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Tourism Concepts

  1. Tourism Concepts & Applications ©Ramakrishna Kongalla
  2. Indian literature Classical Sanskrit Literature • Classical Sanskrit literature includes the Kavyas (epic poetry), the Nataka (drama), lyric poetry, romance, popular tales, didactic fables, gnomic poetry, scientific literature on grammar, medicine, law, astronomy, mathematics, etc. • Classical Sanskrit literature is on the whole secular in character. • During the classical period, language was regulated by the rigid rules of Panini, one of the greatest Sanskrit grammarians. • Kalidasa (between A.D. 380-A.D. 415). Kumarasambhava (the birth of Kumar), and Raghuvamsa (the dynasty of the Raghus). • Bharavi (550 A.D.) - Kiratarjuniyam (Kirat and Arjun) • Magha (65-700 A.D.) wrote Sishupalavadha (the killing of Shishupal). • Natyashastra, by Bharata (1st century B.C.-1st century A.D.). • Kalidasa - three plays Malavikagnimitra (Malavika and Agnimitra), Vikramorvasiya (Vikram and Urvasi) and Abhigyana Shakuntala (the recognition of Shakuntala) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 2
  3. • The Mricchakatika (the clay-cart) by Sudraka (248 A.D.) • The 13 plays of Bhasa (4th century B.C.-2nd century A.D, Swapnavasavadatta (Vasavadatta in dream), • Bhavabhuti (700 A.D.), Uttara-Ramacharitam (the later life of Rama), • Jayadeva (12 century A.D.) Gitagovinda (the song of Govinda) • Panchatantra (five chapters), by Vishnu Sharma, • the Hitopadesha by Narayan Pandit • the great epic Buddhacharita by Aswaghosha (78 A.D.). • Jain literature is available in Sanskrit too, like the Upamitibhava Prapancha Katha of Siddharasi (906 A.D.) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 3
  4. • Literature in Pali and Prakrit • lord Buddha (500 B.C.) used Pali to give his sermons. • All the Buddhist canonical literature is in Pali which includes Tipitaka (threefold basket). • The first basket, Vinaya Pitaka, contains the monastic rules of the Order of Buddhist monks. The second basket, Sutta Pitaka, is the collection of the speeches and dialogues of the Buddha. The third basket, the Abhidhamma Pitaka, • The jataka Kathas are non-canonical Buddhist literature in which stories relating to the former births of the Buddha (Bodhi-sattva or the would- be Buddha) are narrated. • lexicography and grammar by Hemachandra (1088 A.D.-?), is well known. • Gathasaptashati (700 verses) by Hala (300 A.D.), the best example of erotic literature. It is a compilation of 700 verses along with his own contribution of 44 poems. It is interesting to note that quite a few poetesses like Pahai, Mahavi, Reva, Roha and Sasippaha are included in the anthology. • The vast Katha (story) literature of Prakrit, written with a conspicuous religious overtone, even by Jain saints, is full of erotic elements. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 4
  5. • Early Dravidian Literature • Early classical Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature meaning ‘fraternity’, indicating mainly two schools of poets, aham (subjective love poems), and puram (objective, public poetry and heroic). Aham deals purely with the subjective emotions of the lover, and puram with all kinds of emotions, mainly the valour and glory of kings, and about good and evil. • The Sangam classics, consisting of 18 works (eight anthologies of lyrics and ten long poems), are well known for their directness of expression. • These were written by 473 poets, among whom 30 were women, the famous poetess Avvaiyar being one of them. • In the case of 102 poems, the authors are unknown. Most of these anthologies are of the 3rd century B.C. • During this time, a Tamil grammar Tolkappiyam, was written, to understand early Tamil poetry. • Tolkappiyam indicates five landscapes or types of love, and outlines their symbolic conventions. Critics say that Sangam literature is not just the earliest evidence of the Tamil genius. • The famous Thirukkural by Thiruvalluvar, in the 6th century A.D., serves as a manual of precepts to guide one to noble living. It expounds a secular, moral and practical attitude towards life. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 5
  6. • The twin epics, Silappadhikaram (the story of the anklet), written by Ilango-Adigal, • and Manimekalai (the story of Manimekalai) by Chattanar, were written sometimes in A.D. 200-300 and give vivid accounts of Tamil society during that period. • In Manimekalai there is an elaborate exposition of the doctrines of Buddhism. • If Tamil reveals a triumph of Brahmanic and Buddhist knowledge, Kannada shows Jain ascendency in its ancient phase. • Malayalam absorbed a rich treasure contained in the Sanskrit language. • Nannaya (A.D.1100) was the first Telugu poet. In ancient times, Tamil and Telugu spread to distant places. • Tamil literature, the obvious choice would be Vaishnava (pertaining to Vishnu) bhakti (devotional) literature. • In Vaishnava bhakti poetry, God descends on this earth as a human being, to share with us our suffereing and turmoil, our happiness and prosperity. • Vaishanava bhakti literature was an all-India phenomenon, which started in the 6th-7th century A.D. in the Tamil-speaking region of South India, with twelve Alvar (one immersed in God) saint-poets, who wrote devotional songs. • The religion of Alvar poets, which included a woman peot, Andal, was devotion to God through love (bhakti), • Devotional songs in praise of the Hindu god Shiva (the worship of Shiva and Vishnu forms the basis of the broad division of Hindus into Shaiva and Vaishnava sects) were also written by Tamil saint poet Nayanar (leader, master) in the 6th-8th Century A.D. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 6
  7. • Medieval Literature • Around 1000 A.D. local differences in Prakrit grew more and more pronounced, which later came to be known as Apabhramsa, and this led to the modern Indian languages taking shape and being born. • These languages, conditioned by the regional, linguistic and ethnic environment, assumed different linguistic characteristics. Constitutionally recognised modern Indian languages and Konkani, Marathi, Sindhi, Gujarati (Western); Manipuri, Bengali, Oriya and Assamese (Eastern); Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada (Southern) and Hindi, Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri, Punjabi, Maithali, Nepali and Sanskrit (Northern). • Two tribal languages, Bodo and Santhali are also recognised by the Constitution. Out of these 22 languages, • Tamil is the oldest modern Indian language maintaining its linguistic character with little change for about 2000 years. • Urdu is the youngest of the modern Indian languages, taking its shape in the 14th century A.D., deriving its script from an Arabic-Persian origin, but vocabulary from Indo-Aryan sources, i.e. Persian and Hindi. • Sanskrit, though the oldest classical language, is still very much in use, and hence is included in the list of modern Indian languages by the Constitution of India. • The most powerful trend of medieval Indian literature between 1000 and 1800 A.D. is devotional (bhakti) poetry which dominates almost all the major languages of the country. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 7
  8. • Kabir (Hindi) says that Sanskrit is like water of a well stagnant, Bhasa like flowing water. • A seventh century Shaiva Tamil writer Manikkarvachakar has something similar to say about in his book of poetry Thiruvachakam. • Devotional literature in Kannada, the Vachanas (sayings) of the various saints of the Krishna, Rama and Shiva cults, is well known. • Basavanna was a famous Kannada poet, a Shiva devotee and a great social reformer. Allama Prabhu (Kannada) wrote great poetry under the garb of religion. • Chronologically, Marathi, the close successor of Kannada, became the next venue for bhakti. Gyaneswar (1275 A.D.) is the first and foremost bhakti poet in Marathi. In his teens (he died at the age of 21) he became famous for his poetic contribution to bhakti for Vithal (Vishnu). Eknath wrote his short poetic narratives and devotional abhangas (a literary form), and after him it was Tukarram (1608-1649 A.D.) whose songs cast a spell all over Maharasthra. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 8
  9. • And then it is Gujarati in the 12th century. Gujarati poets like Narsi Mehta and Premananda occupy a prominent place in the galaxy of the Vaishnava poets. Afterwards, the sequential order is as follows: • Kashmiri, Bengali, Assamese, Manipuri, Oriya, Maithili, Braj, Avadhi (the last three languages come under the umbrella language, Hindi) and other languages of India. • Chandidas, a Bengali poet, is acclaimed as a great genius for the lucidity and sweetness of his poems. Similarly, Vidyapati in Maithili created a new poetic language. • Lal Ded, a Kashmiri Muslim poetess, gave a new dimension to mystical bhakti. Jayadeva, a Sanskrit lyric poet of the 12th century, influenced a large number of devotional Bengali poets like Govinda Das (16th century), Balaram Das and others. • Sri Chaitanya (1486-1533), a great Bengali saint, helped Vaishnavism to turn into a religious and literary movement, made it a living faith and became a source of never- ending inspiration to a host of Bengali poets, including Jiva Goswami. • Sankardev (1449-1568), an Assamese devotional poet, used plays (Ankiya-Nat) and Kirtan (devotional songs) to propagate Vaishnavism and became a legend. • Jagannath Das is a legendary devotional poet in Oriya who wrote Bhagavat (the story of Krishna), which has spiritually united all the people of Orissa and created a living consciousness. • Kabir (Hindi) is the foremost among the poets of the sant tradition (faith in one omnipresent god and not in many gods like Rama and Krishna). Kabir’s poetry touches upon the various aspects of devotion, mysticism and social reforms. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 9
  10. • Surdas, Tulsidas and Meera Bai (15th to 16th Century A.D.) point to the great heights of Vaishnavite lyricism achieved by Hindi. • Tulsidas (1532 A.D.) was the greatest of the Rama-bhakti poets who wrote his famous epic, the Ramacharit Manas (the lake of the deeds of Rama). • In fact, epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata received a rebirth in the new languages. • Kamban in Tamil, • Krittibasa Ojha in Bengali, • sarala Das in Oriya, • Ezhuttacchan in Malayalam, • Tulsidas in Hindi and • Nannaya in Telugu. • The poetry of the Sikh Gurus is collected in the Guru Granth Sahib (the Revered Book R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 10
  11. • Women Poets of Bhakti • Women writers like Ghosha, Lopamudra, Gargi, Maitreyi, Apala, Romasha Brahmavadini, etc., right from the days of the Vedas (6000 B.C. – 4000 B.C.), focused on the image of women in mainstream Sanskrit literature. • The songs of Buddhist nuns (6th century B.C.) like Mutta and Ubbiri and Mettika in Pali express the torment of feelings for the life left behind. • The Alwar women poets (6th century A.D.), like Andal and others, gave expression to their love for the divine. • Lal Ded (1320-1384), the Muslim poetess from Kashmir Lalded & Habba Khatun, represented the sant tradition of bhakti and wrote Vakhs (maxims), which are peerless gems of spiritual experience. • Meera Bai, in Gujarati, Rajasthani and Hindi (she wrote in three languages), • Avvayyar, in Tamil, and Akkamahadevi in Kannada, R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 11
  12. • The Literature of Nationalism, Reformism and Revivalism • Rangalal in Bengali, Mirza Ghalib in Urdu and Bharatendu Harishchandra in Hindi expressed themselves as the patriotic voice of that era. • Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869) wrote ghazals in Urdu • Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824-73) wrote the first modern epic in an Indian language, and naturalised blank verse in Bengali. • Subramania Bharati (1882-1921) was the great Tamil patriot-poet, who revolutionized the poetic tradition in Tamil. • Maithili Saran Gupta (Hindi, 1886-1964), Bhai Vir Singh (Punjabi, 1872- 1957), and others, with the express purpose of fulfilling the needs of the patriotic reader. • The first Tamil novel, Pratap Mudaliyar Charitram (1879) by Samuel V. Pillai, • the first Telugu novel, Sri Ranga Raja Charitra (1872) by Krishnamma Chetty, • and the first Malayalam novel, Indu Lekha (1889) by Chandu Menon • Bengali novel, Phulmani O Karunar Bibaran (1852), by an Englishwoman, H. Catherine Mullens, or the Hindi novel, Pariksha Guru (1882) by Lala Sriniwas Das, R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 12
