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Problem Based Learning

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Problem Based Learning

  1. 1. Problem-Based Learning Presented by Amanda Ballard
  2. 2. “True learning is based ondiscovery . . . rather than thetransmission of knowledge.”John Dewey
  3. 3. Shape of the Day• What is Problem-Based Learning?• Why PBL?• Components of a PBL unit• A Sample PBL Unit• How to Design & Teach a PBL unit
  4. 4. What is PBL?• Inquiry-based• Begins with an ill-structured problem
  5. 5. The Ill-structured ProblemIs based on• desired learning outcomes• learner characteristics• compelling, real world situations
  6. 6. Role of the Teacher• Designs the problem• Anticipates teaching & learning events• Investigates & gathers resources• Models and coaches students
  7. 7. Role of the Students• Confront the problem• Determine know / need to know• Define the problem• Design a plan to solve the problem• Gather information• Construct potential solutions• Select & present the ‘best fit’
  8. 8. Advantages of PBL• Any subject, any grade• Learner-centred• Students acquire content knowledge, skills and attitudes• Assessment as Learning
  9. 9. Bottom Line: PBL fosters life-long learners, and…life-long learners make good citizens!
  10. 10. Why Students Like It• Learning is driven by challenging, open-ended questions• Students collaborate• Students’ learning is self-directed• It’s authentic & relevant!
  11. 11. History of PBL• 1960’s – Discovery learning• 1970’s – McMaster University medical school• 1985 – Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy• 1990’s – Medical schools across North America and Europe• 2000’s and beyond – Elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, universities and professional schools
  12. 12. What is behind PBL?• Based on the constructivist theory of learning• Promotes active learning by challenging students to learn to learn• Inquiry-based• Well-constructed problems stimulate students’ curiosity and engagement
  13. 13. Where does PBL fit? Inquiry Learning Cooperative/ Collaborative LearningProject-Based Problem-Based Case Studies Learning Learning
  14. 14. What’s the Difference? Project-Based Both Problem-Based Learning • Teacher as guide Learning • Individual or group • Students at centre • Groups • Teacher defines the • Real-world • Students define the problem connections problem • Teacher identifies • Active learning • Students identify action steps • Self and peer action steps • Create a product assessment • Create a solution • MetacognitionBottom Line: In Problem-Based Learning, students have more control over their own learning and the processes involved.
  15. 15. Components of a PBL Unit• Stakeholder• Ill-structured Problem• Teacher as Coach• Constraints• Formative Assessment• Problem-Solving• Metacognition• Assessment
  16. 16. Student As Stakeholder• Increases ownership• Provides a form of apprenticeship in a discipline• Perspective-taking• A key decision maker• Must be someone with Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability
  17. 17. The Ill-structured Problem• Needs more information before it becomes clear• Can be solved in more than one way• Has more than one resolution• Changes sometimes with new information• Is ambiguous and unclear
  18. 18. Teacher As Coach• Metacognition• ‘Guide-on-the-side’
  19. 19. Constraints• A well-designed problem is constrained to the issues on which the teacher wants students to focus
  20. 20. Assessment• How will I know if students are learning what I want them to learn?• Many familiar assessment tools can be utilized to monitor students’ group work (skills), critical thinking (metacognition) and learning (facts)
  21. 21. Problem-Solving• Students will need to find potential solutions to the problem and determine which solution is the best fit
  22. 22. Metacognition• Students think about their thinking• What do I think the problem is? Why do I think that? Has my perspective changed? How?
  23. 23. G.R.A.S.P.S.G GoalR RoleA AudienceS SituationP Product or PerformanceS Standards/Criteria
  24. 24. Sample Problem
  25. 25. The Flow of the Problem
  26. 26. The Flow of the Problem • Meet the problemUnderstand • Know/Need to Knowthe Problem • Define the Problem Statement • Gather InformationExplore the • Share InformationCurriculum • Generate Possible Solutions • Determine Best Fit SolutionResolve the Problem • Present the Solution • Debrief the Problem
  27. 27. Understand the Problem1. Meet the problem – Students are introduced to the problem
  28. 28. Sample Problem• Who killed Simon & Piggy?
  29. 29. Metropolitan Police Dear Chie fG ordon, Kings Cross We, the pa rents of th School for e students _____________________________ demand th Boys, here by file this of Kings C ross at the polic complaint Piggy and e investiga and Simon. te the dea ths o fDate: April 30, 1955 It is a com plete trave not make it sty that the home afte se two boy horrific pla r miraculou s did ne crash o sly survivin all of the b n the islan g the oys went o d. After thTo: Investigative Team island. Th ey manage n to spend weeks on e crash, hunt for fo d to organ the o d an d b u ize themse each othe ild s lves to r. Yet, som helters and take care strongest b ehow, two ofFrom: Chief of Police oys died o n the islan of the olde st and d. It is inexpli cable that We deserv such a thin e answers g should hSubject: Deaths of Simon and children. T , for ourse appe n. he survivin lves and fo their experi gb r o ur ence and w oys are traumatized Piggy least we c an do is he ill never be the same. by lp them un of their frie nds did no derstand w The t make it h hy two ome. We await ySee attached letter. our promp this compla t reply reg int. arding the status ofOpen an investigation immediately. Sincerely, The paren ts of the K ings Cross School for Boys
  30. 30. Understand the Problem1. Know/Need to Know – Students determine what they know and what they need to know to solve the problem – Students start to identify action steps toward solving the problem – Note: in some cases students may need more information or background knowledge to define the problem
  31. 31. Learning Issues Board Hunches: Simon and Piggy died on the island They were stranded on the island They got sick or injured and couldn’t get help What We Know Need To Know Plan of Action• 2 boys died – Piggy & • What are they • Read the novel Simon traumatized about?• Plane crashed • Where was the pilot?• Boys spent weeks on • How did they die? island • Were there any• They found food and predators on the shelter island?• They were friends • Did the boys like (care for each other) each other?
