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Fermentation Based On
Vegetables
Introduction
 Fermentation is a term derived from the
latin verb fevere, (Same root
as effervescence), meaning to boil.
...
Fermented Foods
 Sahlin(1999) defined fermented
foods as those foods which have been
subjected to the action of micro-
or...
Fermentation; An Ancient Tradition
 Fermentation is one of the oldest forms of food preservation technologies
in the worl...
Foods
Food Approximate year of
Introduction
Region
Mushrooms 4000 BC China
Soy Sauce 3000 BC China, Korea and
Japan
Wine 3...
Fermentation of
Vegetables
Fermented Vegetables
A vegetable is a plant cultivated for food. They include edible parts such
as leaves, bulbs, stem an...
Vegetables
The lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive bacteria, non-
respiring, non-spore forming, cocci or ro...
 Species of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc produce the least
acid. Next are the heterofermentative species of L...
Lactobacillus acidophillus
Lactobacillus bulgaricus
Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus thermophillus
Lactobacillus brev...
Examples of Fermented Vegetable and Vegetable
Juices
Vegetable Microrganism
Garlic Lactobacillus plantarum
Carrot Slices L...
Other Fermented Vegetables
Asparagus
Cauliflower
Brussel sprouts
Mushroom
Tomatoes
Okra
Peppers
Beets
Vegetables
Lactic acid fermentation of vegetables can be carried out under
four basic types of conditions:
1. Dry salted; ...
Pit fermentation
 South Pacific pit fermentations are an
ancient method of preserving vegetables
without the addition of ...
vegetables
Sauerkraut is defined as the clean, sound
product of characteristic flavor, obtained by full
fermentation, chi...
Method
 Shredded cabbage or other suitable vegetables are
placed in a jar and salt is added. Mechanical pressure
is appli...
Trouble Shooting Sauerkraut : Spoilage
Defects
White Film Safe
White Sludge Safe in Small Amounts
Unless coupled with slim...
Cucumber
• The cucumbers are submerged in the brine,
ensuring that none float on the surface. The
strong brine draws the s...
Spoilage Defects and Problems in Pickles
The production of excessive amounts of
acid during the fermentation, results in
...
Gundruk Gundruk is particularly popular in Nepal and is a
non-salted fermented vegetable product. Gundruk is
obtained fro...
Gundruk
Sunki
 Sunki is a non-salted fermented vegetable product
prepared from the leaves of "Otaki-turnip" in Kiso
district, Nag...
Sinki ( Pickled Raddish)
Sinki is a non-salted fermented
sour pickle prepared from radish
tap roots. It is consumed
tradi...
Kawal
Kawal is a strong smelling Sudanese,
protein-rich food prepared by
fermenting the leaves of a wild African
legume, ...
Method
 All the stems, pods and flowers are removed.
The leaves are not washed, since it is thought
that natural micro-or...
Kimchi
 Korean Kimchi is a brine salted fermented
vegetable product.
 Korean people consume 50-500 g/day of
kimchi, a fe...
Method
15% brine is used in
the fermentation which occurs at
10-20oC.
Lactic acid bacteria is responsible
for this ferme...
Ombolo wa koba
 In Zaire (Congo) cassava leaves are fermented to
produce ombolo wa koba which is traditionally eaten with...
Importance of Fermented Vegetables
 Improved Quality
• Enrichment of food substrates biologically with vitamins and other...
 Medicinal benefits
There are many traditional beliefs about the medicinal properties of
fermented food products. The Fur...
Indigenous Fermented Vegetables: Future Outlook and Recommendations
Because of the tremendously important role indigenous...
Improve the understanding and product awareness of indigenous fermented vegetables
Documenting the traditional knowledge ...
Refining the process
The commercially produced products, such as sauerkraut, pickles
are all examples of processes which h...
2. Quality Control
The sort of areas that should be investigated include:
 Selecting good quality raw materials
 Process...
Conclusion
• Vegetable Fermentation is a desirable process and used as vital tool
for preservation of vegetable which are ...
References
• Anestis, M (2006). AP Biology 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional pg 6.
• Battock, M and Azam-Ali, S (2000)...
