3. Introduction to communication
• Communication is defined as “the process of
passing information and understanding from
one person to another, it is essentially a bridge
of meaning between people”
• All communication is essentially sharing of
information or some message. Communication
is the most important of our social activities.
• We can classify communication as interpersonal,
intrapersonal, group communication, Meta
communication, upward, downward, lateral,
diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non
4. Meaning of Communication
• The term communication is derived from the latin word “communis” or
“communicare” which means to make common. Thus communication means to make
common facts, information’s, thoughts and requirements. Communication therefore is
the exchange of thoughts, message, information etc. by way of speech, signal or in
• Communication is two way process and works well with feedback, this helps to
confirm that intended message has been successful.
• Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or
not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to
the receiver – G.G. Brown.
• “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages”- Fred G. Meyer.
• “Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between
individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”. – By
• “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or
more persons”. – By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.
• But the definition given by William Scott, appears comprehensive and touches all
aspects of communication process.
• “Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and
accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting
actions, which will accomplish organizational goals.”
5. is what ??
It is a process of exchanging –
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6. Elements of Communication Process
• A communication process involves the following
• (a) Communicator, i.e., the person who intends to
communicate the message to other persons.
• (b) Message, i.e., the subject matter of communication.
This may be opinion, order, appeal, views, suggestions
• (c) Transmission, i.e., the act of conveying the message.
• (d) Channel, i.e., the medium used to transmit the
• (e) Receiver, i.e., the person for whom the message is
• (f) Response, i.e., replying or reaction of the receiver.
7. Process of Communication
• Communication is effective when a concise and clear
message is delivered well, received successfully and
understand fully. The process of communication has the
following distinct components:
9. 1). Idea: – Idea is the simplification and abstraction of reality filtered through the individuals mind. Every
message weather oral or written begins with an idea. Every business has its own convention for
processing and communicating information.
2). Sender: – Person sending the information is called sender. He is also known as encoder. The process of
communication begins when an idea occurs in his mind. The sender wants to send that idea to another
person/organization to achieve some objective. The sender must have a clear picture in his mind about
what he wants to communicate.
3). Message: – The idea, emotion or opinion transmitted by the sender is called message. Message is an
idea transformed into words. The message can be expressed in different ways depending on the
subjects, purpose, audience, personal style and cultural background of the sender.
4). Encoding: – The method by which a message is expressed is called encoding. Message arises in the
mind in the form of an idea. That idea is transmitted by the sender to the receiver in the form of
words, symbols, picture etc. If not encoded, it may not be possible for the receiver to understand it.
5). Medium and Channel: – The method and means by which a message is transmitted by a sender to the
receiver. For instance, letters is a medium and postal or courier service a channel. If message is
communicated by telephone, than oral message is a medium and telephone a channel.
6).Receiver:– The receiver is a person/organization that receives the message. He is the destination of the
message. In the absence, the process of communication is incomplete. He not only receives the
message but also understands what is implied in it. He may be a listener, reader or viewer of the
7). Decoding: – Decoding is the mental process by which the receiver draws meaning from the word,
symbols or picture of the message. Receiver decodes the message send by sender, that’s why he is
also known as decoder.
8). Feedback: – Feedback is the receiver’s response to the message. Feedback is the final ink in the
communication process. Feedback tells the source/sender, how the receiver has interpreted the
message. The effective communication is always sensitive to feedback.
10. • Communication begins with an impulse (or motivation) to pass
on a message made up of bits of information. In the process of
encoding, units of information are selected and organized for
transmission. Input is the sum of experiences that build up in
the human brain or computer. Output is the encoded message
transmitted by the information source (an individual person or
group of people). The interpretation of the message is referred
to as decoding. Feedback is the response, or message that the
recipient (decoder) returns to the sender (encoder).
• Sender has an idea
• Sender encodes the idea
• Sender transmits the message through medium
• Receiver gets the message
• Receiver decodes the message
• Receiver sends feedback
• Feedback in the communication process is the response that
gives us some indication of how effectively we communicate. It
is the gauge of efficiency in communication.
11. Types of
People communicate with each other in a number of ways
that depend upon the message and its context in which it is
Types of communication based on the communication
channels used are –
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12. Classification of Communication
• Based on whom the message is addressed
• We classify communication according to the number of persons (receivers) to
whom the message is addressed:
• Intrapersonal Communication:
– It is talking to oneself in one’s own mind. Examples are soliloquies or asides in
• Interpersonal Communication:
– It is the exchange of messages between two persons. For example, a conversation,
dialogue, or an interview in which two persons interact (others may also be
present as audience). An author communicates interpersonally with his reader,
who is always present as a silent audience in the author’s mind while he writes. A
letter too is an example of interpersonal communication between the writer and
the person to whom it is written.
