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Don’t Get Ubered: What Every Strategist Needs
to Know About Digital Competition!
Annabelle Gawer, PhD
Surrey Center for ...
@AnnabelleGawer‪ 
 @bryan_kirschner
The views expressed in this presentation are those of
the presenter, and not necessarily those of Apigee
Corporation or th...
Strategist
4
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
Strategist
5
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Change Agent
Steps
6
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
Steps
7
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Goal
Let’s talk about “revolutions…”
8
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
9
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
10
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
11
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
12
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
13
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
Innovation
14
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
Innovation
15
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Changes the Game
Cyber-Physical Age
16
17
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
18
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
19
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
2005-12-07 15:54 LucaDetomi 300×289×8 (22714 bytes) {{GFDL}} Primo microprocessore ...
20
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
2005-12-07 15:54 LucaDetomi 300×289×8 (22714 bytes) {{GFDL}} Primo microprocessore ...
21
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
22
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
23
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Shodan
24
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Shodan
Change the Rules for
Technology
25
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
Change the Rules for
Technology
26
©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 
Change the Business
Model
Age of the Platform
27
Digital Platforms
Competition and Innovation in the Platform Economy
Prof. Annabelle Gawer
I ♥ APIs
London, 2 March 2016
▪ Introduction: Why do platforms matter?
▪ Platform Fundamentals
–  - What are Platforms / How Platforms Create Value 
•  ...
Some of my publications on (mostly digital) platforms
3
Agenda

Technological Platforms


A Gawer’s Platform Research
3
1
Platform strategies

“Platform Leadership”








•  Pl...
Intro
Why do platforms matter
3
2
#
Most unicorns are platforms#

70%
30%
Platforms
Non Platforms
Global Unicorns = 115
Source: P. Evans, CGE; CB Insights, ...
Netflix has over 70 million members in over 190 countries. Users watch more
than 125 million hours of TV shows and movies p...
Google play’s platform services 
Apps, movies, books, music
No. of Services 
4 services 
3 services 
2 services 
1 service...
Google play’s platform services 
Apps, movies, books, music
No. of Services 
4 services 
3 services 
2 services 
1 service...
Platform Fundamentals
What are platforms
How platforms create value
3
8
Platforms as Multi-Sided Markets with Network Effects
39
Innovation Platforms
40
Innovation platforms are technologies
that facilitate the development of
complementary innovation ...
4
The API Economy
Google creates APIs to extend search and analytics beyond their own services
www.imperial.ac.uk/business-school Option 1
4
3
ServiceData
Consumes
Produces
Improves
experience
Many free services
One d...
Dating
Bars
Amazon
market-place
Transactional 
Air BnB
UBER
Google
ARM
Intel micro-
processor
The platform serves as an in...
Results from the Platform Survey
4
5
Companies	
  
Pla-orm	
  
ecosystem	
  
Hierarchal	
  
Organiza7on	
  +	
  
Physical	
  Assets*	
  
Asset	
  Heavy	
  
Dai...
64 / $3,123B
 27 / $181B
 82 / $930B
Global unicorn platform startups
Europe is lagging 
N. America
 Europe
 Asia
Source G...
Global unicorn platform startups by city

Source: P. Evans, CGE, CB Insights, Capital IQ and CrunchBase, 2015.
European Platform Landscape
Source: Global Platform Survey, Center for Global Enterprise, 2016
Concentration in “Beer Drin...
What is needed to support platform growth in Europe?
-  Reliable and complete data on platforms: To inform businesses and ...
The European Observatory of the Platform Economy
Be a part of our network 
• Contact us
• a.gawer@surrey.ac.uk
Thank you
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
 Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition
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Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition

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Bryan Kirschner, Apigee
Annabelle Gawer, University of Surrey

Tech giants like Amazon and Apple. Start ups like Uber. Or resurgent Fortune 500s. Learn the key attributes that differentiate digital disruptors from those at risk of disruption themselves.

