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  1. 1. Information Technology
  4. 4. Submitted to :- Prof. Suman Mathur
  6. 6. Security issues in I.T
  7. 7. Computer viruses Computer worms Trojan Horses Rootkits Spyware Adware
  8. 8. A virus is a program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes Reproductive capability Spread from one computer to another Introduced when On downloading files from the Internet. On opening an e-mail attachment. On copying programs or files from any other infected computer
  9. 9. WORMS A computer worm is a self-replicating malware computer program. Goal is Worms use automated functions within a network, such as those in e-mails, to help spread themselves Attempt to spread as fast and far as possible
  10. 10. TROJAN HORSES Appear to be useful Hide something that will damage the computer Does not replicate Often carried by a virus, worm
  11. 11. Definition :- Hacking is the act of gaining access without legal authorization to a computer or computer network.  The term "hack" was first used by US university computing centre staff in the mid-1960s.  In common usage, a hacker is a person who breaks into computers and computer networks, either for profit or motivated by the challenge.
  12. 12. Types of HACKERS WHITE HAT :- A white hat is the hero or good guy, especially in computing slang, where it refers to an ethical hacker or penetration tester who focuses on securing and protecting IT systems. BLACK HAT :- do only malicious thing like making Trojans ,hacking email id, username and password, credit card numbers, bank information. They actually called crackers ,They don't have the legal rights to do that. they are called non ethical hackers.
  13. 13. GREY HAT :- It refers to a skilled hacker who sometimes acts illegally, though in good will, and limits their disclosure of vulnerabilities on a need-to-know basis. They are a hybrid between white and black hat hackers. They usually do not hack for personal gain or have malicious intentions, but are prepared to commit crimes during the course of their technological exploits in order to achieve better security. Phreaker :- A phreaker is simply a hacker of telecommunications.
  14. 14. SCRIPT KIDDIE :- A script kiddie is a non-expert who breaks into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated tools written by others. the term script (i.e. a prearranged plan or set of activities) kiddie (i.e. kid, child—an individual lacking knowledge and experience, immature). Neophyte :- A neophyte or "newbie" is a term used to describe someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology, and hacking.
  15. 15. WAYS OF HACKING NetBIOS :- NetBIOS is meant to be used on local area networks, so machines on that network can share information. NetBIOS can also be used across the Internet - so a hacker can access your machine remotely. ICMP ‘Ping’ (Internet Control Message Protocol) :- If a computer responds to a ping, then the hacker could then launch a more serious form of attack against a computer.
  16. 16. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) :- You may use it for file downloads from some websites. FTP can also be used by some hackers.FTP normally requires some form of authentication for access to private files, or for writing to files. HTTP – (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) :- HTTP hacks can only be harmful if you are using Microsoft web server software, such as Personal Web Server.
  17. 17. Cracker: A cracker is someone who breaks into someone else's computer system, often on a network; bypasses passwords or licenses in computer programs; or in other ways intentionally breaches computer security. A cracker can be doing this for profit, maliciously, for some altruistic purpose or cause, or because the challenge is there
  18. 18. Difference between HACKERS AND CRACKERS: HACKER: CRACKER: A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. A cracker is a hacker who uses their proficiency for personal gains outside of the law. EX: stealing data, changing bank accounts, distributing viruses etc Hackers can be both good and bad. Crackers do cracking basically to disturb someones computer system.
  19. 19. Phone Phreaking: Phone phreaking is the act of gaining illegal access to resources of telecom networks for fun or malicious activity. Before computer hacking took over, phreaking was the dominant underground tech activity.
  20. 20. Types of phone phreaking: Switch hook and tone dialer 2600 hertz Multi frequency Blue boxes Computer hacking Toll fraud Diverters Voice mail boxes and bridges Cell phones End of multi-frequency
  21. 21. Harden your system Patch all your systems Install a firewall The prevention measures for HACKING
  22. 22. Prevention measures for MALWARES/VIRUS Use an anti virus Don’t download anything from unknown sources Always check external media (CD/DVD/Pen drives) before running them on your PC.