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Viral Change by Design – an insight into client and research findings

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Viral Change by Design – an insight into client and research findings

  1. 1. Ingrid Facius Principal Advisor, 8works Director, Facii Ltd Advisor and Facilitator to Exec Teams and Boards: Strategy, Leadership and Change MSc Industrial/Organisational & Business Psychology (UCL) MBA Business Change (Cranfield) BA Hons Business Studies (Bournemouth) Member, Change Management Institute
  2. 2. AGENDA FOR TODAY © 8works 2018 – APM Wessex Branch 1 Key players The Change Challenge Viral Change by Design© Rethinking influencers Identifying Influencers
  3. 3. Identifying key players ….. • Attitude: are they a supporter, neutral or a detractor? • Power: is their ability to get what they want done significant or relatively limited? • Interest: are they paying close attention, or are you an unwelcome distraction? • Proximity: are they closely associated with you/your work or relatively remote? • Urgency: are they prepared to go to any length to achieve their outcomes? In their eyes, how critical and time-urgent are you or what you are doing?
  4. 4. Exercise – identifying key players For one of your change projects or programmes • Who was identified as a key player? Think of 3 names. • For each person, why are they key?
  5. 5. Change Challenges 60% of change fails • Mind-set & attitudes (58%) • Corporate Culture (49%) Source: Jorensen, H H., Owen, L., & Neus, A (2008) Making Change Work study. IBM Corporation
  6. 6. Attitudinal states required to support change & decrease resistance Resistance to Change • Readiness for Change (Employee Belief) • Commitment to Change (Employee mind-set) • Openness to Change (Big 5 Personality) • Cynicism about Organisational Change (Employee pessimism) Source: Choi, M (2011). Employees’ attitude toward Organisational Change: A literature review. Human Resource Management, 5 (4), 479-500
  7. 7. Four Constructs to Attitudinal Resistance to Change and their Antecedents (Facius, 2016) Readiness for change Employee belief Commitment to change Employee mind-set Openness to change Big Five Personality Cynicism about organisational change Employee pessimism Definition Recognition by the employee that there is a need for change. Belief that the organisation has a capacity to implement change successfully. A positive view that there is organisational benefit and personal gain. Affective – there is a desire to support the change based on benefits. Normative – there is sense of obligation to provide support. Continuance – the employee is supportive because of the recognition of the costs of failure. Employee’s willingness to support, accommodate & accept change. Considered as a condition that contributes to an employee’s readiness for change. Pessimistic viewpoint on the integrity of management motives. A loss of faith in leaders. A belief that the change is unlikely to succeed based on previous change history. A tendency to blame facilitators of change for failure. Research Findings on the Antecedents to Employee Attitude towards Change ContextforChange Culture. Employees who perceive the culture of the organisation as being Clan orientated report high levels of readiness for, and commitment to change. Change History. An employee’s experience of change and the organisation’s history influences their commitment and openness to change and cynicism about change. Employees’ belief in transformational leaders and trust in management. When employees believe and trust in leaders, and have strong relationships with managers and supervisors, they are more likely to be ready, committed, open to change and reduce cynicism about change. ChangeProcess Information & Communications. The role of information sharing about the change, the adequacy and timeliness of communications influence commitment and openness to change, and cynicism about change. Furthermore, findings show that when employees feel included in tasks and within the social information network they are likely to be open to change. This in turn led to a willingness to co-operate with it. Involvement in the change process. Participation by employees in the change process and decision making about the change, influenced commitment and openness to change and led to lower levels of cynicism. Indv Job Satisfaction and job motivation. Job satisfaction and motivation in the job influences readiness for change and affective commitment to change. Where employees were found to have lower levels of change openness, they reported less job satisfaction and intentions to quit as a result of a change.
  8. 8. Leveraging informal networks of influencers Effect of Social Networks on Change • Strong evidence that an individual’s social surrounding & network influences people into adopting new attitudes & behaviour Source: Cross, R., & Parker, A (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Harvard Business Press
  9. 9. ….. is the ability to alter or sway an individual’s or a group’s thoughts, beliefs, or actions …… the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something.
  10. 10. Exercise •Think back to your 3 key players. Are they on the list because: – They are able to affect the behaviours and actions of others? – They have a unique ability to get people to buy-in to change? – They are trusted and listened to by their peers? – They help others to solve problems?
  11. 11. And what are the dynamics? Project Procrastinator par excellence Too pushy by half Aggressive shaper Solutions Architect Despondent monitor-evaluator New to the project Part-time on the project Project Office Manager Secret crush Support same football team Old score to settle Afraid of Political naive Admires Owes a favour to Risk Manager Jealous of promotion Knows the history Christmas party fall-out Play golf together ESTJReflector
  12. 12. In the toolkit: change agent or influencer? “Change agents appear to have a notable impact on success. Less than half of respondents say their organizations select these employees, who dedicate a significant part of their time to work as facilitators or agents of the transformation. But those who do, report overall success more often than other respondents—and are twice as likely to report success at transforming their organizational cultures.” Source: www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/the-people-power-of-transformations
