1. Avinash Rajput
Criminology 2nd Semester
Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science
Ministry of Home Affairs
2. DEFINITION OF ORGANIZED
Organized crime is both a social system and a social world. The system is
composed of relationships binding professional criminals, politicians, law
enforcers, and various entrepreneurs.
Block, Alan A. 1983
Any group having a corporate structure whose primary objective is to obtain
money through illegal activities, often surviving on fear and corruption.
Paul Nesbitt (Interpol)1993
"organized crime" means any continuing unlawful activity by an individual, singly
or jointly, either as a member of an organized crime syndicate or on behalf of
such syndicate, by use of violence or threat of violence or intimidation or
coercion, or other unlawful means, with the objective of gaining pecuniary
benefits, or gaining undue economic or other advantage for himself or any
person or promoting insurgency;
6. GANG CRIMINALITY
The Gangs are operate on a large scale.
Hard criminals are the member of this.
They don’t hesitate to kill or use of voilance.
They use modern arms.
criminals are disciplined but
It includes dishonest way of getting money.
They live on othermen’s money.
Racketeers don’t like gang criminals.
They give regular fixed money to their
They take protection money from the
8. SYNDICATED CRIME
The syndicates create their own busness
They avoid using violence.
Society knows these syndicate members as
respectable citizens and high status persons.
They operates in big metropolition areas.
The leaders gather at fixed place to discuss
9. STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZED
At the top of the family is the boss.
Beneath the boss is a counselor and an
Beneath the under-boss are the lieutenants.
Below the lieutenants.
Membership in the family entitles the
member to run his own rackets using the
family’s connections and status.
Corporate model: A formal hierarchy in
which the day-to-day activities of the
organization are planned and coordinated at
the top and carried out by subordinates.
The feudal model of the LCN (La Cosa
Nostra: Commonly referred to as the Mafia)
views it as a loose connection of criminal
groups held together by kinship and
11. Figure 16.1 Hierarchical Structure of a Typical Organized Crime Family
HIERACHICAL STRUCTURE OF
AMERICAN MAFIA FAMILY NETWORK
14. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY
2-3% of population (80% male; primarily
Genetic and Environmental influences
Core Clinical Features
Pathological deceptions and manipulations
Underdeveloped autonomic nervous system
Intolerant to frustration (delay of
Disregard for the rights of others (little or no
remorse) Difficulty learning from experience
(absence of internal guilt) Unstable work and
personal relations (exploitation) Repeated
brushes with law (abuse alcohol or drugs)
16. DEPENDENT PERSONALITY
Fear of Abandonment or Separation
(Clinging Behavior) Needs others to assume
responsibilities for major life areas Difficulty
expressing disagreement Excessive efforts to
obtain nurturance (volunteering) Outcomes
Resentment (inability to control frustration
17. DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN O.C. AND CORRUPTION
1st Level: Bribery
2nd Level: Continuos Acts of Bribery (“On
Level: Infiltration into Government
4th Level: Infiltrating the Government (Higher
5th Level: Infiltrating the Political Arena
18. 1ST LEVEL: BRIBERY
The bribe is offered or solicited for a single
For example: to obtain a passport, licenses
or to get information designed to enable
19. BENEFITS OF THE BRIBERY
The O.C. Groups obtains an advantage
False identities and documents
Advance information about police activity
Manipulation of official records
Access to jury identities
20. 2ND LEVEL: CONTINUOS ACTS
OF BRIBERY (“ON THE PAYROLL”)
Bribe payments are ongoing.
Ensures a continuous flow of information and
protection from police intrusion into criminal
21. BENEFITS OF THE
CONTINUOS BRIBERY ACTS
O.C. Groups obtain constant access to
confidential information allowing them to
maintain patterns of illegal activity
The O.C. Groups remain “one step ahead” of
22. MEASURES TO AVOID THE
Strength the socio-economic status of public
officers with fair and competitive salaries
Implement strong penalties for breaches of
and assign Integrity Officers to
corruption-prone government operations
Reduce individual discretion
23. 3RD LEVEL: INFILTRATION INTO
infiltration is sporadic within lower ranking
OC members and friends gain employment
in law enforcement agencies,judiciary
Prosecutor’s Office and other operations.
24. HOW IS INFILTRATION
1) Applying for Job Vacancies
The O.C. group supports one or more
members or friends to participate and apply
for job vacancies with the Government.
2) “Buying” the Job
The O.C. group bribes or blackmails officials
to place its members and friends in the
25. 4TH LEVEL: INFILTRATING THE
GOVERNMENT (HIGHER LEVEL)
This infiltration can encompass entire
branches or higher ranking officers.
Enforcement, Prosecutor’s Office and other
sensitive government offices.
26. METHODS USED TO INFILTRATE THE
HIGHER LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT
1) Placement of Corrupted Officers into
The O.C. group use bribery and blackmail to
support Officers previously corrupted by their
organization to higher ranks with broader
access to information. This “support” is
repaid to OC with increased protection and
access to more useful secret police
2) Control of the Chief of Section/Region
Bribery, blackmail and coercion is used to
control the chief decision-maker of an entire
branch of government.OC can continue
operating with very little risk of discovery or
28. MEASURES TO AVOID THE
INFILTRATION OF O.C. GROUPS
Transparency in the hiring process including
public notification of potential candidates.
Strengthening promotional testing and strict
secrecy of test questions
process thorough background
investigations and polygraph test (updated
financial statements, family ties, etc.)
Public disclosure of assets
29. 5TH LEVEL: INFILTRATING
THE POLITICAL ARENA
O C Groups
30. HOW IS POLITICAL INFILTRATION
Participating in Political Campaigns (giving
money, media support and others)
Buying votes for candidates and corrupting
the democratic election process
Lobbying other politicians for support using
bribery and blackmail
Exploiting O.C. Members’ family links
Creating “debts” for politicians to “repay” later
by using blackmail and extortion
31. BENEFITS OF POLITICAL
“Friendly” prosecutors and judges more
easily ignore criminal activity
O.C. Groups can gain public support by
performing or supporting “civic” functions
O.C. criminal activity can be masked or
overlooked by favorable public perception
Impartial juries are more difficult to empanel
Perceived alliances with elected political
figures tends to legitimize O.C.
32. MEASURES TO AVOID THE POLITICAL
INFILTRATION OF O.C. GROUPS
The State have to increase the financial
support of the political parties, during political
concentrations, combating monopoly
Increasing the transparency of contributions
Knowing better the previous profiles of the