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Social Mobility Its Nature And Determinents

social mobility, nature of social mobilty and determinents of social mobility

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Social Mobility Its Nature And Determinents

  2. 3. Social Mobility <ul><li>“The process by which the people achieve or fail to achieve the wish for a higher status than their parents had is called Social Mobility”. </li></ul><ul><li>“The act of moving from one social class to another”. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Nature of Social Mobility <ul><li>Open class society is one in which mobility is high </li></ul><ul><li>A closed class society is one in which there is a little mobility </li></ul><ul><li>The caste system in which the people are confined to the occupation and statuses of their ancestors is the most extreme example of closed class society e.g. in India </li></ul><ul><li>In modern world countries are increasing social mobility to make people happier and search best suited work. </li></ul><ul><li>People have unequal social origin. If social mobility is high they all will believe for having an equal chance for reaching a higher social class position. Otherwise most people are frozen in status of their ancestors. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Nature of Social Mobility Continued… <ul><li>If desirable social statuses are actually available to all who make an effort to reach them, there will probably be little agitation for absolute social equality. If, however channels of social mobility are so clogged that so many doomed to failure, then a demand for complete equality for all is more likely. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility applies for both to individuals and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility is in both directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility have both costs and gains (benefits and expectations) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Mobility Determinants <ul><li>The Rate of Mobility in Modern Societies is Determined by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Factors . Those factors which determine the relative proportions of high status positions to be filled & the easeof getting them. & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Factors . Those factors including luck, which determine which people get the positions. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Structural Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural & extractive economies have many low status and few high status positions, so mobility will be low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of social mobility rises with industrialization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference in Fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rich gets richer & the poor gets babies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of high status jobs and a relatively low birth rate in the upper classes means that upper class do not replace themselves & are constantly replenished by mobiles from lower classes. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Structural Factors continued… </li></ul><ul><li>The Dual Economy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many developing countries have two largely separate economies. One traditional of selling little & consuming most, & other modern economy I which most people produce for market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility Aids and Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwords mobility is not open equally to every one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class children typically have learning experience which are more helpful in gaining upward mobility than the experience of lower class children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The upper class safeguards their children by protecting them from downward mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are also structural aids to mobility e.g. anti discrimination legislation and on job training program. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Individual Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Ability Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other things being equal, the talented usually earn more than the untalented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not possible to measure the ability differences satisfactorily; we assume that they are important factors in success and mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility Oriented Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is an important mobility ladder, yet not equally important for all carriers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work habit , according to one recent study, learned in early childhood is most important of all predictors of eventual success and well being. Hard work does not guaranty of upwards mobility but not many achieve upwards mobility without it. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Individual Factors Continued… </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred gratification pattern consists of postponing immediate satisfaction in order to gain some later goal e.g. saving ones money for education or business. Middle class is the most benefited of it while the upper class in little need of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility game playing is artful presentation of self. Graduating seniors are coached on how to conduct themselves before the corporate recruiters. To be well liked may be as important as to be competent. </li></ul><ul><li>Value stretch hypothesis offers on e explaination for those who accepts mobility values but still fails. Many people sincerely accept certain goals and values but unknowingly follow behaviour which blocks attainment of these goals. The hypothesis has two tenets (1) the persons are not strong enough commited to their professed gaoal and (2) they fail to recognise that certain behaviour is in consistent with these goals. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Individual Factors Continued… </li></ul><ul><li>The Luck Factor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people who really work very hard & follows all the rules fail to succeed, while success some times seems to fall into others laps. The luk factor is impossible to measure and a handy excuse for failure yet it is undeniably a factor in mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction of All Factors. </li></ul>
  11. 12. THANK YOU

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social mobility, nature of social mobilty and determinents of social mobility


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