  13. Role of Tourism • As an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development • Promotes national integration and international understanding and gives support to local handicrafts and cultural activities • Foreign exchange earnings • Domestic tourism plays a vital role in achieving the national objectives of promoting social and cultural cohesion and national integration • Contribution to generation of employment is very high R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 13
  14. Different disciplines to Tourism sociological approach • provided much of the foundation for leisure research • three major thrusts – social surveys(quantitative approach, based on using statistics and mathematical models of human behavior to make predictions about human behavior. This is sometimes called the "surveys and modeling approach) – the way people negotiate their leisure participation in light of their relationships of different types - from personal and social relationships to their relationships with their community and networks at work – critical approach (neo-Marxist approach – act freely, feminist perspective - women response to leisure, postmodernism- role of electronic communications geographic approach, • have been especially interested in the way spaces and landscapes affect people's behavior and their perception of those spaces and landscapes, especially in making choices about their travel behavior. • Geographers also look at the way people use different kinds of leisure facilities, such as national parks, gardens, playgrounds, and sports facilities. 14R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  15. Economic approach • looks at the economic valuation of different kinds of recreational and leisure facilities, such as outdoor recreation areas and arts facilities. • One way researchers using the economic approach have measured results is by doing a cost-benefits analysis to examine the costs and benefits of particular facilities and programs to the public. • Then, too, these researchers have examined the way pricing different leisure activities has affected demand, and the researchers have done demand forecasting studies in tourism to examine how much consumers are likely to spend on leisure activities in a particular location. Psychology approach • looks at the satisfactions people obtain from their leisure, their motivations leading them to participate in a particular form of leisure, how their relationships with others influences their participation, and how their perceptions affect their involvement in leisure activities. • In particular, these researchers do research in four main areas: motivation and needs, satisfactions, the leisure state of mind, and the way personal characteristics, such as gender, age, culture, and personality affect leisure participation. • They typically use self-completion questionnaires to survey subjects, such as tourists and students 15R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University
  16. Historical approach • looks at historical trends in leisure and tourism, particularly in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Anthropological approach • has primarily looked at the effect of tourism on indigenous cultures. Political science approach • involves examining the politics of making decisions about leisure activities in a particular locale. • This approach has also considered the way tourism affects political behavior. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 16
  17. Tourism demand • Tourism demand is the ‘total number of persons who travel or wish to travel, to use tourist facilities and services at places away from their places of work and residence.’ • The demand for engaging in tourism depends on different factors from his/her personal side or from the supply side. The person may be motivated to travel, but the ability to do so will depend on various factors. Such factors can be called as determinants of demand for tourism and they are present in the living environment of the person and also present in the destination environment. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 17
  18. Cooper classification of demand Life cycle determinants Domestic Age  Adolescence/young adult  Marriage  Retirement Attitude  Perception  Images  Motivators Wanderlust Sun lust Status/prestige and people • Life style determinants  Income Gross income Disposable income Discretionary income  Employment  Paid-holiday entitlement  Other factors Education Technology Mobility R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 18
  19. Other determinants of tourism demand and travel propensity Level of urbanization Economic development Political Factors Technological factors The importance of measurement of demand. To assess the contribution of tourism to the local economy To assist area development policies & planning For marketing and Promotion For understanding the trends • MEASURING DEMAND FOR TOURISM – The visitor arrival figures, – Visitor days/nights and – The amounts spent. • Tourism is an unobtainable luxury for majority - 5 major reasons – Expense of travel – Lack of time – Physical limitations – Family circumstances – Lack of interest R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 19
  20. Economic determinants influencing Tourism • Per capita income • Economical status • Social – cultural factors • Levels of infrastructure • Human Capital • Development of Technology • Commodity Prices • Political Instability R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 20
  21. Importance of Tourism in Mountain areas • Tourism revenues have become a primary source of income for many mountain communities • Lack of other sources like agriculture, Industries etc • 50 million people visit mountains each year • many forms of recreation available in mountainous terrain • The clean, cool air and awe-inspiring scenery of mountain areas, combined with the unique customs, arts, crafts and culinary traditions of the communities that live there, make trips to the mountains attractive holiday options • Sport-based tourism in particular has boomed in mountain regions • tourism boom has undoubtedly brought benefits to many of the world’s mountain regions • economically disadvantaged, can aspire to greatly improved living standards • Mountain tourism has given young men and women the option of building a future in their home community, instead of becoming part of the rural exodus to cities. • The influx of visitors has also created a market for products made by local crafts workers, as well as for produce from the land. • will help communities gain a niche in an increasingly competitive market • Ecotourism can help reduce poverty and hunger, a key issue in mountain areas where a high proportion of the world’s poor and food-insecure live. It also has considerable potential for strengthening communities and for protecting mountain ecosystems R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 21
  22. Development of Tourism in Himalayas • The Himalaya has for centuries caught the imagination of travelers • known for its breathtaking natural beauty and is in habited by 210 million people with a uniquely rich cultural diversity • it is also one of the poorest regions in the world. • tourism is one of the more promising strategies to address these serious poverty concerns, creating innovative livelihood options • Poverty is even a more pronounced problem in mountain areas, because of particular mountain ‘specifities’ such as poor accessibility, fragility, marginality and a relative sparse population • population in the Himalaya lives in poverty (between 47% and 83%), with between 17% and 36% living in absolute poverty • In South Asia alone, more than 75% of mountain women fall below the poverty line • giving birth to for instance the popular Indian tourism state of Uttarakhand and its tourism • Himalaya region are facing frequent natural hazards, degradation of resources, malnutrition, or food insecurity • First of all, tourism demand is growing explosively. • Secondly, tourism, if developed right – that is to say: with a responsible, pro- poor and equitable approach, has an obvious poverty reduction • yield high levels of employment and income • relatively powerful consumers to Southern countries • tourism industry has a higher multiplier and positive spillover effect than other economic sectors R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 22
  23. Branding of Hotels • Brand named hotels fare better than independently operated properties in economic downturns • during both economic recessions brand named hotels are more profitable than independent hotels under all economic conditions • a hotel's average occupancy percentage, the average price paid for a room, revenue per available room and net operating income -- that measure the financial performance of hotel is more in Branded hotel • There is always 5-7% difference between the branded hotels and independent hotels • Net operating income of branded hotels is always is very high • one area where independent hotels outperform branded hotels is in the revenue per available room category • large marketing campaigns, the global distribution systems of hotel chains offer centralized reservation systems, guest loyalty programs and access through online travel agencies, such as Expedia.com and Travelocity.com • dependable service and experience • "In bad economic times, people return to the security of brands." R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 23
  24. MNCs in Tourism and scenario • wide network of branches and subsidiaries spread over a number of countries • their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies • may enter into joint venture with a company in another country • cover not only the advanced countries but also the LDCs • great impact on the development process of the Underdeveloped countries The positive role • 1. Filling Savings Gap • 2. Filling Trade Gap • 3. Filling Revenue Gap • 4. Filling Management/Technological Gap • 5.Other Beneficial Roles – domestic labour – high wages – consumers benefits –low prices – induce more domestic investment – expenditures on research and development(R&D) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 24
  25. The negative role • lower domestic savings and investment rates by stifling competition • often fail to reinvest much of their profits • long-run impact may reduce foreign exchange earnings on both current and capital accounts • contribution to tax is less because of liberal tax concessions, excessive investment allowances, subsidies and tariff protection • management, entrepreneurial skills, technology, and overseas contacts provided by the MNCs may have little impact on developing local skills and resources • tend to promote the interests of some few modern-sector workers only • Production is done with capital- intensive technique which is not useful for labour surplus economies. This would aggravate the unemployment problem in the host country • they do not engage in R & D activities in underdeveloped countries • often use their economic power to influence government policies in directions unfavorable to development • damage the host countries by suppressing domestic entrepreneurship • inhibit the emergence of small- scale enterprises. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 25