  13. 13. Is the change agent network effective? Change Agents are people who focus on change of social behaviour by “providing technical, specialist or consulting assistance in the management of a change effort.” (Beckhard) “Change Agents are individuals whose primary role is to deliberately intervene in social systems in order to facilitate or bring about social change.” (Tichy) Usually ‘one-size-fits-all’ network over the lifetime of a change programme • Richard Ottoway (1983) categorises the change agent role over different phases of a change programme • He proposes that change agents can only function successfully in one category
  14. 14. Viral Change by Design© Systematically and explicitly building a network of influencers with the most impact across the organisation and creating a mindset that drives the change ‘virally’ from within Provides the necessary psychological influences needed to overcome attitudinal resistance to change Different change agent network designs for different phases of change Minimum amount of people with maximum influence Copyright © 2017 [Ingrid Facius]. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Bringing it all together (Facius, 2016) Models Steps in the Change Process Lewin (1951) Procedure of Change Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Ottaway (1983) Change Agent Taxonomy -10 categories Change Generators 4 Categories (Initiate Change) Change Implementers 3 Categories (Enable Change) Change Adopters 3 Categories (Practice and normalise change) Facius (2016) The change agent role 1. Convey messages and evangelize the change 2. Provide communications 3. Simulate problem- solving processes & craft solutions 4. Act as role models for change 5. Are the ‘capital’ that sustains the change Facius (2016) Viral Change by Design© A network that creates: Belief in Transformational Leaders and Trust in Management A network delivering: Information and Communications A network ensuring: Involvement in the Change Process A network that reflects the culture for effective change
  16. 16. • Maps the hidden informal organisation that is not otherwise visible through a formal organogram • Real-time, real life picture of relationships across the organisation: – Circles influences – Connections and relationships between individuals based on who people trust, who they seek advice from, and the way in which communication flows • Highlights key individuals at the core of the network, as well as though who are less connected Silo Key Influencer Bottleneck CEO Country Organisational Network Analysis (ONA)
  17. 17. Viral Change by Design© : questions ProblemSolvingNetworkValuesNetwork Inspires Network - Which of your colleagues inspire you the most when it comes to your work? Information Network - Who is well informed and has access to the latest updates in your work environment? Problem Solving Network -Who do you turn to for help in thinking through a new challenging problem at work? Values Network - Which individuals do you feel most represent and embody the values of <company’s name>? InformsNetworkInspiresNetwork
  18. 18. Bringing it all together (Facius, 2016) Models Steps in the Change Process Lewin (1951) Procedure of Change Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Ottaway (1983) Change Agent Taxonomy -10 categories Change Generators 4 Categories (Initiate Change) Change Implementers 3 Categories (Enable Change) Change Adopters 3 Categories (Practice and normalise change) Facius (2016) The change agent role 1. Convey messages and evangelize the change 2. Provide communications 3. Simulate problem- solving processes & craft solutions 4. Act as role models for change 5. Are the ‘capital’ that sustains the change Facius (2016) Viral Change by Design© A network that creates: Belief in Transformational Leaders and Trust in Management A network delivering: Information and Communications A network ensuring: Involvement in the Change Process A network that reflects the culture for effective change Inspires Network Go-To Network Problem Solving Network Values Network
  19. 19. Exercise •From what you know now, who would you add to your list of key players: – Who inspires others and has the ability to get people to buy-in to change? The person who would sell the change at the start of a project? – Who is the go-to person for information? The person who is sought out, trusted and listened to by others at point of implementation. – Who is the go-to person for help when there’s a problem? The person who has a knack of sorting things out and ability to solve problems when things get sticky.
  20. 20. Viral Change by Design© Building a network of influencers with the most impact across the organisation and creating a mindset that drives the change ‘virally’ from within Approach Approach
  21. 21. Contact Details Ingrid Facius MBA, MSc e: ingrid.facius@8works.com t: +44 (0)7919 366 933 7 Heddon Street London W1B 4DB www.8works.com www.linkedin.com/in/ingrid-facius-aab4501 @8worker Ingrid Facius has over 25 years strategic transformation and change management consulting experience with 8works, QA, ITV and Capgemini. Focusing on what needs to change to turn an organisation’s strategic ambition into action, Ingrid rapidly guides her clients to the core of the change issues they seek to address by bringing clear process and structure to unravel even the most complex situations. She is a respected thought leader in change management and her curiosity about behaviours in the workplace inspired her to explore the application of psychological principles and theories of influence in effective organisational change. Many clients have benefited from Ingrid’s blend of organisational understanding and psychological insights on change, including HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Vodafone, Welsh Water, National Grid, DWP, FCO, DVSA and HMRC.
  22. 22. Statement of copyright and proprietary information 8works Consulting reserves as proprietary and confidential the following materials found in this document 21 Viral Change By Design © All rights reserved. These materials may be distributed only with express written permission of Facii (Associates) Ltd. 8works, the 8works logo and all other 8works marks contained herein are trademarks of 8works Intellectual Property and/or 8works affiliated companies. All other marks contained herein are the property of their respective owners. © 8works 2017