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Don't get Ubered. What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition

  1. 1. 1 Don’t Get Ubered: What Every Strategist Needs to Know About Digital Competition! Annabelle Gawer, PhD Surrey Center for the Digital Economy Bryan Kirschner Apigee Institute
  2. 2. @AnnabelleGawer‪ @bryan_kirschner
  3. 3. The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, and not necessarily those of Apigee Corporation or the presenter’s employer. 3
  4. 4. Strategist 4 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Strategist 5 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Change Agent
  6. 6. Steps 6 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Steps 7 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Goal
  8. 8. Let’s talk about “revolutions…” 8 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. 9 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. 10 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. 11 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. 12 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. 13 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Innovation 14 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Innovation 15 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Changes the Game
  16. 16. Cyber-Physical Age 16
  17. 17. 17 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. 18 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. 19 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 2005-12-07 15:54 LucaDetomi 300×289×8 (22714 bytes) {{GFDL}} Primo microprocessore Intel, l'[[Intel 4004]].
  20. 20. 20 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. 2005-12-07 15:54 LucaDetomi 300×289×8 (22714 bytes) {{GFDL}} Primo microprocessore Intel, l'[[Intel 4004]].
  21. 21. 21 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. 22 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. 23 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Shodan
  24. 24. 24 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Shodan
  25. 25. Change the Rules for Technology 25 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Change the Rules for Technology 26 ©2016 Apigee. All Rights Reserved. Change the Business Model
  27. 27. Age of the Platform 27
  28. 28. Digital Platforms Competition and Innovation in the Platform Economy Prof. Annabelle Gawer I ♥ APIs London, 2 March 2016
  29. 29. ▪ Introduction: Why do platforms matter? ▪ Platform Fundamentals –  - What are Platforms / How Platforms Create Value •  - Network Effects / Platform Business Models ▪ Results from the Global Platform Survey ▪ The European Platform Observatory ▪ Discussion + Q&A Agenda 2 9
  30. 30. Some of my publications on (mostly digital) platforms 3
  31. 31. Agenda Technological Platforms A Gawer’s Platform Research 3 1 Platform strategies “Platform Leadership” •  Platform Leadership (HBR 2002) •  The Elements of Platform Leadership (SMR 2002) •  How companies become platform leaders (SMR 2008) Platform competition (economics and strategy) •  Platform owner entry and innovation in complementary markets (JEMS 2007) Platform governance (organization theory) •  The organization of technological platforms (RSO 2010) •  Institutional work as logics shift: The case of Intel’s transformation to platform leader (Org Studies 2013) •  Innovation Policy within Private Collectives (Technovation, 2013) Platform evolution (management & organization theory) •  Modelization, graph theory •  Ecosystem governance •  Platform boundaries •  Platform business models Conceptual clarification, leadership role in platform research •  Platforms, Markets and Innovation (2009) •  Bridging differing perspectives on technological platforms (Research Policy 2014, 6000 downloads, “best paper” AOM 2014) •  Encyclopedia & Handbook chapters •  Conference and symposia organizer / international reputation •  Keynote speaker Platform innovation (innovation studies) •  Industry architectures as determinant of successful platform strategies (EMR 2009) •  Industry platforms and ecosystem innovation (JPIM 2013)
  32. 32. Intro Why do platforms matter 3 2
  33. 33. # Most unicorns are platforms# 70% 30% Platforms Non Platforms Global Unicorns = 115 Source: P. Evans, CGE; CB Insights, Capital IQ, CrunchBase, 2015 Platform = 80 of 115 companies, $300B valuation 21