  26. Role of private in Domestic air transportation • Of a total number of 454 airports and airstrips in India, 16 are designated as international airports. • The Airports Authority of India (AAI) owns and operates 97 airports. A recent report by Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA), Over the next 12 years, India's Civil Aviation Ministry aims at 500 operational airports. • The Government aims to attract private investment in aviation infrastructure. • India has been witnessing a very strong phase of development in the past few months. • Many domestic as well as international players are showing interest in the growth and development of the aviation sector with immense focus on the development of the airports. • Indian private airlines Jet, Sahara, Kingfisher, Deccan, Spicejet - account for around 60% of the domestic passenger traffic. • Some have now started international flights. For the next years to come India is poised with strong focus on the development of its airport to meet the international standards. • The government is planning modernization of the airports to establish a standard. The newly developed airports will help releasing pressure on the existing airport in the country. • policy of open skies paved way for private airlines that started to fly internationally • High demand for investments in aviation infrastructure R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 26
  27. Role of National Tourism organizations • Ministry of Tourism • Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management • National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology • India Tourism Development Corporation Limited • Indian Institute of Skiing and Mountaineering • National Institute of Water Sports • formulation and implementation of policies and programmes for the development of tourism • for attracting foreign tourists to India by way of developing tourism infrastructure, publicity and promotion, dissemination of information, co-ordination and supervision of activities of various segments of industry such as hotels, travel agencies, tour operators, etc • 20 field offices of the Ministry of Tourism in India and 13 in other countries to undertake both developmental and promotional activities R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 27
  28. • overseas offices are in constant contact with tourists, travel intermediaries and media to promote tourism in India • field offices in India provide facilitation services to tourists and co-ordinate with the State Governments on tourism infrastructural development • The main objectives of the overseas tourist offices are to position India in the tourism generating markets as a preferred tourism destination, to promote various Indian tourism products vis-a-vis competition faced from various destinations and to increase India's share of the global tourism market • These objectives are met through an integrated marketing strategy and synergised promotional activities undertaken in association with the Travel Trade and State • Ashok International Trade Division of ITDC offers world class duty free shopping facilities to international travellers at its 38 outlets, earning crucial foreign exchange for the country and showcasing Indian products to the world • The Ashok Travels and Tours (ATT) • The Ashok Reservation and Marketing Services (ARMS) • The Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism Management (AIH&TM) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 28
  29. Guidelines of ITDC Travel Agency • encourage quality standard and service • recognition granted by the Ministry of Tourism (MOT) • renewal / extension, thereafter, shall be granted for five years after Inspection conducted by a Committee comprising the concerned RD and a member of TAAI • documents scrutiny in all respects would be acknowledged by the Travel Trade Division (TT Division) in the MOT in respect of first approval • minimum Paid up Capital or (Capital employed) of Rs.3.00 lakh duly supported by the Audited Balance Sheet / Certificate of Statutory Auditor of the firm • approved by International Air Transport Association (IATA) or should be General Sales Agent (GSA) / Passenger Sales Agent (PSA) of an IATA • been in operation for a minimum period of one year before the date of application. • minimum office space should be at least 150 sq. ft for rest of India and 100 sq. ft for hilly areas which are above 1000 meters from sea level • TA should be under the charge of the Owner or a full time member • minimum of four qualified staff out of which at least one should have Diploma / Degree in Tourism & Travel Management from a recognized University • North – Eastern region, remote and rural areas, there should be a minimum of two staff out of which one should be a qualified employee • TA should be an income-tax assessee • monuments protected under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites & Remains Act, 1958 • For outsourcing approving is needed • pay a non-refundable fee of Rs.3, 000/- while applying for the recognition and renewal of Head Office as well as each Branch Office • Code of Conduct for “Safe & Honourable Tourism” • recognition / renewal would be granted to the Head Office of the TA • mandatory for an approved TA to prominently display the Certificate of approval of recognition / renewal or extension given by MOT • inbound tour operations only during the preceding financial year or calendar year should be a minimum of Rs. 25.00 lakh for rest of India and Rs. 5.00 lakh for the North – Eastern region R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 29
  30. Incredible India BrandBACKGROUND • Nation branding is an important and vital concept in today’s era of global village. • Countries compete with each other to attract the attention, respect and trust of tourists, investors, donors, business delegates, media, and the governments of other nations. • Prior to 2002, the promotion of India as a brand used to be managed in a fragmented manner by various forums and delegates at Indian tourist offices located globally. • The campaigns lacked consistency, and required a single, unified strategy to promote India as a brand. • Against this backdrop, the Tourism Department of India engaged different agencies to create an international campaign. • For the print campaign Ogilvy & Mather (O&M); for television commercials and for handling the media account Enterprise Nexus; for creating an Internet presence WPP Group’s Maximize India; and for Web site creation Grey Interactive, were roped in. • The Incredible India campaign was launched with a lot of fanfare in September 2002 with the intention of promoting Indian tourism globally. • The Experience India Society (an association of hoteliers, tour operators and officials of Ministry of Tourism) and the Government of India jointly funded the first phase of the campaign spanning an initial three months. • Global attention was captured by telecasting the campaign over CNN, the BBC and other popular television channels across the world. • The focus of the campaign was on showcasing characteristic Indian features such as Ayurveda, yoga, wildlife and the Himalayas, through print and web media. BRAND MISSION To project India as a unique opportunity for physical invigoration, mental rejuvenation, cultural enrichment and spiritual elevation, along with other developments that make India a modern state with a state-of-the-art infrastructure. BRAND—INCREDIBLE INDIA! The three distinctive aspects of the campaign were: – Showcasing India as an incredible mix of diversity, culture, beautiful people and great destinations. – Communicating the spiritual flavour that India offers, and that no other country can. – Educating the rest of the world about the history of India, where one of the great civilizations originated. BRAND COMMUNICATION • Television commercials as well as print advertisements directed every prospective tourist to the Web site www.incredibleindia.org. The final decision taken by tourists is not an impulsive one. They generally take time, weighing different options, and then choose a destination. Hence, the site had to be an attractive one and moreover, a functional Web site, where tourists could plan their trips, book tickets and hotels, and check out the different available programmes. • The Web site which had catered to Indian tourism earlier, www.tourismofindia.com, was attractive at first glance, but with hastily collected information that, by no stretch of imagination, could be considered concise. It had no media room, a video segment that did not work R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 30
  31. Experiencing the brand to experience India • The brand was projected in an aesthetic and pleasing manner so that every visitor to the Web site would want to experience the thrill and magic of visiting India. • Beautiful images of various parts of the country, people engaged in different activities, colourful local festivals, were projected to arouse in visitors a deep desire to have a hands-on experience of India. INCEPTION OF THE CAMPAIGN • Travel and tourism is the most online researched product. Hence, the Ministry of Tourism conducted a thorough review before creating and launching the Incredible India campaign. The research focused on identifying the information needs of the traveller—the various online tools used to obtain information; the times of the year when travellers come to India from different parts of the world; and the duration of the time spent in India. • The brand strategy was devised in order to maximize the results of the campaign. The online path was chosen for this brand. Hence, leading travel portals, travel sections in newspapers and magazines, online and offline travel agents, and leading search engines were identified. Following this research, the brand ‘Incredible India’ was launched in March 2002. • Journey of the brand by different packages on the website • Online 360’ approach and adding features like plan your trip • Other Innovations – Image gallery – Destination of the month – Innovative dynamic HTML (DHTML) creatives – Association with cricket (cricket-related sites like www.cricinfo.com were also used for advertising. • ISSUES – Every country needs a ‘personality’ with which it can be associated, a ‘branding’ that can help it compete successfully for international business. So we have the crisis management strategy of ‘Singapore Roars’, ‘Malaysia Truly Asia’, ‘100% Pure New Zealand’, ‘Amazing Thailand’, and our very own ‘God’s Own Country’ and ‘Incredible India’. – A branding programme should address many more issues that go beyond a good logo and a great campaign with haunting music. – It is the culmination of everything you do that will impress in the mind of your customer an image of who you are and what it is that sets you apart. – Branding does not stop at a creative campaign that can go on forever, particularly with cash- strapped tourism budgets like ours. – Branding has to deliver what it sets out to do— get more revenues through visitors from the segment that it was aimed at, consistently over a sustained period. – Thus, as a tourism brand, should India be arrogant enough to assume it is ‘incredible’ R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 31
  32. Effective marketing of Events ultimate event promotion strategy is to find “a starving crowd.” – 1. Create Your Marketing Plan & Follow It • Mail • Newsletter • Telephone • E-mail • Live announcements • Companywide voicemail • ƒVerbal meeting announcement • Fax – 2. Secure an Accurate Prospect List – 3. Create a Winning Marketing Piece • remember to truly follow these three key marketing elements, – your event will be“destined for greatness.” – Remember…stay organized, – maximize your contacts, create a winning marketing piece – and follow your plan! R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 32