• Hannon, J.R, Bakker A., Lynd, L.R, Wjman, C.E (2007). Comparing the Sale-up of Aerobic
and Anaerobic Processes. AICE, Sa...
Fermentation based on Vegetables
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Fermentation based on Vegetables

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Fermentation based on Vegetables

  1. 1. Fermentation Based On Vegetables
  2. 2. Introduction  Fermentation is a term derived from the latin verb fevere, (Same root as effervescence), meaning to boil.  It an anaerobic cellular process in which bacteria, yeast or other microorganisms convert organic foods into simpler compounds, and chemical energy(ATP) is produced(Nout,2005).  However in Food Processing, fermentation has been generally described as the conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids by yeast, bacteria or a combination of both.
  3. 3. Fermented Foods  Sahlin(1999) defined fermented foods as those foods which have been subjected to the action of micro- organisms or enzymes so that desirable biochemical changes cause significant modification to the food.  Fermented foods comprise about one-third of the world wide consumption of food and 20-40 % (by weight) of individual diets. Classification of Fermented Foods  Alcoholic Beverages  Cereals Products  Dairy products  Fish products  Fruits and vegetables  Legumes  Meat Products  Starch Crop  Miscellaneous Products
  4. 4. Fermentation; An Ancient Tradition  Fermentation is one of the oldest forms of food preservation technologies in the world.  The French chemist Louis Pasteur determined that fermentation is caused by yeast. His work was influenced by the earlier work of Theodor Schwann, the German scientist who helped develop the cell theory.  There is reliable information that fermented drinks were being produced over 7,000 years ago in Babylon (now Iraq), 5,000 years ago in Egypt, 4,000 years ago in Mexico and 3,500 years ago in Sudan.  China is thought to be the birth-place of fermented vegetables and the use of Aspergillus and Rhizopus moulds to make food.  Knowledge about traditional fermentation technologies has been handed down from parent to child, for centuries. These fermented products have been adapted over generations; some products and practices no doubt fell by the wayside while others remained.
  5. 5. Foods Food Approximate year of Introduction Region Mushrooms 4000 BC China Soy Sauce 3000 BC China, Korea and Japan Wine 3000 BC North Africa, Europe Fermented Milk 3000 BC Middle East Cheese 2000 BC Middle East Beer 2000 BC North Africa, China Bread 1500 BC Egypt, Europe Fermented Meat 1500 BC Middle East Sour Dough Bread 1000 BC Europe Fish Sauce 1000 BC South East Asia Pickled Vegetables 1000 BC China, Europe Tea 500 BC China
  6. 6. Fermentation of Vegetables
  7. 7. Fermented Vegetables A vegetable is a plant cultivated for food. They include edible parts such as leaves, bulbs, stem and roots (Keller, 2012). Vegetables are more prone to deterioration by micro-organisms and can provide an ideal substrate for the multiplication of microorganisms. They are preserved either through pickling, fermentation, salting, drying or other methods (Mcfeeters et al., 2013).  Fermentation has been utilized for centuries to preserve these foods. As early as the third century BC, the Chinese described the preservation of vegetables by fermentation. Vegetable fermentation is a technique whereby, starches and sugars in vegetables are converted into lactic acid by lactic-acid-producing bacteria.  Fermented vegetables are produced by relatively low technology processes with low energy inputs and produce foods that have unique flavors and textures also adding variety to the diet.
