Viral Change by Design – an insight into client and research findings
Principal Advisor, 8works
Director, Facii Ltd
Advisor and Facilitator to Exec
Teams and Boards: Strategy,
Leadership and Change
MSc Industrial/Organisational & Business
MBA Business Change (Cranfield)
BA Hons Business Studies (Bournemouth)
Member, Change Management
Identifying key players …..
• Attitude: are they a supporter, neutral or a
• Power: is their ability to get what they want
done significant or relatively limited?
• Interest: are they paying close attention, or
are you an unwelcome distraction?
• Proximity: are they closely associated with
you/your work or relatively remote?
• Urgency: are they prepared to go to any
length to achieve their outcomes? In their
eyes, how critical and time-urgent are you or
what you are doing?
Exercise – identifying key players
For one of your change projects or programmes
• Who was identified as a key player? Think of 3 names.
• For each person, why are they key?
• Mind-set & attitudes
• Corporate Culture
Source: Jorensen, H H., Owen, L., & Neus, A (2008) Making Change Work study.
Attitudinal states required to support change &
• Readiness for Change
• Commitment to Change
• Openness to Change
(Big 5 Personality)
• Cynicism about Organisational
Change (Employee pessimism)
Source: Choi, M (2011). Employees’ attitude toward Organisational
Change: A literature review. Human Resource Management, 5 (4), 479-500
Four Constructs to Attitudinal Resistance to Change and their Antecedents (Facius, 2016)
Readiness for change
Commitment to change
Openness to change
Big Five Personality
Cynicism about organisational change
Recognition by the employee that there is
a need for change. Belief that the
organisation has a capacity to implement
change successfully. A positive view that
there is organisational benefit and
Affective – there is a desire to support the
change based on benefits.
Normative – there is sense of obligation to
Continuance – the employee is supportive
because of the recognition of the costs of
Employee’s willingness to support,
accommodate & accept change.
Considered as a condition that contributes
to an employee’s readiness for change.
Pessimistic viewpoint on the integrity
of management motives. A loss of faith
in leaders. A belief that the change is
unlikely to succeed based on previous
change history. A tendency to blame
facilitators of change for failure.
Research Findings on the Antecedents to Employee Attitude towards Change
Culture. Employees who perceive the culture of the organisation as being Clan orientated
report high levels of readiness for, and commitment to change.
Change History. An employee’s experience of change and the organisation’s history influences their commitment and openness to
change and cynicism about change.
Employees’ belief in transformational leaders and trust in management. When employees believe and trust in leaders, and have strong relationships with managers and
supervisors, they are more likely to be ready, committed, open to change and reduce cynicism about change.
Information & Communications. The role of information sharing about the change, the adequacy and timeliness of
communications influence commitment and openness to change, and cynicism about change. Furthermore, findings show that when
employees feel included in tasks and within the social information network they are likely to be open to change. This in turn led to a willingness
to co-operate with it.
Involvement in the change process. Participation by employees in the change process and decision making about the change,
influenced commitment and openness to change and led to lower levels of cynicism.
Job Satisfaction and job motivation. Job satisfaction and motivation in the job influences readiness for change and affective
commitment to change. Where employees were found to have lower levels of change openness, they reported less job satisfaction and
intentions to quit as a result of a change.
Leveraging informal networks of influencers
Effect of Social Networks
• Strong evidence that an
individual’s social surrounding
& network influences people
into adopting new attitudes &
Source: Cross, R., & Parker, A (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks.
Harvard Business Press
….. is the ability to alter or sway an individual’s
or a group’s thoughts, beliefs, or actions
…… the capacity to have an effect on the
character, development, or behaviour of
someone or something.
•Think back to your 3 key players. Are they on the list because:
– They are able to affect the behaviours and actions of
– They have a unique ability to get people to buy-in to
– They are trusted and listened to by their peers?
– They help others to solve problems?
And what are the dynamics?
Too pushy by
New to the project
Part-time on the project
Project Office Manager
Support same football team
Old score to settle
Admires Owes a favour to
Jealous of promotion
Knows the history
Christmas party fall-out
Play golf together
In the toolkit: change agent or influencer?
“Change agents appear to have a notable impact on
success. Less than half of respondents say their
organizations select these employees, who dedicate a
significant part of their time to work as facilitators or agents
of the transformation. But those who do, report overall
success more often than other respondents—and are
twice as likely to report success at transforming their
Is the change agent network effective?
Change Agents are people who focus
on change of social behaviour by
“providing technical, specialist or
consulting assistance in the
management of a change effort.”