  33. IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organisation) • In 1925, the International Corporation in tourism development had its beginning. The conference took place in London in Oct, 1946 and in 1947. IUOTO was founded. This organisation represented over 100 National tourist offices of various countries as full members and 88 National & International members as associates. IUOTO was only organisation which grouped together the Governmental/private tourist organizations all over the world. Organizational Structure • General Assembly, Executive Committee, Regional Commission, Technical Committee for Program & Coordination, Africa Sub Committee for facilitation, America Sub Committee of Finance, South Asia Europe Middle East Pacific and East Asia Secretariat General The general Committee: - These are consists of full and associate members. It met once a year. It elected President and Vice-President of the IUOTO. Executive Committee: - The Executive committee consists of 18 full members representing various geographical areas. Technical Committees: - It had following committees: 1. Committee on elimination of travel barriers. 2. Research committee to study international travel statistics. 3. Committee on travel department offered to members. 4. Transport committee in the field of rail, road, and sea and air transportation. Secretariat General: - It was located in Geneva. It maintains contact with other continental organisation produces various IUOTO publications and functioning of Tourism Development Committees. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 33
  34. Tourism Finance corporation of India • The Government of India had, pursuant to the recommendations of the National Committee on Tourism viz Yunus Committee set up under the aegis of Planning Commission, decided in 1988, to promote a separate All-India Financial Institution for providing financial assistance to tourism- related activities/projects. In accordance with the above decision, the IFCI Ltd. along with other All-India Financial/Investment Institutions and Nationalised Banks promoted a Public Limited Company under the name of "Tourism Finance Corporation of India Ltd. (TFCI)" to function as a specialised All-India Development Financial Institution to cater to the financial needs of tourism industry. TFCI was incorporated as a Public Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956 on 27th January 1989 and became operational with effect from 1st February 1989 on receipt of Certificate of the Commencement of Business from the Registrar of Companies. TFCI has been notified as a Public Financial Institution under section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956, vide Notification No S.O 7(E) dated the 3rd January 1990 issued by the Ministry of Industry, Department of Company Affairs. TFCI's Registered office is situated at 13th Floor, IFCI Tower, 61, Nehru Place, New Delhi - 110 019. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 34
  35. • Objective TFCI provides financial assistance to enterprises for setting up and/or development of tourism- related projects, facilities and services, such as: • Hotels, Restaurants, Holiday Resorts, Amusement Parks, Multiplexes and Entertainment Centers, Education and Sports, Safari Parks, Rope-ways, Cultural Centers, Convention Halls, Transport, Travel and Tour Operating Agencies, Air Service, Tourism Emporia, Sports Facilities etc. • Forms of Financial Assistance Rupee Loan , Underwriting of public issues of shares/debentures and direct subscription to such securities, Guarantee of deferred payments and credit raised abroad., Equipment Finance, Equipment Leasing, Assistance under Suppliers' Credit. Working-Capital Financing, Takeover Financing, Advances Against Credit-Card Receivables • Eligibility for AssistanceTFCI provides financial assistance to projects with capital cost of Rs. 3 crore and above. In respect of projects costing between Rs. 1 crore and Rs. 3 crore, TFCI will consider financial assistance to the extent of unavoidable gap, if any, remaining after taking into account assistance from State Level Institutions/Banks. Unique projects, which are important from the tourism point of view and for which assistance from State Level institutions/ Banks is not available, may be considered on exceptional basis even though their capital cost is below Rs. 1 crore. Financial assistance is considered on similar lines for heritage and restaurant projects. Projects with high capital cost may be financed along with other All-India Financial/Investment Institutions. TFCI considers assistance even if the total cost is less than Rs. 3 crore for existing concerns with satisfactory performance for renovation/upgradation etc. track record of atleast 3 years and assisted concerns of TFCI with satisfactory credit record. The working capital limit would be calculated based on the turnover method as may be considered appropriate. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 35
  36. Promoters' Contribution • The minimum promoters' contribution for the projects is 30%. Relaxation may, however, be allowed in respect of large projects involving capital cost exceeding Rs. 50 crore. Debt Equity Ratio • TFCI extends term-loan assistance based on debt-equity ratio not exceeding 1.5:1. However, in case of hotels in seasonal locations/ multiplexes/ entertainment centers, amusement parks and other tourism- related projects, the debt-equity ratio would be stipulated in the range of 1:1 to 1.25:1. Rate of Interest • Interest on loan is flexible and linked to the PLR of TFCI which is presently 12.5% p.a. (since 1st August 2008). TFCI, while considering loans to the borrowers, evaluates each concern individually on various parameters such as Industry/ Business Risk, Environmental Risk, Project Risk, Management Risk, Security available, Income value to TFCI, etc. and accords rating ranging from AAA to B category. Loan is priced according to the prevalent PLR and the rating so achieved by the individual client within a spread ranging from PLR to PLR+1.5% per annum. High Risk Projects are charged interest at PLR+3% per annum. Interest is levied on monthly rests. In case of consortium/ multiple funding, if higher rate is charged by any other institution than the same rate is applicable to TFCI loan also. Besides, TFCI also charges appraisal-cum- up front fee @ 1% of the loan amount sanctioned as one time charge. Security • First charge on movable and immovable fixed assets. Personal Guarantees of the Promoters and Corporate guarantee of the group concern, if necessary. Pledge of promoters' share-holding. Repayment Schedule • This would depend on the period required for completion of the project and stabilisation of operations as also the projected cash-flows available for debt-servicing. The general norm of repayment is 8 years allowing moratorium of 2 years after full commercial operations. In case of multiplexes/ entertainment centers the cash-flows in the initial years are satisfactory; as such, the repayment of the loans to this sector could be made in 6-7 years allowing moratorium of 1-1½ years after full commercial operations. Norms for Takeover Financing • TFCI may consider financing well-established, assisted concerns having over 3 years' satisfactory track record for takeover of tourism-related project/company. Norms for Working-Capital Financing • The Working Capital assistance would be provided to concerns in the tourism sector with proven R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 36
  37. Hotel meal plan • The American Plan (also listed as “AP”) means that the quoted rate includes three meals a day, i.e. breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The meals are provided by the hotel kitchen. Mostly, hotels in a remote location where there are not many restaurants — or none at all — need to stay at a hotel that offers an American plan. • The Modified American Plan (also listed as “MAP”) means that the quoted rate includes two meals a day, including breakfast and either lunch or dinner. Travelers choosing a hotel in a remote location where there are not many restaurants — or none at all — need to stay at a hotel that offers at least a Modified American plan. • The Continental Plan (also listed as “CP”), means that the quoted rate includes a continental breakfast, which is consists of coffee or tea, juice, and bread. Travelers can have different options of bread like loaf, croissants, scones, and muffins. The breakfast does not include cooked foods, such as pancakes or eggs. Breakfast is self-serve and a waiter will be available to pour and refill beverages. • The European Plan (also listed as “EP”), means that the quoted rate does not include any meals and is strictly for lodging and. The property owner will charge for the food separately. The advantage is that travelers is free to try a variety of restaurant experiences, and can often save money by eating at establishments that charge less. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 37
  38. The Importance Of Hotels And Accommodation In Promoting Tourism • In the modern times, the way people spend their vacations has undergone a great change. People like to spend good times with family and friend while at the same time exploring various tourist places across the globe. • As a result the tourism industry across the globe has seen an unprecedented growth which in turn has also resulted in tremendous growth in the hotel and accommodation facilities. • Comfortable hotels and accommodation facilities play a very important role in popularizing any tourist destination. If a person, who is quite far away from home, gets to enjoy the same facilities and comforts as he enjoys at his home, then he is bound to become attached to the place. • On the other hand if the tourist ends up at a place where the hotels and accommodation facilities are not satisfactory, it is quite likely that he might never return to that place. Perhaps that is why, hotels and accommodation facilities being made available at different tourists spots, have shifted focus on providing maximum comfort to tourists at reasonable rates. • It is also vital to provide comfortable accommodation to people from diverse economical backgrounds. While five star hotels can cater to the needs of affluent visitors, small and medium range hotels and lodging houses are available for use by a middle class traveler. • Blog reviews are also vital that information about all the hotels and accommodation facilities available in a particular tourism spot is available to people quite easily. • For this there can be no better option than internet, as most tourist gain information about the hotels and accommodation facilities through this medium only. • The other ways are by making booklets containing information about the hotels and accommodation facilities available at train and bus stations. • The information provided to the tourists should be detailed and correct. It should contain the information related to room rentals, types of rooms, catering services, check out times, pick and drop facilities etc. • Additional information about the significant tourist spots in the area can also be provided both on the net as well as the booklets, to promote not only the hotel but the tourist spot as well. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 38
  39. INDIA LAND ENTRY POSTS from Nepal (from North part/ North Border) – The border crossings are (India/Nepal side) Sunauli/Bhairawa from Varanasi, Raxaul/Birganj from Kolkata, Kakarbhitta from Darjeeling, and Mahendrenagar-Banbassa from Delhi. – Now direct deluxe bus services is available from Pokhara Nepal. from Bhutan – The Royal Bhutanese Government runs a service to/from Phuentsholing. from Pakistan – From Pakistan the only land crossing is from Lahore to Amritsar via the Attari/Wagah border crossing. from Bangladesh – The most common way is the regular air-conditioned and comfortable bus services from Dhaka to Kolkata via Haridaspur (India)/Benapole (Bangladesh) border post. from Burma(Myanmar) tamu – Another daily bus service by 'Shyamoli' and others under the BRTC label from Dhaka connects Siliguri, but the buses in this route do not cross the Changrabanda/Burimari or Burungamari border post. – Other entry points from Bangladesh are Hili, Chilahati/Haldibari, Banglaband border posts for entry to West Bengal; Tamabil border post for a route to Shillong in Meghalaya, and some others with lesser known routes to north-eastern Indian regions. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 39
