1. 6.STAFFING: HIRING RIGHT NUMBER AND KIND OF PEOPLE AT RIGHT POSTS AND RANKS AT
THE RIGHT TIME
Definition: The selection and trainingof individualsfor specificjob functions,and chargingthem with the
The managerial function of staffinginvolves manningthe organization structurethrough proper and effective
selection,appraisal and development of the personnel to fill theroles assigned to the employers/workforce.
Accordingto Theo Haimann,“Staffing pertains to recruitment, selection,development and compensation of
Nature of StaffingFunction
1. Staffing is an important managerial function- Staffingfunction is the most importantmangerial actalong
with planning,organizing,directingand controlling.The operations of these four functions depend upon
the manpower which is availablethrough staffingfunction.
2. Staffing is a pervasive activity- As staffingfunction is carried out by all mangers and in all types of
concerns where business activities arecarried out.
3. Staffing is a continuous activity- This is becausestaffingfunction continues throughout the lifeof an
organization dueto the transfers and promotions that take place.
4. The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel’s- Human resources can be efficiently
managed by a system or proper procedure, that is,recruitment, selection,placement, trainingand
5. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job. It can be done effectively through proper recruitment
procedures and then finally selectingthemost suitablecandidateas per the job requirements.
6. Staffing is performed by all managers depending upon the nature of business,sizeof the company,
qualificationsand skills of managers,etc.In small companies,thetop management generally performs this
function. In medium and small scaleenterprise,it is performed especially by the personnel department of
Staffing Process - Steps involved in Staffing
1. Manpower requirements- The very firststep in staffingis to plan the manpower inventory required by a
concern in order to match them with the job requirements and demands. Therefore, it involves
forecastingand determining the future manpower needs of the concern.
2. Recruitment- Once the requirements are notified,the concern invites and solicits applicationsaccording
to the invitationsmadeto the desirablecandidates.
3. Selection- This is the screeningstep of staffingin which the solicited applicationsarescreened out and
suitablecandidates areappointed as per the requirements.
4. Orientation and Placement- Once screeningtakes place,the appointed candidates aremade familiar to
the work units and work environment through the orientation programs.placement takes placeby
putting right man on the right job.
5. Training and Development- Trainingis a partof incentives given to the workers in order to develop and
grow them within the concern. Trainingis generally given accordingto the nature of activities and scope
of expansion in it.Along with it, the workers are developed by providingthem extra benefits of in depth
2. knowledge of their functional areas.Development also includesgivingthem key and important jobs as a
test or examination in order to analyzetheir performances.
6. Remuneration- It is a kind of compensation provided monetarily to the employees for their work
performances. This is given accordingto the nature of job- skilled or unskilled,physical or mental,etc.
Remuneration forms an important monetary incentivefor the employees.
7. Performance Evaluation- In order to keep a track or record of the behavior,attitudes as well as opinions
of the workers towards their jobs.For this regular assessmentis done to evaluateand supervisedifferent
work units in a concern. Itis basically concerningto know the development cycleand growth patterns of
the employees in a concern.
8. Promotion and transfer- Promotion is said to be a non- monetary incentivein which the worker is shifted
from a higher job demanding bigger responsibilities as well as shiftingtheworkers and transferringthem
to different work units and branches of the same organization.
2.SELECTION & HIRING
a. Plan the selection process:
Selection is the process of screeningapplicants to ensure that the most appropriatecandidateis hired.
The firststep in the selection process is to review the information (resume, application form) provided by all job
applicantsto determine which applicants meet the minimum qualificationsas stated in the job posting.No further
consideration will begiven to those who do not meet the minimum qualifications.(In fact,itis a good idea to say
in your advertisements that only those candidates who meet the job requirements will beconsidered.) Those job
applicantswho meet or exceed the minimum job qualificationsarethen assessed to decide which ones will be
short-listed for a job interview.
The most common methods of selection for all positionsincludean interviewfollowed by a reference check.
Other selection techniques used duringthe interview phase are: work samples,written tests, in basket exercises,
oral presentation,and personality or aptitudetests. After makinga conditional offer,additional selection
techniques can include:criminal records check,driver's records check.Written consent is required before
requesting records checks.
b. Working with a selection panel
Engaging other people in a selection process can bevery helpful.You may want to includea senior staff member, a
board member and a potential co-worker, for example. When you invitepanel members to participate,let them
know how much time it will takeand what their rolewill be. Their contribution can include:
Helpingto develop selection criteria
3. Preparinginterview questions
Assessingeach candidateagainstthe selection criteria
Providinginputabout the final selection
c. Prepare for the interviews
Prepare a listof questions to ask duringthe interview. Develop key questions to explore pastjob performance,
coveringall essential functions.Also,preparefollow-up questions.Use a variety of approaches to get different
kinds of information,tailoringquestions to open up a topic for conversation or to confirminformation.
When you call thejob applicantson the shortlistto set up an interview, tell each person the salary range for the
position,if this information was notpart of the job posting. Then ask them if they would liketo proceed to an
interview given the salary you haveto offer. This way, you should avoid interviewingpeople who later refuse a job
offer on the basis of salary.
d. Conduct the interviews
Choose an appropriateenvironment for the interviews and ensure that you will not be interrupted. If you are
interviewinginternal candidates,consider doingitoff-site.
Think of the interview as a business conversation.Makesureyou use the same interview format and setting for
every candidate,and that interview appointments are the same length.
