Kaizen ( 改善 ), Japanese for "good change". It has been
applied in healthcare, psychotherapy , life-coaching,
government, banking, and other industries
Kaizen is the process of continuous improvements in small
increments that make the process more effective ,efficient,
controllable and adequate
Improvements are usually accomplished at little or no expense
with out sophisticated techniques or expensive equipments
It focuses on simplification by breaking down complex
processes into their sub-processes and then improving them.
5. Three Basic principles of Kaizen
• Work place effectiveness – Japanese developed 5S tools for
addressing the effectiveness
• Elimination of waste , strain and discrepancy –
Elimination of three MUs.
The wastes are not free, but have been paid for the organization,
since those produce wastes also get paid and material
wasted costs money. There for one has to minimize and
eliminate the waste in the organization
Sl.NO Japanese Name Meaning
1 Muda Waste
2 Muri Strain
3 Mura Discrepancy
6. • Standardization :
Kaizen stresses standardization of process, materials ,
machinery etc… with the following objectives
Represent the best, easiest, safest way to carry out a job in the form
of operating procedures and work instructions
Represent the best way to preserve know-how and expertise
Measure performance and standardize the same
Standardize the procedures for maintenance
Standardize the training program
Standardize the audit for diagnosing the problem
Standardize the procedures for preventing occurrence of errors and
minimizing the variability
7. Value-added and non-value added work activities
Muda, which refers to the seven classes of waste –over
motion and defective parts
Principles of material handling
Principles of motion study
Documentation of standard operating procedures
The five S’s for work place (Five S frame work for good house
Seiton –Tidiness/Proper arrangement
Seiri - Orderliness
Seiketsu- Personal cleanliness
Shitsuke - Discipline
Kaizen improvement focuses on the use of
8. Better communication through visual displays such as
posters, bulletins etc.
Just in Time principles
Team effort on problem solving, conflict reduction and
Kaizen improvement focuses on the use of
9. 5s principle
Identification of materials ,equipments and tools, data and
information which are necessary, not necessary, discarding or
giving another destination to unnecessary items and necessary
space for required or necessary items.
It is not only essential to tidy the place but also arrange them in
the orderly manner.
A part from a place being tidy and orderly it should be clean
The shop floor should free of wastage, oil spills ,wastes etc.
10. Seiketso(Personal cleanliness)
This point talks about maintaining good sanitary conditions and
maintaining good personal hygiene
Only a clean place can be conscious enough about keeping his
work place clean and tidy.
Information cleanliness: communications should be clear
,objective, easy to read and understand.
Discipline in every job a person does
This is not restricted to job related to organization but also
Japanese term means mistake proofing.
The term adopted Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota
The idea is to identify areas in which errors are likely to
occur ,then introduce a number of devices that are a safe
mechanism for preventing the error in the first place.
Instead of sampling ,self inspection is promoted and following
that, the person next in receiving line also checks the item
before working on it.
12. Automatic transmissions: the inability to remove a car key from the ignition
switch of an automobile if the automatic transmission is not first put in the
"Park" position, so that the driver cannot leave the car in an unsafe parking
condition where the wheels are not locked against movement.
3.5" floppy disks: the top-right corner is shaped in a certain way so that the
disk cannot be inserted upside-down.
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) cards: The SIM card used in cellular
phones has its upper left corner trimmed diagonally to guide the card
correctly into position.
Examples of Poka -yoke in consumer products
13. Poka yoke in Manufacturing
• Poka-yoke can be implemented at any step of a manufacturing
process where something can go wrong or an error can be
• For example, a jig that holds pieces for processing might be
modified to only allow pieces to be held in the correct
• A digital counter might track the number of spot welds on each
piece to ensure that the worker executes the correct number of
14. Continuous Improvement rather than
Individualism Teamwork, systems-approach
Information: closed and
Functional Orientation Cross-functional orientation
Seeks new technology Building on existing technology
Limited feedback Comprehensive feedback
15. Comparison of Kaizen and Innovation over