2. 1. Outline the differences between the realist and
liberal perspectives on international relations
3. Both accept the premise that the structure of the international
system is "anarchic". This means they recognize there is no
sovereign authority governing the system. The differences occurs
regarding the implications of this for behaviour on the global arena.
Realists regard history as a repetitive pattern of fear and disorder
and humans as not inherently good. They assume states, acting in a
permanent condition of war and disorder focus on domination and
Liberals regard history as progress and humans as innately good.
Peace and cooperation are achievable through democracy and trade
for mutual benefits and interdependence.Neo-liberalsare still
optimistic, but less rosy, recognizing dangers of wars and focusing
on good institutions.
4. 2... then explain what constructivist Alexander
Wendt meant by " 'anarchy is what states make of it”
5. Social constructivists consider humans (agents) as
continually create (and re-creating) their world (structure)
through collective action.
Humans make sense of the world and make it meaningful
through ideas and experiences, which varies over time and
Hence, as Wendt remarked, how anarchy actually plays out
depends on which images of each states act according to
(Hobbes, Lacke, Kant).
7. A group of individuals consents, actively or passively, to
obey a ruling body or a set of policies.
As long as wars, after all, is about killing other people the
authorities have provide the “knowledge” that war is
necessary in the first place and that the war is conducted
8. 4. What is meant by the statement that there has
been a shift in ideologies as drivers of conflicts (in
Hoskins & O'Loughlin)?
9. There is a new conceptualization of "us and them" of first
and second order people ("evil", "barbarians"), which
undermines the respect for traditional rules of war.
This may even justify lethal violence against civilians
10. 5. What are the three kinds of deception in politics,
and why is one of them only accepted in international
politics, according to Mearsheimer?
11. Deception is not telling the whole truth, and consistsof:
1. Concealment – hiding negative parts
2. Spinning – emphasising positive parts
3. Lying - making a false statement.
As states have a well ordered and hierarchic structure, lying
As internationalrelationswith anarchic structure, there are
sometimes good strategic reasons for leaders to lie to other
countries and even to their own people, for the sake of their
interests and security.