  40. • Time variation between two Longitudes – 360/24 hours = 15 degrees – 60 min/15degrees = 4minutes • ACCULTURATION – Acculturation is a process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. • Intercultural competence – Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. • Cultural assimilation – is a socio-political response to demographic multi- ethnicity that supports or promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture. • Creolization – is a concept that refers to the process in which new African American cultures emerge in the New World • Colonization (or colonisation) – occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area. • Enculturation – is the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in that culture. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 40
  41. • Xenophobia is defined as "an unreasonable fear of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange". • Xenophily or xenophilia m eans an affection for unknown objects or peoples. • Nativism(politics) or politic al nativism, a term used by scholars to refer to ethnocentric beliefs relating to immigration and nationalism; antiforeignism • Ethnocentrism is making value judgments about another culture from perspectives of one's own cultural system. • Xenocentrism is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 41
  42. Scientific Management • Scientific management, also called Taylorism, • was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. • Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. • It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. • Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. • Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; by the 1920s, it was still influential but had begun an era of competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas. • Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts ofindustrial engineering and management today. • These include analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake or merely to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation of craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer between workers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 42
  43. Profitability index (PI), • also known as profit investment ratio (PIR) and value investment ratio (VIR), is the ratio of payoff to investment of a proposed project. • It is a useful tool for ranking projects because it allows you to quantify the amount of value created per unit of investment. • The ratio is calculated as follows: R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 43
  44. • Dvaita • also known as Bheda-vāda, Tattva- vāda and Bimba-pratibimba-vāda) is a school of Vedanta founded byShri Madhvacharya. • Dvaita stresses a strict distinction between God--the Supreme- Soul (paramaatma ) and the individual souls of beings, jiivatma According to Madhvacharya, the individual souls of beings are not 'created' by God but do, nonetheless, depend on Him for their existence. • Madhvācārya (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavāda "Philosophy of Reality", popularly known as the Dvaita school of Hindu philosophy. • It is one of the three most influential Vedānta philosophies. • Madhvācārya was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti movement. • He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvācārya is believed to be the third incarnation of Vāyu (Mukhyaprāṇa), after Hanumān and Bhīma • Advaita Vedanta • is considered to be the most influential and most dominant sub-school of the Vedānta school of Hindu philosophy • Other major sub-schools of Vedānta are Dvaita and Viśishṭādvait a; • while the minor ones include Suddhadvaita, Dvaitadvaita and Achinty a Bhedabheda • . Advaita (literally, non-duality) is a system of thought where "Advaita" refers to the identity of the Self (Atman) and the Whole (Brahman) • The key source texts for all schools of Vedānta are the Prasthanatrayi—the canonical texts consisting of the Upanishads, theBhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras. • The first person to explicitly consolidate the principles of Advaita Vedanta was Adi Shankara, while the first historical proponent was Gaudapada, the guru of Shankara's guru Govinda Bhagavatpada. • 788 CE - 820 CE, palady, kerala R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 44
  45. Nimbarka • for propagating the VaishnavaTheology of Dvaitadvaita, duality in unity. • According to scholars headed by Prof. Roma Bose, he lived in the 13th Century, on the assumption that Śrī Nimbārkācārya was the author of the work Madhvamukhamardana. • According to Nimbārka Sampradāya however, Śrī Nimbārkācārya appeared over 5000 years ago, in the year 3096 BCE at the time when the grandson of Arjuna was on the throne. • He hailed from the present-day Andhra Pradesh, Ramanuja • traditionally 1017–1137, also known as Ramanujacharya, was a theologian, philosopher and scriptural exegete. He is seen by Śrīvaiṣṇavas as the third and most important teacher (ācārya) of their tradition (after Nathamuni and Yamunacharya), and by Hindus in general as the leading expounder of Viśiṣṭādvaita, one of the classical interpretations of the dominant Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy Shuddadvaita • is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabhacharya(1479-1531 CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabh") or Puśtimārg ("The path of grace"), a Hindu Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna. • Vallabhacharya's pure form (nondualist) philosophy is different from Advaita. • The Shrinathji temple at Nathdwara, and compositions of eight poets (aṣṭachap), including Surdas, are central to the worship by the followers of the sect. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 45
  46. South Indian Dynasties • There were several significant rulers and dynasties in southern Indian history. Dynasties such as – Cheras, – Cholas, – Pallavas, – Pandyas, – the Satavahanas of Amaravati, – Kadambas of Banavasi, – Western Ganga Dynasty, – Chalukya dynasty of Badami, – Western Chalukyas, – Eastern Chalukya, – Hoysalas, – Kakatiya dynasty, and – Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha have ruled over South India. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 46
  47. Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainability in Tourism • Mission Statement “To promote and support sustainable tourism development through the representation, promotion and mutual co-operation of international, national and regional certification schemes and other voluntary initiatives for sustainable tourism at an international level.” VISIT stands for “Voluntary Initiative for Sustainability in Tourism”, and was created within the frame of an EU funded LIFE project in tourism eco-labelling. The name outlines the concept of the organisation: a positive collaboration between distinct initiatives working towards achieving sustainability in tourism. The Association was established in 2004 at REISEPAVILLON, Europe’s leading Green and Ecotourism Fair. This was the culmination of ongoing liaison and co-operation between a dozen leading tourism eco-labels from 2001 onwards. Seven of these labels (based in the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Latvia, United Kingdom, Switzerland and Luxembourg) founded the organisation together they represent over 2,000 participating tourism enterprises. Other organisations involved with and interested in sustainable tourism may join the organisation as associate members, these include ecolabels working towards full membership such as Ecocamping and professional bodies involved in research and development in sustainable tourism such as Ecotrans. For further information on joining VISIT as a Full member ecolabel or as an Associate please contact the VISIT secretary at the address below or download the relevant forms on other pages on this site. The alliance between the labels within VISIT is based on mutual understanding and recognition and the agreement to adopt a common standard. This standard sets the framework by which credible tourism eco- labels should operate in Europe. This ensures the consumer has a reliable and responsible tourism choice and an indication that there are efforts to improve the destination towards more sustainability. VISIT is the first association of its type anywhere in Europe and its primary goal is to ensure that eco- labelling in tourism is successful, practical and responsible. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 47
  48. Volunteer travel • Volunteer travel, volunteer vacations, voluntourism, or vacanteerism • is travel which includes volunteering for a charitable cause. In recent years, "bite- sized" volunteer vacations have grown in popularity. The types of volunteer vacations are diverse, from low-skill work cleaning up local wildlife areas to providing high-skill medical aid in a foreign country. Volunteer vacations participants are diverse but typically share a desire to “do something good” while also experiencing new places and challenges in locales they might not otherwise visit. • There are also other types of traveling that engage people with scientific research and education to promote the understanding and action necessary for a sustainable environment. Participants cover a fee that would include expenses on the different sites worldwide, and engage in projects according to their interest or location. • Regulatory aspects of hotel – Engineering and Environment Committee – Loss Prevention Committee – Risk Management Committee R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 48
  49. Marketing Plan for Airlines • Situation Analysis Market Summary SWOT Analysis Competition Product Offering Keys to Success Critical Issues Historical Results Macroenvironment Marketing Strategy Marketing Objectives Financial Objectives Target Markets Positioning Break-even Analysis Sales Forecast Controls Implementation Contingency Planning R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 49
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  51. • Concepts of Tourism and Tourists Why people travel real or perceived need to escape from the routine situations of home, work and familiarity of physical or social environments Reasons people travel desire to escape the mundane pursue relaxation and recuperation opportunity for play strengthen family bonds prestige of destination social interaction education wish fulfillment shopping Tourist behaviour reveals tourist motivations Graburn’s “tourist inversions” shifts in behavior away from the norm towards a temporary opposite Think about your last vacation - what did you do that was completely different from your usual life? R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 51
  52. • Tourist Inversions Dimension: Environment Continua: Winter vs. Summer, cold vs. warmth, crowds vs. isolation, modern vs. ancient, home vs. foreign Climate and opportunities for activities such as skiing, swimming • Tourist Inversions Dimension: Lifestyle Continua: Thrift vs. indulgence, affluence vs. simplicity, work vs. leisure Expenditure increased on events or purchases • Tourist Inversions Dimension: Formality Continua: Rigid vs. flexible, formal vs. informal, restriction vs. license Dress codes, social behaviors and routines replaced • Tourist Inversions Dimension: Health Continua: Gluttony vs. diet, stress vs. tranquility, sloth vs. exercise, age vs. rejuvenation Increased consumption, relaxation as relief from routine stress and active holidays as alternative to sedentary daily lives Applying Graburn’s Inversions only some dimensions will be subject to reversal in any one trip explains why same people take different trips at different times of the year to different places but there are also different degrees of departure from the norm, not explained R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 52