  32. 32. The K icker!• On day 2, students receive a memo from the Crown Council asking for a recommendation regarding who should be charged for the boys’ deaths.
  33. 33. Understand the Problem1. Define the Problem Statement – Students write a statement defining the problem – Students add to learning issues board, identify learning objectives and make a plan
  34. 34. Problem DefinitionDetermine whether or not charges shouldbe laid in the deaths of Simon and Piggyand against whom, while being just andfair and responding to the parents’demand for answers.
  35. 35. Learning Objectives• Read and understand texts• Understand both literal and symbolic meanings• Use oral language• Select and use a range of reading strategies• Interpret, analyze and evaluate ideas• Write and represent ideas
  36. 36. Explore the Curriculum1. Gather information - Darwin - Golding Leadership styles
  37. 37. Explore the Curriculum1. Share Information – Presentations, Jigsaw
  38. 38. Explore the Curriculum1. Generate Possible Solutions
  39. 39. • Who could be held responsible for Simon and Piggy’s deaths? – Ralph: failed as leader – Jack: led boys into savagery – Beast/Fear: caused boys to go crazy
  40. 40. Resolve the Problem1. Determine Best Fit Solution – Evaluate the options and choose the ‘best’ one*Remember, there is no ‘right’ answer
  41. 41. Resolve the Problem1. Present the Solution – Students present their proposed solution to the class – Students defend their position using criteria which are meaningful to the discipline
  42. 42. Resolve the Problem1. Debrief the Problem – Students compare the different solutions proposed by each group – What are the pros/cons of each? – What would you have done differently? – Do you think your presentation was effective?
  43. 43. Examples of PBL Across The Curriculum• “Lord of the Flies” (English)• The Ebola Problem (Math/Socials/Science)• The Black Death (Social Studies/Math)• Mosquito Coast (Geography/Science/Math)• Genetic Disorder Problem (Science)
  44. 44. Designing a PBL Unit
  45. 45. Not a Topic, a Problem• Not the Civil War…The Draft Riot• Not Acids and Bases…Acid Spill on the Highway• Not art history…’Degenerate Art’ during World War II
  46. 46. Not a Topic, a Problem• Not the Civil War…The Draft Riot• Not Acids and Bases…Acid Spill on the Highway• Not art history…’Degenerate Art’ during World War II
  47. 47. Where to start• Look in the news, textbook, fiction, tv, life• Take your summative assessment activities and work backwards• Make cases out of word problems or essay questions – Example: In essay format, discuss what you think Golding says about civilization and civilized behaviour in “Lord of the Flies”• Adapt a project – Example: Genetic Disorder Problem
  48. 48. Designing a PBL Unit• Determine content – what you want students to learn• Identify the stakeholder• Create the problem• Layout the plan & identify the constraints• Plan assessment
  49. 49. Determine Content • First Nations Culture Social • Careers Studies • Geography• • Conservation What fish look like• • International Issues/ Trade Design a fish farm• First Nations Art• Stories and Legend• Protest songs Salmon Fine Arts Science • Ecology & ecosystems • Tools & technology • Pollution • Lifecycle
  50. 50. Identify the Stakeholder• Fishermen• Consumers• Fish farmers• Conservationists• Land developers• Mayor of small fishing village• Aquarium
  51. 51. Write Problem Introduction• You are a land developer who has just discovered that you will not be able to build on a parcel of land in which you have already invested a large sum of money. Plans have been drawn up and workers have been hired. You must find a way to develop the land or risk losing your money and reputation.• Follow-up with minutes from public hearing explaining the issue with developing this particular area of land: it is home to a salmon spawning stream that would be threatened by development
  52. 52. Map Out The Problem• Take a look at your lecture notes for the subject/issue and identify resources that students could use• Make a list of possible activities• Determine the skills you want students to learn and how you will teach them• Make sure the problem is constrained to just the issues you want students to explore
  53. 53. Plan Assessment• Facts• Skills• Analysis• ReflectionIdeas: Problem Log, Portfolios, Rubrics
  54. 54. Learning Strategies• Note-taking organizers• Reading strategies (e.g. ‘Shower of Stars’)• Teacher as expert• Jigsaw• Graphic Organizers (web, t-chart)• Adding Up Logically: Making Inferences• Presentation Outline• Reflection Journals
  55. 55. Differentiation• You can use the same tools that you would use in any other lesson• Many of the learning strategies are tools to differentiate• Examples: providing research materials, breaking the problem into steps/tasks, graphic organizers with fill-in-the-blanks, researching in pairs, vocabulary list
  56. 56. Samples & Resources
  57. 57. Genetic Disorder Problem1. Understand the Problem• As the head cytologist in a fertility ward, you have just performed a test on a pregnant woman who is having complications with her pregnancy. The couple had trouble conceiving and are worried about losing the baby. They want to know what is happening and what it means for future pregnancies.• The test results are back. You have a photograph of the chromosomes removed from a single embryonic stem cell taken from the 3 week old embryo.
  58. 58. 1. Explore the Curriculum• How will we find out what’s wrong with the unborn patient?
  59. 59. 1. Resolve the Problem• What will you tell the couple about the diagnosis, how it happened and what to do about future pregnancies?
  60. 60. Questions• ??