Welcome the candidateand provideher/him with an overview or "road map" for the interview. Ask your
questions,then sitback and listen.Ideally,you should talk no more than 20% of the time. Use follow-up questions
to have the candidateexpand on their answers.Comment on what the candidatesays to let them know you are
interested and to encourage discussion.You may want to consider usingan InterviewRating Guide to evaluate the
answers given by each person that you interview.
Conclude the interview by thankingthe candidateand explainingthe next steps. Ask for their permission to
When workingwith a selection panel:
Give panel members copies of the candidates' resumes and any other information the candidateprovided
Prepare for interviews by clarifyingwhich panel member will ask each question
Share all materialsthatrelateto the hiringprocess (announcement and job description,selection criteria,template
4. Be aware of bias in the interview process
The followingis a listof common biases thatcan occur when interviewing candidates:
Leniency/ Strictness Bias occurs given people differ in how they evaluatepeople; some interviews are very liberal
and lenient, whileothers are critical and demanding.This bias tends to raiseor lower the scores of people who are
Halo Effect occurs when the interviewer lets one favoured qualification,trait,or experience influenceall other
factors,resultingin an unduly high overall performance rating.
Horns Effect, similar to the halo effect, allows onedisfavoured qualification,trait,or experience take precedence
and resultin an unfairly lowcandidaterating.
Similarity Effect occurs when an evaluator rates a candidatebased on characteristicstheappraiser sees in
themselves. Interviewers have an unconscious tendency to favor people who are physically and professionally
similar to them.
Appraiser Biases occurs when an evaluation is based on individual demographic differences.Personal beliefs,
attitudes, assumptions,and preferences can lead to unfair evaluationsof candidates.
Primacy Effect is associated with "the firstimpression,”interviewers' firstimpressionsof a candidatecan often
play a powerful rolein their subsequent assessment.
Contrast Effect occurs when one's individual rankingis based on one's position relativeto others in the group. If
the interview pool consists of a number of outstandingcandidates,itis extremely difficultfor an average candidate
to be picked as number one, but in a substandard pool,the average candidatemay inexplicably stand out.
All selection or screeningmethods must be based on the essential tasks and skillsfor the position (as outlined in
the job description) and comply with human rights legislation.
e.Check the references of your final candidates
Checking references carefully and thoroughly is oneway to avoid hiringthewrong person. It may seem easier to
accept letters of recommendation that address a candidate's abilities and experience.However, talkingto people
will allowyou to probe issues deeply enough to get a fuller senseof the candidate's values,nature,approach to
work and how they interact with others. Telephone interviews are the best way to get more depth about the
candidate's character and background.
Reference checks are a lastopportunity to verify information the candidatehas provided,validatetheir personal
suitability and exploreany areas of concern. Talk to references before you make an offer. Let the candidateknow
you will bedoing this.Be sureto find out if there is anyone the candidatewould prefer you not speak to - for
example, a current boss or current colleagues.
5. Prepare a listof questions for references (see the HR Toolkit's samplequestions for references (PDF 40KB). Ask
about information on the candidate's resumeand about topics discussed duringthe interview. Ask for insights into
the candidate's character,examples of good work they have done and areas that need development. If you keep
the conversation casual butprofessional,you arelikely to get more information.Record the reference's responses.
Remember that any notes that you take when talkingto a reference must comply with human rights
legislation.Potential candidates may have the rightto see what references have said aboutthem so keep accurate
At the beginning of your conversation,explain to the reference the importance of the position you are hiringfor
and tell them you appreciatetheir honesty. At the end, thank them for the time they have spent talkingto you and
for their help .
f.Make your decision and review it
Evaluate final candidates againsteach other after you have rated them againstthe criteria to identify the best
candidatebased on skills,worker characteristicsand organizational fit.Review all your notes and write up your
Keep all of your recruitment and selection materials on filefor at leasttwo years.
Make sureyour decision is nondiscriminatory,complieswith provincial and federal laws and your hiringpolicies
and is based on sound judgment.
Discuss thedecision with colleagues or others who participated in the interviews and/or other stages of the hiring
g.Make the offer
Call the candidateto make an offer. Inform all other final candidates by phone of the outcome of the recruitment
process.Offer to give them constructivefeedback on the interview.
h.Do the paperwork
It is importantthat employers includea termination clausewithin the employment agreement. This clausecreates
contractual (agreed upon) terms that would otherwise be implied by law,such as the amount of reasonablenotice,
the employee’s entitlement to payment of benefits duringthe notice period,and the definition of “compensation”
provided in lieu of notice (i.e. how variablepay will beaddressed,such as bonuses and incentivepay). Therefore, a
termination clauseprotects the employer from liabilities under common law(except within Quebec), which could
6. increasetermination costs significantly.Italso provides certainty to employees and can be referred to at a later
date in the event of a dispute.
Quebec’s legal system uses Civil Lawrather than Common Law. In Quebec, an employer needs to have “good and
sufficientcause”to terminate an employee with two or more years of uninterrupted employment. If the employee
has less than two years of servicean employer is ableto terminate an employee with working notice or pay in lieu
of notice. Pleaserefer to the Quebec Labour Standards for additional information on terminations
When determining the notice period and amount of severancepay, employees in Canada (excludingQuebec) who
do not have a termination agreement in place,are entitled to common lawrights.Employers therefore need to
consider the implicationsof caselawwhen determining a “reasonable”amount – rather than solely providingthe
minimum employment standards.For example, an employee’s age, length of service, nature and seniority of the
position,extent of education, and/or the transferability of his/her skill setwill affectthe employee’s ease of re-
employment and will therefore need to be considered when determining the amount of notice and severance
Legal adviceshould be sought duringterminations in order to ensure compliancewith employment standards and
common lawor civil law.