Notas do Editor

  • Past or current programme
  • In the context of P3CM for our change projects/programmeswe need to ensure the our project/programme lands in the business, the change is effective and we capture the portion of project benefits that depends on adoption and usage.

    But reports on change programmes STILL keep showing that less than half of all change programmes succeed, so chances are you’ve experienced this.
    Why does change fail?

    In the making change work study, conducted by IBM in 2008, Mind-set & attitude and corporate culture are cited as the main change challenges

  • Change doesn’t happen until it makes sense to the people who are going to live it out.
    Just think about how hard it is to give up smoking, go Sober for October, start a diet or new exercise regime. Same stuff is going for people when we ask them to make a change to they way they work, its normal to resist change.

    An person’s attitude towards change is critical. If they are in a place where they are ready, willing and open to make the change, they will support it.
  • It is time to move away from traditional top-down approaches to change and even more of a focus on the people that are to live with the change. I think the answer to the challenge of changing attitudes & mindset, in other words behaviours, sits with leveraging the social network of the organisation and identifying key influencers in this network.
  • Reminder that influence is ….
    And this is the outcome we’re looking to achieve with our change projects/programmes.

  • Revisit the exercise
    Our job is to put in place a strategy & approach that will support individual transition.
  • One way and already in the tool kit is the Change Agent.

    In a recent study by McKinsey, the importance of getting the right Change Agents is highlighted.
    Who are these change agents? And how do we identify them? Are they key influencers in the organisation’s social network?
  • Are change agents doing their job? Can the change agent network be more effective or influential?

    There is little focus on the design of the change agent network.
    The default approach is often to select change agents based on ‘gut-feel’ and hierarchical position.
    Typically it is created from formal channels, nominations, expert identification, volunteering, traits/skills.

    Years of building change agent networks, something missing. Ah ha moment for me when read an article by Richard Ottoway.

  • Theory suggests that attention given to organising and developing the informal organisational networks at time of planned change should be leveraged.

    By taking a more scientific approach leading companies are uncovering informal, organic networks of influence - the most connected people, to whom people listen, seek advice from and model their behaviour on.

    These informal networks are the real conduits by which information is shared and by which change happens through attitude & mindset change. They exist alongside (and despite) formal, organisation structures, and even extend beyond the organisation’s boundaries.

    The change agent network is redefined and repurposed over the recongised phases of change

    - Harnessing these networks, equipping the right influencers with the tools to make required behavioural change self perpetuating and viral: behavioral change spreads organically from person to person on a day to day basis, rather than attempting to force it via a one-time, top-down communication cascade.


    Viral Change by Design uses Organisational Network Analysis and proven influencing techniques to build networks of influencers across the organisation with the right mindset to drive change from within.
  • The networks are the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change (handout)
  • Identify a small number of change agents who influence the behaviours of other members of the organisation. By doing this, it would be possible to identify the minimum number of people likely to influence the maximum number of members of the organisation.
    Methodology:
    Draw on the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change, the phases of the change process and the roles of change agents to design different change network types
    The four network types were defined and characterised as Inspires, Informs, Problem Solving and Values change agent networks.
  • The networks are the antecedents to attitudinal resistance to change (handout)
  • Revisit the exercise
    Ask yourself the question: Can I really afford not to know who the key influencers are? Who are the key people I need in the change agent networks that will influence and change attitude, mindsets and behaviours?
  • Approach:
    Define what you need – define the required new behaviours and underlying values, and create the measures of success
    Map the network – Cultural Inventory Survey and Organisational Network Analysis tools to identify the miniumum number of the right people who can influence the maximum
    Enable the influencers – an immersive collaboration event to train and equip them with the information, skill set and tools to optimise their interactions with others
    Supporting them on the ground – support and techniques from ex military intelligence specialists to ensure change agents are able to fulfill their role
    Measure the difference – track observable changes in behaviour against pre-agreed measures
    Refresh the network - Use 4 different networks as you move through the stages of the change lifecycle: Inspire, Inform, Solve Problems and Embed Values

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