  8. 8. Vegetables The lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive bacteria, non- respiring, non-spore forming, cocci or rods, which produce lactic acid as the major end product of the fermentation of carbohydrates. Some members of the family are homofermentative that is they only produce lactic acid, while others are heterofermentative and produce lactic acid plus other volatile compounds and small amounts of alcohol. Historically, bacteria from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus are the main species involved. Several more have been identified, but play a minor role in lactic fermentations Soomoo et al., (2002). Lactobacillus is very heterogeneous genus, encompassing species with a large variety of phenotypic, biochemical, and physiological properties. Most species of lactobacilli are homofermentative, but some are heterofermentative. Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, L. caret, L. pentoaceticus, L brevis and L. thermophiles are examples of lactic acid- producing bacteria involved in food fermentations. Lactic Acid Bacteria
  9. 9.  Species of the genera Streptococcus and Leuconostoc produce the least acid. Next are the heterofermentative species of Lactobacillus which produce intermediate amounts of acid, followed by the Pediococcus and lastly the homofermenters of the Lactobacillus species, which produce the most acid.  Homofermenters, convert sugars primarily to lactic acid, while heterofermenters produce about 50% lactic acid plus 25% acetic acid and ethyl alcohol and 25% carbon dioxide. Specifically, Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a bacterium associated with the sauerkraut and pickle fermentations. This organism initiates the desirable lactic acid fermentation in these products. It differs from other lactic acid species in that it can tolerate fairly high concentrations of salt and sugar (up to 50% sugar).
  10. 10. Lactobacillus acidophillus Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus thermophillus Lactobacillus brevi Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  11. 11. Examples of Fermented Vegetable and Vegetable Juices Vegetable Microrganism Garlic Lactobacillus plantarum Carrot Slices Lactobacillus sacei Olive Lactobacillus pentosus Cabbage, Gourd, Celery Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus Cucumber Lactobacillus plantarum Mixture of cabbage and carrot Mixed starter culture Sauerkraut and Sauerkraut Juice Lactobacilus plantarum,, Lactobacillus casei, Pediococcus pentosaccus Cabbage Juice 16 Strains of Lactobacillus genera or Lactobacillus, mixture culture Lye-Treated Carrot Lactobacillus plantarum or mixture culture, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Carrot Juice Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  12. 12. Other Fermented Vegetables Asparagus Cauliflower Brussel sprouts Mushroom Tomatoes Okra Peppers Beets
  13. 13. Vegetables Lactic acid fermentation of vegetables can be carried out under four basic types of conditions: 1. Dry salted; With dry salting, the vegetable is treated with dry salt. The salt extracts the juice from the vegetable and creates the brine. For every 100 kg of vegetables 3 kg of salt is needed E.g sauerkraut, dry salted pickled cucumbers e.t.c 2. Brine Salted; Brine is used for vegetables which inherently contain less moisture. A brine solution is prepared by dissolving salt in water (a 15 to 20% salt solution) E.g Pickled cucumbers, Kimchi, Olives, Raddish e.t.c 3. Non-salted; Vegetables are fermented by lactic acid bacteria, without the prior addition of salt or brine E.g Gundruk, Sinki, Fermented tea leaves e.t.c 4. Pit- Fermentation
  14. 14. Pit fermentation  South Pacific pit fermentations are an ancient method of preserving vegetables without the addition of salt. The raw materials undergo an acid fermentation within the pit, to produce a paste with good keeping qualities. Example include Kawal i.e Leaves of Wild African Legume called Cassia obtusifolia and Cassava leaves –Ombolo wa Koba.
  15. 15. vegetables Sauerkraut is defined as the clean, sound product of characteristic flavor, obtained by full fermentation, chiefly lactic, of properly and shredded cabbage in the presence of not less than two percent or more than three percent of salt ( Frazier and Westhoff, 2008). The end products of a normal kraut fermentation are lactic acid along with smaller amounts of acetic and propionic acids, a mixture of gases of which carbon dioxide is the principal gas, small amounts of alcohol and a mixture of aromatic esters. The acidity helps to control the growth of spoilage and putrefactive organisms and contributes to the extended shelf life of the product. Sauerkraut
  16. 16. Method  Shredded cabbage or other suitable vegetables are placed in a jar and salt is added. Mechanical pressure is applied to the cabbage to expel the juice, which contains fermentable sugars and other nutrients suitable for microbial activity.  The first micro-organisms to start acting are the gas-producing cocci (L. Mesenteroides). These microbes produce acids. When the acidity reaches 0.25 to 0.3% (calculated as lactic acid), these bacteria slow down and begin to die off, although their enzymes continue to function.  The activity initiated by the L. mesenteroides is continued by the lactobacilli (L. plantarum and L. Cucumeris) until an acidity level of 1.5 to 2% is attained. The high salt concentration and low temperature inhibit these bacteria to some extent. Finally, L. pentoaceticus continues the fermentation, bringing the acidity to 2 to 2.5% thus completing the fermentation.