  53. • Push-Pull Effect Iso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourism Escape from routine environments (Push) Rewards from the environments visited (Pull) Personal Characteristics of Tourists Plog’s psychographic profile populations arranged along a personality continuum Psychocentrics - self-inhibited, non-adventurous Allocentrics - confident, naturally adventurous, seek variety and experience Tourist Choices However, Plog’s model does not explain extrinsic and intrinsic motivations (caused by external circumstances or internal characteristics) Pearce suggests people have a “travel career” where they change “levels” during their lives changes may be prevented by money, health or other people R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 53
  54. • Tourism Typologies many tendencies exist simultaneously types of tourist however show that some tend to occur together allow us recognize different types of tourism (e.g. business tourism) anticipate motives and the impact on structural elements (e.g. hotels Organized Mass Tourists: package holiday with little contact with host community • Individual Mass Tourists: like organized mass tourist but wishes to visit sites not covered in packages • Explorers: arrange travel independently and want to experience the social and cultural life of the destination • Drifters: wants no contact with other tourists and seeks to live with the host community • Points about conceptual models Remember, all of these factors occur to a great or lesser degree • Push-Pull, psychological preferences and aging factors occur simultaneously Although can explain much about tourism and leisure, are too general to specifically predict patterns of consumption Conclusions - People’s motivations change over their lifetimes at different times of the year due to extrinsic factors (such as money and other people) and intrinsic factors (such as personality types) R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 54
  55. • The Grand Tour • was a circuit of Europe undertaken by the wealthy, for reasons which included culture, education, health and pleasure. • Principally centred on France,Italy and Germany, some tours also extended to Spain, Portugal and Greece. • The dominant nationality on the Grand Tour was the British, but there were also significant numbers of French, German and Russian participants. • Grand Touring developed in the sixteenth century, reached its zenith in the eighteenth century and survived in modified form into the nineteenth century. • A tour could last from anywhere between two to eight years. • Ethnic Tourism • Ethnic tourism is "travel motivated by search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and /or cultural background is different from the tourists". Ethnic tourists are driven by the desire to see something different where curiosity is the ultimate factor. The travelers choose to experience first hand the practices of another culture, and may involve performances, presentations and attractions portraying or presented by indigenous communities. In a broader perspective, it includes cultural, heritage, anthropological, tribal, village and similar forms of tourism. Ethnic tourism, if properly planned and managed, can be promoted as sustainable form of tourism and can be utilized as a tool for the preservation and conservation of culture and heritage as well as poverty alleviation. India, rich with its cultural diversity, grand heritage and inimitable history, is a world famous cultural tourism destination. The focal point of India's attractiveness as a destination is it's diverse ethnicity. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 55
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  62. Relationship Marketing • Relationship marketing is not about having a "buddy-buddy" relationship with your customers. Customers do not want that. Relationship Marketing uses the event-driven tactics of customer retention marketing, but treats marketing as a process over timerather than single unconnected events. By molding the marketing message and tactics to the LifeCycle of the customer, the Relationship Marketing approach achieves very high customer satisfaction and is highly profitable. • The relationship marketing process is usually defined as a series of stages, and there are many different names given to these stages, depending on the marketing perspective and the type of business. For example, working from the relationship beginning to the end: – Interaction > Communication > Valuation > Termination – Awareness > Comparison > Transaction > Reinforcement > Advocacy – Suspect > Prospect > Customer > Partner > Advocate > Former Customer • Using the relationship marketing approach, you customize programs for individual consumer groups and the stage of the process they are going through as opposed to some forms of database marketing where everybody would get virtually the same promotions, with perhaps a change in offer. The stage in the customer LifeCycle determines the marketing approach used with the customer. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 62
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  64. Semantic barriers of communication for Tourism • Lack of common language • Poor vocabulary • Use of jargons • Poor grammar, punctuation • Round about verbiage • Lack of clarity in the message R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 64
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  67. Negative impacts of mass tourism • Resources scarcity • Depletion of tourism attractions • Sexual abuse • Displacement • Erosion of local cultures R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 67
  68. National Rail Museum is a museum in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi which focuses on the rail heritage of India it opened on the 1 February, 1977 Fairy Queen: Fairy Queen is the oldest running steam locomotive in the world. It was built in 1855. • Gandhola Monastery, Lahaul, H.P. • Key Monastery, Spiti, Himachal Pradesh. • Tabo Monastery, Spiti, Himachal Pradesh • Auli, (alt. 2915 mts-3049 mts ) is an important ski destination in the Himalayan mountains of Uttarakhand, India. Auli is known as 'Bugyal' in the regional language which means meadow. • Bir in kangra valley, ski destination • Since 1994, PATA has operated Green Leaf, an environmental awareness programme for the Pacific Asia region. TGV prototypes evolved into electric trains with the petrol crisis of 1973. Following the inaugural TGV service between Paris and Lyon in 1981, the TGV network, centred on Paris, has expanded to connect cities across France and in adjacent countries. • A TGV test train set the record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) on 3 April 2007. At mid 2011, the TGV is the fastest conventional train in the world, reaching 320 km/h (200 mph) on the "LGV Est". • A TGV service held the record for the fastest scheduled rail journey with a start to stop average speed of 279.4 km/h (173.6 mph), which was temporarily surpassed by the Chinese CRH service Harmony express on the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway from December 2009 until July 2011. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 68
  69. Acid-Test Ratio • A stringent indicator that determines whether a firm has enough short-term assets to cover its immediate liabilities without selling inventory. The acid-test ratio is far more strenuous than the working capital ratio, primarily because the working capital ratio allows for the inclusion of inventory assets. Calculated by: • • Companies with ratios of less than 1 cannot pay their current liabilities and should be looked at with extreme caution. Furthermore, if the acid-test ratio is much lower than the working capital ratio, it means current assets are highly dependent on inventory. Retail stores are examples of this type of business. The term comes from the way gold miners would test whether their findings were real gold nuggets. Unlike other metals, gold does not corrode in acid; if the nugget didn't dissolve when submerged in acid, it was said to have passed the acid test. If a company's financial statements pass the figurative acid test, this indicates its financial integrity. • Returning home from China in 1292 CE, Marco Polo arrives on the Coromandel Coast of India in a typical merchant ship with over sixty cabins and up to 300 crewmen. • Hiuen Tsang Memorial is one of the major tourist attractions in Nalanda. Hiuen Tsang Memorial is erected in the memory of the famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang. During the glorious days of Nalanda University, Hiuen Tsang came to study Buddhism and mysticism in India. He came in India in 633 AD i.e. during the Gupta period and stayed at Nalanda University for twelve years. He traveled the whole India during his stay at Nalanda. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 69
  70. Green Triangle • covers three major destinations of North East India - Kaziranga National Park in Assam, Guwahati - the capital of Assam, and Shilong in Meghalaya. Kaziranga is well-known for one horned rhino. Guwahati is considered as the Gateway city of North East India. Shilong is a popular hill station of North East India and home of the Khasi Highland Tribe. Shilong is also known as the Scotland of the East. • ECOTEL ® certified Hotels under the CHPL umbrella: • The Uppal, an ECOTEL Hotel, New Delhi • Cabbana Hotel, an ECOTEL Hotel, Phagwara, Punjab. • Rodas, an ECOTEL Hotel, Mumbai • The Fern, an ECOTEL Hotel, Jaipur • Meluha The Fern, an ECOTEL Hotel, Mumbai • The Fern Residency, an ECOTEL Hotel, Gurgaon R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 70
  71. Passport Types of passports • Regular passport (Deep Blue/Black cover) - Issued for ordinary travel, such as vacations and business trips (36 or 60 pages) • Diplomatic passport (Maroon cover) - Issued to Indian diplomats, top ranking government officials and diplomatic couriers. • Official passport (White cover) - Issued to individuals representing the Indian government on official business R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 71
  72. Types • A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types, number of pages and definitions can vary by country. • Full passports • Ordinary passport (Tourist passport, Regular passport, Passport) • Issued to citizens and other nationals, and generally the most-issued type of passport. Sometimes it is possible to have children registered within the ordinary passport of the parent, rendering the passport functionally equal to a family passport. • Official passport (Service passport, also Special passport) • Issued to government employees for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents. • Diplomatic passport • Issued to diplomats for work-related travel, and to accompanying dependents. Although most diplomats with diplomatic immunity carry diplomatic passports, having a diplomatic passport is not the equivalent of having diplomatic immunity. A grant of diplomatic status, a privilege of which is diplomatic immunity, has to come from the government of the country in relation to which diplomatic status is claimed. Also, having a diplomatic passport does not mean visa-free travel. A holder of a diplomatic passport usually has to obtain a diplomatic visa, even if a holder of an ordinary passport may enter a country visa-free or may obtain a visa on arrival. • In exceptional circumstances, a diplomatic passport is given to a foreign citizen with no passport of his own, such as an exiled VIP who lives, by invitation, in a foreign country. • Emergency passport (Temporary passport) • Issued to persons whose passports were lost or stolen, and who do not have time to obtain replacement passports. Sometimes laissez-passer are used for this purpose. • Collective passport • Issued to defined groups for travel together to particular destinations, such as a group of school children on a school trip to a specified country. • Family passport • Issued to family members—father, mother, son, daughter. There is one passport holder. The passport holder may travel alone or with one or more other family members. A family member who is not the passport holder cannot use the passport for travel unless accompanied by the passport holder. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 72
