5. “A body of men united,
for promoting by their
joint endeavors the
national interest, upon
principle in which they
are all agreed”
6. Inter and Intra-PartyVariation
Political Party vs. Political Ideology
Conservative Democrats, Liberal Republicans
▪ Vote or caucus with another party
▪ Defect party and join another
7. A broad coalition of individuals who:
(1) Recruit, nominate, and elect candidates for office
(2) Under a given label
(3)To control the government
(4) In accordance with their ideas and policies.
Loyalty and Identification with Party
Party Identification (“PID”)
What happens if someone has different views?
▪ Likert Scale
11. Party Organization
Party Officials, Committees,Volunteers, Staff
Functions of Party Organizations
Officeholders and Candidates
Local, State, National Levels
Examples: President, Majority/Minority Leaders
13. Intermediary Between Citizens and Govt.
Bring PublicTogether to AccomplishObjectives
Nominate Candidates for Office
National, State, and Local Levels
Mobilize Electorate; EncourageVoting
Engage Supporters, Persuade Undecided, Minimize
15. Organize Government
Importance of Party ID
Retrospective and ProspectiveVoting
Sincere and StrategicVoting
Reconciling Group Demands
16. Parties present clear ideological position/
ideology to voters
Candidates support and implement party
Voters hold party responsible during
Parties control elected members
18. 1912 Election: Bull Moose Party
Teddy Roosevelt broke from Republicans
Split GOP vote; DemocratWilson wins
1948 Election: Dixiecrat Party
StromThurmond broke from Dems over civil rights
and anti-segregation views
1992 Election: Reform Party
Ross Perot,TX billionaire, ran on budget platform
Participated in major debate b/c of support
23. MAURICE DUVERGER DUVERGER’S LAW
Two parties emerge in countries
with simple plurality vote
Example: Election with 100 voters
Candidate A received 49% of vote
Candidate B receives 26% of vote
Candidate C receives 25% of vote
Candidates B and C will work
together over time to defeat A,
producing two parties
31. Regional support for the parties change
Social groups supporting the parties change
New groups of citizens are mobilized and
become part of electorate
Voters change not just which party they vote for,
but also the party that they identify with
Realignments are typically caused by new
issues that divide citizens
44. Beginning of Republican Dominance
From L to R:
46. The “New Deal Coalition” helped FDR win election.
The “New Deal” was the name given to various
social welfare programs passed during his administration.
48. Changes Regarding Ideology and Party ID
African-Americans: Republican Democrat
White Southerners: Democrat Republican
Rise of candidate-centered system
Continuance of Third-Party Candidates
Defined by intense partisanship and gridlock
Notas do Editor
What exactly is a political party?
Edmund Burke, a British philosopher, defined “party” this way:
“A body of men united, for promoting by their joint endeavors the national
interest, upon some…principle in which they are all agreed.”
What’s wrong with this definition?
It does not take into account the inter and intra-party variation present in modern parties nor separates a political party from the idea of political ideology.
These are very different components. As an example, in the United States, we have conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans serving in Congress.
Politicians may choose to vote with another party on an issue, caucus with them, or defect one party and join another altogether.
A political scientist named V.O Key, Jr. argued that the term “political party” was used too generally and could describe many different groups. Therefore, he proposed a three-part structure to better conceptualize the idea of political parties.