• Group Communication:
– It can be among small or large groups, like an organization, club or classroom, in
which all individuals retain their individual identity.
• Mass Communication:
– It occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people, for example, by
newspaper, radio, or television. In this process, each person becomes a faceless
individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback.
13. Based On the basis of the medium employed
• Verbal Communication:
– It means communicating with words, written or spoken. Verbal communication consists of
speaking, listening, writing, reading, and thinking. It may further be classified as Oral or
• Non-verbal communication:
– It includes using of pictures, signs, gestures, and facial expressions for exchanging
information between persons. It is done through sign language, action language, or object
language. Non-verbal communication flows through all acts of speaking or writing. It is a
wordless message conveyed through gestures (sign), movements (action language), and
object language (pictures/clothes) and so on. Further non-verbal communication can be
identified by personal space (proxemics), sense of smell (olfactics) and time (chronemics).
• Meta Communication:
– Here the speaker’s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than
what the actual words state. For example, a flattering remark like “I’ve never seen you so
smartly dressed” could also mean that the regular attire of the listener needed
• Formal Communication:
– A formal channel of communication can be defined as a means of communication that is
formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization. The
communication flows through formal channels, that is, officially recognized positions along
the line in the organization. This ensures that the information flows orderly, timely, and
accurately. Any information, decision, memo, reminder etc. will follow this path.
14. • Informal Communication: Side by side with the formal channel of
communication every organization has an equally effective channel of
communication that is the informal channel. It is not officially
sanctioned, and quite often it is even discouraged or looked down
upon. But, then, it is very much there, and has been given the name
‘grapevine’ precisely because it runs in all directions-horizontal, vertical,
diagonal. As the management experts put it, “it flows around water
coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms, and wherever people get
together in groups”.
• Downward Communication: The Communication that flows from Top
to Bottom is known as downward communication. Any organization has
an inbuilt hierarchical system, and in that, in the first instance,
communication invariably flows downwards.
• Upward Communication: The Communication that flows from bottom
to top, which is from lower hierarchical level to higher level, is called
Upward Communication. The main function of upward communication
is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at
the lower levels. It is just the reverse of the previous dimension
15. • Lateral Communication: When communication takes place
between two or more persons who are subordinates working
under the same person, or those who are working on the
same level, it is called lateral or horizontal communication.
• A good example of this kind of communication is that
between functional managers. It is necessary for the
reviewing of the activities assigned to various subordinates
having identical positions
• Diagonal Communication: Diagonal or Crosswise
communication includes flow of information among persons
at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.
• As an example, the Communication between the Training
Supervisor and Marketing Manager, regarding the Training of
a few employees of Marketing Department, is Diagonal
• This kind of communication is used to speed up information
flow, to improve understanding, and to coordinate efforts for
the achievement of organizational objectives.
It refers to the form of communication in which message is
Communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of
In verbal communication remember the acronym “KISS”
(keep it short and simple).
Verbal Communication is divided into:
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In oral communication, Spoken words are used.
It includes face-to-face conversations, speech,
telephonic conversation, video, radio, television,
voice over internet.
Communication is influence by pitch, volume,
speed and clarity of speaking.
It brings quick feedback.
In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial
expression and body language one can guess
whether he/she should trust what’s being said
In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to
deeply think about what he is delivering, so this
can be counted as a fault.
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In written communication, written signs or symbols
are used to communicate.
In written communication message can be
transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc.
Written Communication is most common form of
communication being used in business.
Messages can be edited and revised
Written communication provide record and backup.
A written message enables receiver to fully
understand it and send appropriate feedback.
Written communication doesn’t bring instant
feedback. It take more time in composing a written
message as compared to word-of-mouth and
number of people struggles for writing ability.17-04-2018 16:12:18 18
• Nonverbal communication is the
sending or receiving of wordless
messages. Such as gesture, body
language, posture, tone of
voice or facial expressions, is called
• Nonverbal communication is all about
the body language of speaker.
Nonverbal communication have the
following three elements –
Speaker – clothing, hairstyle, neatness,
use of cosmetics
Surrounding – room size, lighting,
• Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures
Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate17-04-2018 16:12:18 19
20. Levels of
• Intrapersonal Communication is communication
that occurs in your own mind. It is the basis of
your feelings, biases, prejudices, and beliefs.
– Examples are when you make any kind of
decision – what to eat or wear. When you
think about something – what you want to
do on the weekend or when you think about
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21. • Interpersonal communication is the
communication between two people but
can involve more in informal conversations.
–Examples are when you are talking to
your friends. A teacher and student
discussing an assignment. A patient and
a doctor discussing a treatment. A
manager and a potential employee during
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22. • Small Group communication is
communication within formal or informal
groups or teams. It is group interaction
that results in decision making, problem
solving and discussion within an
–Examples would be a group planning a
surprise birthday party for someone. A
team working together on a project.