“Change Agents are individuals whose
primary role is to deliberately intervene
in social systems in order to facilitate
or bring about social change.” (Tichy)
Usually ‘one-size-fits-all’ network over
the lifetime of a change programme
• Richard Ottoway (1983) categorises the
change agent role over different phases of a
• He proposes that change agents can only
function successfully in one category
• Maps the hidden informal organisation
that is not otherwise visible through a
• Real-time, real life picture of
relationships across the organisation:
– Circles influences
– Connections and relationships between
individuals based on who people trust, who
they seek advice from, and the way in which
• Highlights key individuals at the core of
the network, as well as though who are
Organisational Network Analysis (ONA)
•From what you know now, who would you add to your list of key
– Who inspires others and has the ability to get people to buy-in to
change? The person who would sell the change at the start of a
– Who is the go-to person for information? The person who is
sought out, trusted and listened to by others at point of
– Who is the go-to person for help when there’s a problem? The
person who has a knack of sorting things out and ability to solve
problems when things get sticky.
t: +44 (0)7919 366 933
7 Heddon Street
Ingrid Facius has over 25 years strategic
transformation and change management
consulting experience with 8works, QA, ITV and Capgemini.
Focusing on what needs to change to turn an organisation’s
strategic ambition into action, Ingrid rapidly guides her clients to
the core of the change issues they seek to address by bringing
clear process and structure to unravel even the most complex
She is a respected thought leader in change management and
her curiosity about behaviours in the workplace inspired her to
explore the application of psychological principles and theories
of influence in effective organisational change.
Many clients have benefited from Ingrid’s blend of
organisational understanding and psychological insights on
change, including HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Vodafone, Welsh
Water, National Grid, DWP, FCO, DVSA and HMRC.
In the context of P3CM for our change projects/programmeswe need to ensure the our project/programme lands in the business, the change is effective and we capture the portion of project benefits that depends on adoption and usage.
But reports on change programmes STILL keep showing that less than half of all change programmes succeed, so chances are you’ve experienced this. Why does change fail?
In the making change work study, conducted by IBM in 2008, Mind-set & attitude and corporate culture are cited as the main change challenges
Change doesn’t happen until it makes sense to the people who are going to live it out. Just think about how hard it is to give up smoking, go Sober for October, start a diet or new exercise regime. Same stuff is going for people when we ask them to make a change to they way they work, its normal to resist change.
An person’s attitude towards change is critical. If they are in a place where they are ready, willing and open to make the change, they will support it.
It is time to move away from traditional top-down approaches to change and even more of a focus on the people that are to live with the change. I think the answer to the challenge of changing attitudes & mindset, in other words behaviours, sits with leveraging the social network of the organisation and identifying key influencers in this network.
Reminder that influence is …. And this is the outcome we’re looking to achieve with our change projects/programmes.
Revisit the exercise Our job is to put in place a strategy & approach that will support individual transition.
One way and already in the tool kit is the Change Agent.
In a recent study by McKinsey, the importance of getting the right Change Agents is highlighted. Who are these change agents? And how do we identify them? Are they key influencers in the organisation’s social network?
Are change agents doing their job? Can the change agent network be more effective or influential?
There is little focus on the design of the change agent network. The default approach is often to select change agents based on ‘gut-feel’ and hierarchical position. Typically it is created from formal channels, nominations, expert identification, volunteering, traits/skills.
Years of building change agent networks, something missing. Ah ha moment for me when read an article by Richard Ottoway.
Theory suggests that attention given to organising and developing the informal organisational networks at time of planned change should be leveraged.
By taking a more scientific approach leading companies are uncovering informal, organic networks of influence - the most connected people, to whom people listen, seek advice from and model their behaviour on.
These informal networks are the real conduits by which information is shared and by which change happens through attitude & mindset change. They exist alongside (and despite) formal, organisation structures, and even extend beyond the organisation’s boundaries.
The change agent network is redefined and repurposed over the recongised phases of change
- Harnessing these networks, equipping the right influencers with the tools to make required behavioural change self perpetuating and viral: behavioral change spreads organically from person to person on a day to day basis, rather than attempting to force it via a one-time, top-down communication cascade.
Viral Change by Design uses Organisational Network Analysis and proven influencing techniques to build networks of influencers across the organisation with the right mindset to drive change from within.
The networks are the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change (handout)
Identify a small number of change agents who influence the behaviours of other members of the organisation. By doing this, it would be possible to identify the minimum number of people likely to influence the maximum number of members of the organisation. Methodology: Draw on the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change, the phases of the change process and the roles of change agents to design different change network types The four network types were defined and characterised as Inspires, Informs, Problem Solving and Values change agent networks.
The networks are the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change (handout)
Revisit the exercise Ask yourself the question: Can I really afford not to know who the key influencers are? Who are the key people I need in the change agent networks that will influence and change attitude, mindsets and behaviours?
Approach: Define what you need – define the required new behaviours and underlying values, and create the measures of success Map the network – Cultural Inventory Survey and Organisational Network Analysis tools to identify the miniumum number of the right people who can influence the maximum Enable the influencers – an immersive collaboration event to train and equip them with the information, skill set and tools to optimise their interactions with others Supporting them on the ground – support and techniques from ex military intelligence specialists to ensure change agents are able to fulfill their role Measure the difference – track observable changes in behaviour against pre-agreed measures Refresh the network - Use 4 different networks as you move through the stages of the change lifecycle: Inspire, Inform, Solve Problems and Embed Values
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