  17. 17. Trouble Shooting Sauerkraut : Spoilage Defects White Film Safe White Sludge Safe in Small Amounts Unless coupled with slime. Creamy Film Unsafe Yeasty Odour Unsafe Pink Cabbage Unsafe (Caused by Yeast) Browned Cabbage Unsafe Mold Unsafe Slime or Ropy Unsafe (Caused by encapsulated varieties of Lactobacillus plantarum)
  18. 18. Cucumber • The cucumbers are submerged in the brine, ensuring that none float on the surface. The strong brine draws the sugar and water out of the cucumbers, which simultaneously reduces the salinity of the solution. • A few days after the cucumbers have been placed in the brine, the fermentation process begins. The process generates heat which causes the brine to boil rapidly. Acids are also produced as a result of the fermentation. • The colour of the cucumber surface changes from bright green to a dark olive green as acids interact with the chlorophyll. • The interior of the cucumber changes from white to a waxy translucent shade as air is forced out of the cells. Method
  19. 19. Spoilage Defects and Problems in Pickles The production of excessive amounts of acid during the fermentation, results in shrivelling of the pickles, possibly due to over-activity of the L. mesenteroides Softening: Pectinolytic or cellulolytic enzymes may be secreted by contaminating microorganisms. Gaseous spoilage: One defect is termed "bloaters" i.e. pickles that float on the brine or are hollow or have large air spaces in the interior due to formation of gas inside the pickles.
  20. 20. Gundruk Gundruk is particularly popular in Nepal and is a non-salted fermented vegetable product. Gundruk is obtained from the fermentation of leafy vegetables (Mustard, cauliflower and raddish) in Nepal.  Shredded leaves are tightly packed in an earthenware pot and warm water (at about 30oC) is added to cover all the leaves. The pot is then kept in a warm place. After five to seven days, a mild acidic taste indicates the end of fermentation and the gundruk is removed and sun-dried.  Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species are the predominant microorganisms responsible for Gundruk fermentation.  The fermentation is initiated by L. cellobiosus and L. plantarum, and other homolactics make a vigorous growth from the third day onwards. Pediococcus pentosaceus increases in number on the fifth day and thereafter declines . Leafy Vegetables Wilt for One to Two Days Place tightly in an earthen Pot Cover Leaves (The pot is kept Warm in the sun and by a fire at Night Add warm water Products are dried on mats
  21. 21. Gundruk
  22. 22. Sunki  Sunki is a non-salted fermented vegetable product prepared from the leaves of "Otaki-turnip" in Kiso district, Nagano prefecture, Japan. Sunki is eaten with rice and in miso soup. The Production Process  The Otaki-turnip is boiled, inoculated with "Zumi" (a wild small apple) and dried Sunki from the previous year and allowed to ferment for one to two months.  Sunki is produced under low temperature (in winter season). Micro-organisms involved include Lactobacillus plantarum, L. Brevis, Bacillus coagulans and Pediococcus pentosaceus .