  73. different visa types • The Tourist Visa is a multiple entry visa valid for a period of 180 days, granted for the purpose of tourism. Visits to family and friends are covered by this visa. The six month Tourist Visa is valid from the date of issue. Tourist Visas can also be given for 3 months. Three month visas are valid from the date of first entry into India, which must be within 2 months of the date of issue. Three month visas are gradually being phased out. General requirements are: - A correctly completed application form in BLACK INK AND BLOCK CAPITALS. If you use an EasyFill Form, be sure to press the Caps Lock key on your keyboard. - The applicant's original passport. It must be valid for AT LEAST SIX MONTHS and have AT LEAST 4 FREE PAGES. - Correct visa fee, payable only in CASH or by BANK DRAFT. - Two passport-size photographs. - If you do not hold a passport for the country you are resident in, you must supply proof of residency (e.g. National ID Card, Driver's Licence). You are likely to be charged extra for your visa, and processing time may be longer (allow 3 weeks minimum). • Transit Visas • Business Visas • Employment Visas • Student Visas • Entry Visas • Conference Visas • Journalist Visas (J-Visa) • Research Visas • Missionary Visas • Collective Visas R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 73
  74. CORAL REEFS DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA Gulf of Kutch • The reefs here are also of fringing type around a chain of islands from Jodhiya in the north to Port Okha in the south. These are the most northern reefs in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the environmental conditions which are extreme, with a large range in temperature and salinity, at this site, the reefs are relatively less developed and harbor a low biodiversity compared to other Indian reefs. The Gulf of Kutch is also a region of high industrial development - this has been responsible for a large scale of mortality of reef corals in the recent past. The entire Gulf of Kutch reefs have now been declared as a Marine National Park. Lakshadweep Islands • The coral formation consists of 10 atolls with 36 islands of which 10 are inhabited. The atolls, with the lagoon at islands cover areas ranging from 30 to 300 sq. km. The islands, however, range from less than a km to about 9 km in length. The maximum width does not exceed two km across. The health of the reefs is generally excellent, especially in the uninhabited atolls whereas in the habitant islands, human impacts, as elsewhere, are significant. Gulf of Mannar • Fringing reefs occur around a chain of 20 islands from Rameswaram in the north to Tuticorin in the south. The reefs at the northern and southern ends of the chain are partially degraded due to human activities (mining, fishing and industrial development) whereas those in the middle, because of their location away from human settlements, are in a relatively better condition. These reefs form part of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve. Andaman and Nicobar Islands • These islands in the Bay of Bengal number around 500 and all of them have fringing reefs. Most of them, like those at Nicobar, have healthy reefs with a large biodiversity. However, near human settlements, such as Port Blair, impacts are readily visible. A serious natural threat to these reefs in the last two decades was infestation with the crown-of-thorns starfish. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 74
  75. • Table d'hôte is a French loan phrase which literally means "host's table". It is used as restaurant terminology to indicate a menu where multi-course meals with only a few choices are charged, at a fixed total price. Such a menu may also be called prix fixe • Table d'hôte is meant to contrast with "À la carte", i.e. the usual menu operation of a restaurant, whereby customers may order any of the separately priced menu items available. • The maître d’hôtel often shortened to maître d’) in the original French language is literally the "master of the hotel". In a suitably staffed restaurant or hotel, it is the person in charge of assigning customers to tables and dividing the dining area into areas of responsibility for the various servers on duty • Sous-chef The Sous-Chef de Cuisine (under-chef of the kitchen) is the second in command and direct assistant of the Executive Chef. This person may be responsible for scheduling and substituting when the Executive Chef is off- duty and will also fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie (line cook) when needed. Smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, but larger operations may have several • Chef de Partie, Station chefs specialize in a single area of production, A chef de partie, often called a "station chef" or a "line cook," is responsible for one particular area of food production in the kitchen. This position is usually found in larger kitchens with a staff big enough to allow for specialization. Usually, each "station" in the kitchen has only one or two workers on duty at any given time. In a case where there's more than one chef de partie on duty, they're often divided into a hierarchy using titles like "first cook," "second cook" and so forth. • Chef de cuisine, executive chef and head chef, This person is in charge of all things related to the kitchen which usually includes menu creation; management of kitchen staff; ordering and purchasing of inventory; and plating design. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term from which the English word chef is derived. Head chef is often used to designate someone with the same duties as an executive chef, but there is usually someone in charge of them, possibly making the larger executive decisions such as direction of menu, final authority in staff management decisions, etc. This is often the case for chefs with several restaurants. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 75
  76. The Popularisation of Up-Selling • Up-selling is probably used most in Food & Beverage outlets such as fast- food restaurants, cafes and bars where the counter staff or the bartender would ask the customer pay just a little bit more for an up-size or a better brand of whisky. McDonald's does that, so does Starbucks, to great success. • However, when you probe further, you'll understand the reasons for their success in such cases. Beverages usually command a very high amount of margin (esp. for soft drinks and coffee) such that even if the up-size is given free, it would hardly hurt profits. The extra EUR0.10 you pay for the up-size may seem small to you, but it can actually worth up to tens if not hundred times the costs for providing you the additional amount of liquid. • Hence, up-selling by enticing the customer just to pay a bit more may not give you your just returns. Unfortunately, up-selling by asking the customer to pay a lot more doesn't make your deal attractive anymore. • Cross-Selling Other Products • It used to be rumoured that McDonald's used to have 20% of its revenue are attributed to french-fries sales, and all the counter staff has to say are the 5 magical words "Would you like fries with that". • Whether this rumour is true or not, McDonald's is indeed really successful in cross-selling french-fries, apple pies and other stuff that you didn't think of buying, but bought nevertheless just because the counter staff suggested to you. • Air Deccan, the first low cost carrier of India has truly changed the face of Indian Aviation Industry. The airline gave wings to the dream of flying of every common Indian. Promoted by aviation enthusiasts, Capt Gopinath, Capt KJ Samuel and Vishnu Raval, Air Deccan tickets started its journey on 23rd August 2003. The airline has its base in Bangalore with its secondary hub at Meenambakkam International Airport, Chennai. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 76
  77. Leakage effect • The leakage effect is a concept within the study of tourism. The term refers to the way in which revenue generated by tourism is lost to other countries' economies. Leakage may be so significant in some developing countries that it partially neutralizes the money generated by tourism. • Methods • Leakage occurs through six different mechanisms.It is an intrinsic component of international tourism and thus is present in every country, to widely-varying degrees. • Goods and services • Many countries must purchase goods and services to satisfy their visitors. This includes the cost of raw materials used to make tourism- related goods, such as souvenirs. For starting tourism industries, this is a significant problem, as some countries must import as much as 50% of tourism-related products. • Infrastructure • Some less economically developed countries do not have the domestic ability to build tourism- related infrastructure (hotels, airports, etc.). The cost of such infrastructure is then leaked out of the country.sapopo 4 Refilwe • Foreign factors of production • Smaller countries often require foreign investment to start their tourism industry. Thus, profits from tourism may be lost to foreign investors. In addition, travel agents outside of the destination country remove money from that market as well. • Promotional expenditures • Many countries spend considerable sums of money for advertisements and publicity. Maintaining a presence abroad may increase the volume of tourists to a country but also represent a considerable loss of money to foreign markets. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 77
  78. • Transfer pricing • Many foreign companies manipulate their pricing to reduce taxes and other duties. In smaller or less developed countries, where many tourism-related companies may be foreign owned, this can represent a substantial loss of income. • Tax exemptions • Countries with a small tourism industry may have to give tax exemptions or other offers to increase foreign investment. While this may enlarge the tourism industry there, it must be taken into account as an instrument of income loss. • Application • A study of tourism 'leakage' in Thailand estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food, etc.). Estimates for other Third World countries range from 80% in the Caribbean to 40% in India. • Leakage is not restricted to less-developed countries. Australia experiences a significant leakage effect from Japanese tourists. Though the spend the most per capita of all tourists to Australia, much of what they spend is through Japanese travel companies, Japanese hotels, and other foreign-owned businesses. There is thus significant leakage to Japan's economy. • Leakage not only varies from country to country, but also from industry to industry. High-income tourism may well significantly increase leakage, as that industry likely involves importing more goods and services than usual. Ecological or adventure tourism may exhibit a very small degree of leakage, however, as they place value solely on what the host country has to offer R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 78
  79. • Effect • As a result of the leakage effect, tourism industries in developed countries often are much more profitable per dollar received than tourism in smaller countries. Islands, in particular, suffer from significant leakage. In countries such as Turkey and the United Kingdom, the benefit to the economy from tourism is twice the dollar amount spent by tourists. In smaller places, such as Micronesia and Polynesia, that benefit is half the dollar amount spent. Some locations have managed to nullify the leakage effect almost entirely - New York City claims to generate seven dollars for the local economy per dollar spent by tourists. Some estimates of the degree of leakage claim only 5% of money spent on tourism remains in a developing country's economy. • Reducing leakage • For many countries, some sources of leakage are unavoidable. Foreign- owned hotels and airlines are necessary for all but the most established of tourism industries. However, encouragement of domestic involvement in a country's tourism industry may reduce leakage in the long run. Currently, the most popular measure is restrictions on spending. Countries may limit the use of foreign currency within their borders, reducing the effect of transfer pricing (see above). Many countries require visitors to have a certain amount of money before entering, as well R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 79
