6. Elite or Cadre Parties
Membership restricted to political elite
Quality of membership
Internal development within legislatures
Example: “King Caucus” in United States
Replaced elite control of parties
Challenges from non-governmental actors
Quantity of membership
What is their political strategy?
Loyalty and Identification with Party
Party Identification (“PID”)
Case Examples: United States, United Kingdom
What happens if someone has different views?
▪ Likert Scale
13. Party Organization
Party Officials, Committees,Volunteers, Staff
Functions of Party Organizations
Officeholders and Candidates
Local, State, National Levels
Examples: President, Majority/Minority Leaders
14. Regional support for the parties change
Social groups supporting the parties change
New groups of citizens are mobilized and
become part of electorate
Voters change not just which party they vote for,
but also the party that they identify with
Realignments are typically caused by new
issues that divide citizens
17. “A body of men united,
for promoting by their
joint endeavors the
national interest, upon
principle in which they
are all agreed”
19. Inter and Intra-PartyVariation
Political Party vs. Political Ideology
Conservative Democrats, Liberal Republicans
▪ Vote or caucus with another party
▪ Defect party and join another
20. A broad coalition of individuals who:
(1) Recruit, nominate, and elect candidates for office
(2) Under a given label
(3)To control the government
(4) In accordance with their ideas and policies.
33. Death of Populist Movement
Beginning of Republican Dominance
From L to R:
35. FDR’s decisive victory over Hoover led to the “New Deal,” which included social
welfare programs. These programs were continued under the Eisenhower
administration, and expanded on during the Kennedy and Johnson years.
37. Changes Regarding Ideology and Party ID
African-Americans: Republican Democrat
White Southerners: Democrat Republican
Rise of candidate-centered system
Rise of Third-Party Candidates
Defined by intense partisanship and gridlock
Notas do Editor
The formation of modern political parties can be linked to three developments:
#1: Growing Autonomy of Parliaments
Political elites had to ensure that decisions could be reached.
#2: Expansion of Suffrage
Elites had to appeal to masses as they got voting rights, and new types of
parties appealed to these new voters.
#3: Avenues to Political Power
Elites saw value in creating parties as way to wield political power.
For most people, the differences in political parties center on what views they hold.
Party platforms allow voters to differentiate these views during elections.
However, there are also differences in how parties are structured.
Goes back to our opening question of “Who Rules?”
There are three general types of parties, which the following slides discuss in detail.
A political scientist named V.O Key, Jr. argued that the term “political party” was used too generally and could describe many different groups. Therefore, he proposed a three-part structure to better conceptualize the idea of political parties.
Voters and ordinary citizens with a sense of loyalty to and identification with the party . Public opinion surveys in various countries often ask respondents about their “PID” or party identification
Example: United States: “Do you consider yourself to be a Republican, Democrat, Independent, or something else?”
Example: United Kingdom: If there was a general election tomorrow, would you vote Conservative, Labour, Liberal Democrat or some other party?
What happens if someone supports liberal and conservative views?
We could develop a way to accurately measure their issue attitudes
Likert Scale: Used to scale responses when conducting survey research
Seven points are generally used
#2: Party Organization
Comprised of party officials, committees, volunteer workers, and staff
- Functions of Party Organizations:
1) Raise Money for Campaigns
2) Recruit and Nominate Candidates
3) Organize and Facilitate Campaigns
4) Register Voters
5) Mobilize Voters to the Polls
6) Conduct Party Conventions
Includes party candidates for governmental office and public officeholders at the local, state, and national levels.
Examples: President, Prime Minister, Speakers of Legislatures, Majority and Minority Party Leaders
What exactly is a political party?
Edmund Burke, a British philosopher, defined “party” this way:
“A body of men united, for promoting by their joint endeavors the national
interest, upon some…principle in which they are all agreed.”
What’s wrong with this definition?
It does not take into account the inter and intra-party variation present in modern parties nor separates a political party from the idea of political ideology.
These are very different components. As an example, in the United States, we have conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans serving in Congress.
Politicians may choose to vote with another party on an issue, caucus with them, or defect one party and join another altogether.
We can better define a “party” as:
A broad coalition of individuals who recruit, nominate, and elect candidates for office under a given label in order to control the government in accordance with their ideas and policies.