  34. 34. Netflix has over 70 million members in over 190 countries. Users watch more than 125 million hours of TV shows and movies per day. Sources: About Airbnb at: https://www.airbnb.com/about/about-us; Netflix at: https://media.netflix.com/en/press-releases/netflix-is-now-available-around-the-world; About LinedIn at: https://press.linkedin.com/about-linkedin; https://support.google.com/googleplay/answer/2843119?hl=en Airbnb provides accommodation listings in more than 34,000 cities and 190 countries. There are over 2 million listings world-wide; Paris alone has more than 28,000 listings. LinkedIn has over 400 million members in over 200 countries. Over 70 percent of users are outside the US. Over 100 million unique users access LlinkedIn each month. Google Play apps and digital content: Over 1.6 million Android apps are available in 136 countries world wide; Google Play movies available 105 countries; books available in 75 countries; music available in 62 countries. Platforms provide basis for rapid global scale The New Multinationals
  35. 35. Google play’s platform services Apps, movies, books, music No. of Services 4 services 3 services 2 services 1 service No service Russia Source: Google Play country availability: https://support.google.com/googleplay/answer/2843119?hl=en-GB
  36. 36. Google play’s platform services Apps, movies, books, music No. of Services 4 services 3 services 2 services 1 service No service Russia Source: Google Play country availability: https://support.google.com/googleplay/answer/2843119?hl=en-GB
  37. 37. Platform Fundamentals What are platforms How platforms create value 3 8
  38. 38. Platforms as Multi-Sided Markets with Network Effects 39
  39. 39. Innovation Platforms 40 Innovation platforms are technologies that facilitate the development of complementary innovation in innovation ecosystems (Gawer & Cusumano, 2002; Gawer, 2009) •  Economies of scope in innovation •  Sharing IP and tools to connect (APIs) •  Reduced search cost of complementary innovators •  Reducing barriers to entry for complementors in complementary innovation
  40. 40. 4
  41. 41. The API Economy Google creates APIs to extend search and analytics beyond their own services
  42. 42. www.imperial.ac.uk/business-school Option 1 4 3 ServiceData Consumes Produces Improves experience Many free services One data set and common semantic The more context the more efficient and the more value Virtuous Feedback Loops in Digital Platforms Internet Service Provider Value enriched Data generates revenue Example: Search/Information Mgmt : # Rated auction/Selling: 43 User BI Based Revenue Models (eg Advertisement) Core Semantic Data Set Mindmap
  43. 43. Dating Bars Amazon market-place Transactional Air BnB UBER Google ARM Intel micro- processor The platform serves as an intermediary for direct exchange or transactions, subject to network effects Innovation The platform serves as a technological foundation on top of which other firms develop complementary innovations Facebook for Developers Apple iOS Apple App Store Google Android Facebook SAP NetWeaver Innovation Platforms MSPs Match.com Google Play Apple AUTOSAR Qualcomm PLATFORMS
  44. 44. Results from the Platform Survey 4 5
  45. 45. Companies   Pla-orm   ecosystem   Hierarchal   Organiza7on  +   Physical  Assets*   Asset  Heavy   Daimler      Moovel   Johnson  Controls    Panop7x   GE      Predix   Samsung    Tizen   Asset  Light   Google    Google  Play   Uber    Uber  app   Airbnb    Airbnb  app   Priceline    Booking.com   Structure   *  Includes  HQ,  other  rooOops,  retail  outlets,  manufacturing  plants,  service  shops,  etc.   Pla-orm   Mixed   Apple    App  store   Amazon    App  store   Enterprise  type   Examples   Reshaping enterprise structure# 29
  46. 46. 64 / $3,123B 27 / $181B 82 / $930B Global unicorn platform startups Europe is lagging N. America Europe Asia Source Global Platform Database 2016 Platform companies with a market value of US$1b or more on Dec 1, 2015
  47. 47. Global unicorn platform startups by city Source: P. Evans, CGE, CB Insights, Capital IQ and CrunchBase, 2015.
  48. 48. European Platform Landscape Source: Global Platform Survey, Center for Global Enterprise, 2016 Concentration in “Beer Drinking” Countries, Some in “Vodka Dinking”, none in “Wine Drinking” Countries Country City
  49. 49. What is needed to support platform growth in Europe? -  Reliable and complete data on platforms: To inform businesses and governments -  Critical mass of knowledgeable actors -  Knowledge + Experience networks, and shared expertise around platforms -  Executive training for managers: -  Platform strategies -  Platform business models -  How to develop innovative ecosystems -  Please share your ideas !
  50. 50. The European Observatory of the Platform Economy
  51. 51. Be a part of our network • Contact us • a.gawer@surrey.ac.uk
  52. 52. Thank you

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