  80. Tourism Multiplier Effect • Tourism not only creates jobs in the tertiary sector, it also encourages growth in the primary and secondary sectors of industry. This is known as the multiplier effect which in its simplest form is how many times money spent by a tourist circulates through a country's economy. • Money spent in a hotel helps to create jobs directly in the hotel, but it also creates jobs indirectly elsewhere in the economy. The hotel, for example, has to buy food from local farmers, who may spend some of this money on fertiliser or clothes. The demand for local products increases as tourists often buy souvenirs, which increases secondary employment. • The multiplier effect continues until the money eventually 'leaks' from the economy through imports - the purchase of goods from other countries. • A study of tourism 'leakage' in Thailand estimated that 70% of all money spent by tourists ended up leaving Thailand (via foreign-owned tour operators, airlines, hotels, imported drinks and food, etc.). Estimates for other Third World countries range from 80% in the Caribbean to 40% in India. Source: R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 80
  81. Grant of L-1 Licence • Every year Government of NCT of Delhi formulates the Excise Policy and approves Terms & Conditions for grant of L-1 licenses. In pursuance to this policy and the approved terms & conditions, licences in form L-1 are granted for the wholesale supply of Indian liquor. These are granted to a Company or a society or a partnership firm or proprietorship firm having licensed manufacturing units(distillery / brewery /winery/bottling plant). • The applications for the grant of Licence are invited through the public notice published in some of the leading newspapers and in the official website of the Department. An application for the grant of L-1 Licence is required to be made in response to the public notice in the prescribed format together with its Appendices ('B' and 'C') to the Dy. Commissioner of Excise. The prime job of L-1 Licensee is to supply liquor to the holders of Licenses in form L-6, L-7,L-9,L-10,L-12,L-13,L- 14,L-15,L-16,L-17,L-18,L-19,L-20,L-21,L-28,L-29 and other liquor licences in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. • The aspirants for the grant of L-1 Licences have to comply with the procedure as laid down in the terms and conditions for the grant of L-1 Licences which are made available in the Office during the notice period. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 81
  82. ABC analysis • The ABC analysis is a business term used to define an inventory categorization technique often used in materials management. It is also known as Selective Inventory Control. it stands for Always Better Control. Policies based on ABC analysis: A ITEMS: very tight control and accurate records B ITEMS: LESS TIGHTLY CONTROLLED and good records C ITEMS: simplest controls possible and minimal records • The ABC analysis provides a mechanism for identifying items that will have a significant impact on overall inventory cost, while also providing a mechanism for identifying different categories of stock that will require different management and controls. • The ABC analysis suggests that inventories of an organization are not of equal value. Thus, the inventory is grouped into three categories (A, B, and C) in order of their estimated importance. • 'A' items are very important for an organization. Because of the high value of these ‘A’ items, frequent value analysis is required. In addition to that, an organization needs to choose an appropriate order pattern (e.g. ‘Just- in- time’) to avoid excess capacity. 'B' items are important, but of course less important, than ‘A’ items and more important than ‘C’ items. Therefore ‘B’ items are intergroup items. 'C' items are marginally important R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 82
  83. Johari window • The Johari window is a technique created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955 in the United States, used to help people better understand their mental instability. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as aheuristic exercise. • When performing the exercise, subjects are given a list of 56 adjectives and pick five or six that they feel describe their own personality. Peers of the subject are then given the same list, and each pick five or six adjectives that describe the subject. These adjectives are then mapped onto a grid. • Charles Handy calls this concept the Johari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we see and others see. Room 2 is the aspects that others see but we are not aware of. Room 3 is the most mysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious part of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others. Room 4 is our private space, which we know but keep from others. • The concept is clearly related to the ideas propounded in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator program, which in turn derive from theories about the personality first explored by psychologist Carl Jung. • An alternate mechanism for determining an individual's Johari Window is to plot the scores from the Personal Effectiveness Scale (PES). The Scale comprises of three factors : Self-Disclosure, Openness to Feedback & Perceptiveness. The Self-Disclosure score is to be plotted horizontally, whereas the Openness to Feedback score is to be plotted vertically. The Johari Window formed naturally displays the sizes of the Open, Hidden, Blind Spot & Unknown areas, giving a perspective into the individual's personality. The individual may also plot another Window, the Dream Johari Window. The sizes of the areas in the Dream Johari Window may be different from the sizes of the same areas in the current Johari Window. The Dream Johari Window represents what an individual wants his/her personality to be like. The individual having a Dream Johari Window identical to the current Johari Window may have a balanced personality. The Perceptiveness score from the PES indicates how likely it is for the individual to achieve the Dream Johari Window. For example, a LOW score on the PES indicates less possibility of transition R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 83
  84. • An empty Johari window, with the "Rooms" arranged clockwise, starting with Room 1 at the top left R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 84
  85. • Tourist arrivals data is the most commonly used measure of tourism demand, followed by tourist expenditure and tourist nights in registered accommodation. • Holiday Inn is a brand of hotels, formally a economy motel chain, forming part of the British InterContinental Hotels Group(IHG). It is one of the world's largest hotel chains with 238,440 bedrooms and 1,301 hotels globally. There are currently 5 hotels in the pipeline. There are 100 million guest nights each year, globally. • The Red Ribbon Express – – a train dedicated to spread awareness among the masses about the threat of Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome - AIDS is nowadays touring the eastern UP. The train has been received enthusiastically wherever it halted. Not only common people, but the hesitant ones who were vulnerable and fearing of catching the infection discussed their condition freely and fearlessly with the experts. The train is to cover 17 destinations in UP. Of them, nine have already been covered. AIR Gorakhpur correspondent Salman Haider covered its journey to Nautanwa station in Mahrajganj district of east UP. • OAG, formerly Official Airline Guide, is a United Kingdom based business providing aviation information and analytical services sourced from its proprietary airline schedules, flight status, fleet, MRO and cargo logistics databases. OAG is best known for its airline schedules database which holds future and historical flight details for more than 1,000 airlines and over 4,000 airports. This aggregated data feeds the world’s global distribution systems and travel portals, and drives the internal systems of many airlines, air traffic control systems, aircraft manufacturers, airport planners and government agencies around the world. The organisation operates globally and has offices in Europe (UK and Netherlands), Asia (Singapore, China and Japan) and the Americas (United States and Canada). OAG is organised into three customer-facing channels: OAG Aviation, OAG Cargo and OAG Travel. • OAG is a brand of UBM Aviation, a United Business Media business. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 85
  86. • 1873 Thomas Cook & Son opens its new head office at Ludgate Circus, London • In 1881, Thomas Cook started its India operations, with its first office in Mumbai • THE "HALO EFFECT" The CRS "halo effect" The principal method by which carriers can encourage incremental bookings via their CRS • Rajasthan pushkar – camel fair November • Kumbh mela – prayag, Haridwar, Ujjain, nasik • Bihar sonepur cattle fair – especially elephants • Dadri cattle fair – up • Suraj kund craft mela Haryana • Grand Tour of Europe • Young English elites of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often spent two to four years traveling around Europe in an effort to broaden their horizons and learn about language, architecture, geography, and culture in an experience known as the Grand Tour. The Grand Tour began in the sixteenth century and gained popularity during the seventeenth century. • The term Grand Tour was introduced by Richard Lassels in his 1670 book Voyage to Italy. Additional guidebooks, tour guides, and the tourist industry were developed and grew to meet the needs of the 20-something male and female travelers and their tutors across the European continent. The young tourists were wealthy and could afford the multiple years abroad. They carried letters of reference and introduction with them as they departed from southern England. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 86
  87. BUDDHIST SITES IN INDIA • LUMBINI: One of the most important place of Buddhist pilgrimage is Lumbini, located near the Nepal-India border. This is where Gautam Buddha was born to a royal family in 556 B.C.E. • BODHGAYA: The Buddha attained enlightenment at the age of 29 in the town of Bodhgaya in India. • SARNATH: At Sarnath in the Ganges Valley of India, the Buddha proclaimed the law of faith. • SHRAVASTI: Another of the most commonly visited places of Buddhist pilgrimage is Shravasti. It is here that the Buddha is said to have performed great miracles. • SANKASHAYA: In Sankashaya the Buddha descended from the Tushita Heaven. It is said that during the forty-first year of the Buddha's life, he went to the Tushita Heaven to teach Dharma to his mother, who had died shortly after the Buddha's death. • RAJGIR: Rajgir is another place in the Ganges Valley where the Buddha walked and preached R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 87
  88. Silk Road or Silk Route • refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. The land routes were supplemented by sea routes which extended from the Red Sea to East Africa, India, China, and Southeast Asia. • Extending 4,000 miles (6,500 km), the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade along it, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE). The central Asian sections of the trade routes were expanded around 114 BCE by the Han dynasty, largely through the missions and explorations of Zhang Qian,but earlier trade routes across the continents already existed. In the late Middle Ages, transcontinental trade over the land routes of the Silk Road declined as sea trade increased, In recent years, both the maritime and overland Silk Routes are again being used, often closely following the ancient routes. R'tist@Tourism,Pondicherry University 88
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