3 *34.4 46*36.5 46.3*34.5 44.5*34.5 Egg shell color White – rosy cream White – rosy buff Pinkish to buff ,brown stippled Buffy white Incubation period ,d 19-21 20-21 20-21 21 Eclipse plumage Most of the males molt after breeding season Molt involves only cervical feather tract of (molting) ,and habitat the neck ;long pointed hackles of males replaced by around short feathers similar to female;this plumage persists only for a few Prefer forest habitat and forest clearings weeks followed by complete annual molt involving all feather tracts. Prefer sea shore and rocky scrub land bordering cultivated land General Sedentary,omnivorous,behaviour similar to domestic chicken with different vocalizations Distribution Pakistan to China West & South Restricted to Sri lanka Java and on the chain of islands eastwards ,Hainan and in East India;sympatric with ;sympatric with RJF in java but occupying India ,Burma,Indo RJF at boundaries of different habitats China,Islands of its range
  18. Period Diffusion and sailent features 2500 - 2100 BC Chicken used for sport 1500 BC Aryans invaded India;included chicken in their culture but not as food 1000-537 BC Chicken had religious significance but forbidden as food ;fighting cocks reached Persians carried westward to Mesopotamia and Asia Minor ; by 700 BC reached was primarily used for sport and poor folk as food . Plato and Aristotle distinguished between high and low bred chicken ;egg prod bred chicken being poor.two breeds were recognised from Tangare[ near modern for fighting and other was black with crest and wattles. 200 BC Bearded chicken reported .chicken reached Egypt and got firmly established . 100 BC Chicken reached Romans who knew about force feeding,hybrid vigor,caponizing competition etc.adopted chicken as food source and employed for cock fighting purposes ,superstition and divination. Dawn of Christian era -1300 AD Chicken probably reached Europe and then to Russia .main diffusion through Eu during the Neolithic and early Bronze age . Due to fall of Roman empire importa reduced in Europe and became farmyard scavengers 1500-1600 AD Spanish conquest brought chickens to America and rapidly spread to south and .later, English ,Dutch and French brought them to east and north America
  19. Sub class Order Family Genus Species Common name Carinata e (flying birds) Anseriformes (ducks and geese) Anseridae Anatidae Cairin a anser Anas C.moschata A.anser A.albiformis A.platyryncho s A.boscher Muscovy duck Grey legged goose White legged goose Mallard duck Wild mallard Galliformes(chick e n,quail,turkeys,gui nea fowl of African origin and pheasants) Phasianidae Cortunix gallus Phasianu s Numida Meleagris C.cortunix japonica G.domesticus G.gallus G.lafayetti G.sonneratti G.varius P . colchicus N.meleagris N.ptylorirhynch a M.gallipavo Japanese quail Domestic chicken Red jungle fowl Ceylon jungle fowl Grey jungle fowl Javan jungle fowl Ring necked pheasant Ring wattled G.fowl Blue wattled G.fowl Domestic turkey Columbiforme s (Pigeons and doves) Columbiformidae Columba streptopelia C.Livea S .turtus Rock pigeon T urtle dove Ratite ( runnin g birds ) Strunthiformes Strunthionidae ( large running birds) struthio S. camelus S.austrialis North African ostrich South African ostrich Rheiformes rheidae Rhea R.Americana abbscens Rhea Casuriformes Dromoiidae Dromaui s Casuariu s D.novaechollandi a C.casuarius Emu cassowary A.australis