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23. • One-to-group communication
involves a speaker who seeks to
inform, persuade or motivate an
–Examples are a teacher and a class
of students. A preacher and a
congregation. A speaker and an
assembly of people in the
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24. • Mass communication is the
electronic or print transmission
of messages to the general
public. Outlets called mass
media include things like radio,
television, film, and printed
materials designed to reach
– A television commercial. A
magazine article. Hearing a song on
the radio. Books, Newspapers,
Billboards. The key is that you are
reaching a large amount of people
without it being face to face.
Feedback is generally delayed with
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25. Communication is complete and perfect when the receiver
understands the message in the same sense and spirit as the
communicator intends to convey, Here, idea and information
reached to and responded by receiver remain unaltered and
undistorted. But practically it has been noticed that such perfect
and complete communication does not take place because of
certain obstacles or other factors known as communication
" There are a lot of causes of misunderstanding and
misinterpretations of message communicated. As the process of
communication involves sender, channels and receiver, the
problem of communication usually lies with either one or more of
27. Problems/ barriers/ breakdowns may arise at any of the following
(a) The sender's level in
(i) formulating/ organizing thought, ideas, message
(ii) encoding the message
(b) The receiver's level in
(i) receiving the message;
(ii) decoding the received message;
(iii) understanding/interpreting the message.
(c)Transmission level where 'noise' occurs.
(d)The feedback/reaction level that is a necessary condition of
the completion of the process.
28. Tools of effective
• Be Brief
• Using “I”
• Be Positive
• Good listener
• Spice up your words
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29. 1. Question
• Communication becomes circular when
a) the decoder becomes an encoder
b) the feedback is absent
c) the source is credible
d) the channel is clear
The English word ‘Communication’ is derived from the words
a) Communis and Communicare
b) Communist and Commune
c) Communism and Communalism
d) Communion and Common sense
While designing communication strategy feed-forward studies are conducted
30. 4. Question
A message beneath a message is labelled as
a) Embedded text
b) Internal text
In communication, the language is
a) The non-verbal code
b) The verbal code
c) The symbolic code
d) The iconic code
Identify the correct sequence of the following:
a) Source, channel, message, receiver
b) Source, receiver, channel, message
c) Source, message, receiver, channel
d) Source, message, channel, receiver
31. 5: Listening to a lecture is
A. information Listening
B. evaluative listening
C. emphatic Listening
D. none of these
6: Teaching on TV is superior to class room instruction
A. very large classes are made' possible and thus. it; is
B. experts for teaching a difficult topic can be arranged and others
can be benefited from them
C. teaching materials can be filmed for reuse
D. All of these
7: Which of the following methods of communication is the
A. presenting written material
B. presenting written material along with film projector
C. multi-media method
D. can not be determined
32. 8: All are the components of listening except
B. attending-being attentive
D. understanding and remembering
9: All are the examples of the media of two way communication except
A. public meeting
D. procession and rallies
10: Which of the following skills has the largest share in communication
time in schools/colleges?
33. CHEER stands for
A. Children Enrichment Education Through Radio
B. Child Health Education Electronic Recording
C. Children for Engineers and Energy Requirement
D. None of the above
SITE stands for
A. System for International Technology and Engineering
B. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment
C. South Indian Trade Estate
D. None of these
Visualization in the instructional process can not increase
A. interest and motivation
B. retention and adaptation
C. stress and boredom
D. curiosity and concentration
34. • Imagine you are working in an educational institution where people are of equal status. Which method
of communication is best suited and normally employed in such a context ?
(1) Horizonatal Communication
(2) Vertical communication
(3) Corporate communication
(4) Cross communication
• Identify the important element a teacher has to take cognizance of while addressing students in a
(1) Avoidance of proximity
2) Voice modulation
(3) Repetitive pause
(4) Fixed posture
• What are the barriers to effective communication ?
1) Moralising, being judgemental and comments of consolation.
(2) Dialogue, summary and self-review.
(3) Use of simple words, cool reaction and defensive attitude.
(4) Personal statements, eye contact and simple narration.
• The choice of communication partners is influenced by factors of
1) Proximity, utility, loneliness
(2) Utility, secrecy, dissonance
(3) Secrecy, dissonance, deception
(4) Dissimilarity, dissonance, deviance
• As a teacher, select the best option to ensure your effective presence in the classroom.
(1) Use of peer command
(2) Making aggressive statements
3) Adoption of well-established posture
(4) Being authoritarian
• Every communicator has to experience
(1) Manipulated emotions
2) Anticipatory excitement
(3) The issue of homophiles
(4) Status dislocation