  23. 23. Sinki ( Pickled Raddish) Sinki is a non-salted fermented sour pickle prepared from radish tap roots. It is consumed traditionally in India, Nepal and parts of Bhutan, where it is used as a base for soup or eaten as a pickle. It is one of the most popular pickles in Nepal.  Fresh radish roots are harvested, washed and wilted by sun-drying for one to two days.  They are then shredded, re-washed and packed tightly into an earthenware or glass jar, which is sealed and left to ferment.  The optimum fermentation time is twelve days at 30ºC. Sinki fermentation is initiated by L. fermentum and L. brevis, followed by L. plantarum. During fermentation the pH drops from 6.7 to 3.3.  After fermentation, the radish substrate is sun-dried to a moisture level of about 21%.  There is a second processing method involving fermentation in a clay lined pit for two to three months.  For consumption, sinki is rinsed in water for two minutes, squeezed to remove the excess water and fried with salt, tomato, onion and green chilli.  Fried mixture is then boiled in rice water and served hot as soup along with the main meal. Method
  24. 24. Kawal Kawal is a strong smelling Sudanese, protein-rich food prepared by fermenting the leaves of a wild African legume, Cassia obtusifolia and is usually cooked in stews and soups.  It is used as a meat analogue. Its protein is of high quality, rich in sulphur amino acids.  It is a pit fermented vegetable product
  25. 25. Method  All the stems, pods and flowers are removed. The leaves are not washed, since it is thought that natural micro-organisms on the leaves are important for the correct fermentation.  The leaves of the leguminous plant are pounded into paste without releasing the juice. The paste is placed in an earthenware jar and covered with sorghum leaves.  The whole jar is sealed with mud and buried in the ground up to the neck in a cool place. Every three days the contents are mixed by hand.  The fermentation takes about fourteen days. The fermentation is extremely complex.  The main micro-organisms are Bacillus subtilis and Propionibacterium spp. Lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus plantarum; yeasts including Candida krusei and Saccharomyces spp and moulds including Rhizopus spp are also involved. Select Leaves, remove stems and flowers Pound the leaves into a paste using a mortar and pestle Place in a jar covered with sorghum leaves Cover Jar Bury the jar in the pit up to the neck Mix Every three Days After Fermentation, Roll into balls.
  26. 26. Kimchi  Korean Kimchi is a brine salted fermented vegetable product.  Korean people consume 50-500 g/day of kimchi, a fermented blend of radishes, turnips, onions, and Chinese cabbage. Sweet or sour peppers are often included to provide additional flavor.
  27. 27. Method 15% brine is used in the fermentation which occurs at 10-20oC. Lactic acid bacteria is responsible for this fermentation include L. mesenteroides, S. faecalis, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and P. cerevisiae. Because the ingredients do not contain so much sugar, the final pH is 4.2-4.5 (0.8% total acidity).
  28. 28. Ombolo wa koba  In Zaire (Congo) cassava leaves are fermented to produce ombolo wa koba which is traditionally eaten with boiled cassava and plantain bananas.  Cassava leaves are allowed to wilt and turn black. This takes about three to four days.  The cassava leaves are then chopped up and placed in a pot of boiling water for about one hour.  During this processing stage, a water soluble extract of ash is produced by placing the ash of burnt dried banana skins and palm tree flowers in a strainer and pouring water through it.  The extract is then added to the boiled cassava leaves. The extract is alkaline and neutralizes the cyanhydric acid liberated when the leaves are chopped up. Salt and dried fish or meat is also added.  After allowing the cassava leaf mixture to cool a little, acid palm oil is then added. This reacts with the excess alkali and neutralises it. The product is now ready to be eaten
  29. 29. Importance of Fermented Vegetables  Improved Quality • Enrichment of food substrates biologically with vitamins and other Nutrients • Enrichment of the human diet through development of a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and textures in food. • Increase digestibility of Vegetables  Preservation • Preservation of substantial amounts of vegetables  Detoxification • Reduce Anti nutritional Properties in Vegetables during the fermentation process.  A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements
  30. 30.  Medicinal benefits There are many traditional beliefs about the medicinal properties of fermented food products. The Fur ethnic group in Sudan strongly believe that the consumption of fermented foods protects them from disease. However, There are some scientific basis to these assertions includes: • The lowering of the pH inhibits the growth of food spoiling or poisoning bacteria and destroys certain pathogens. • Certain lactic acid bacteria (e.g. Lactobacillus acidophilus) and moulds have been found to produce antibiotics and bacteriocins . • The beneficial health effects of lactic acid bacteria on the intestinal flora are well documented. • Substances in fermented foods have been found to have a protective effect against the development of cancer.
  31. 31. Indigenous Fermented Vegetables: Future Outlook and Recommendations Because of the tremendously important role indigenous fermented vegetables play in food preservation and their potential to contribute to the growing food needs of the world especially in Africa, Latin America, it is essential that the knowledge of their production is not lost and various improvements are made. The potential areas for improvement of fermented vegetable products are; • Improve the understanding and product awareness of fermented vegetables • Refine the processes • Disseminate the improvements • Create a supportive policy environment.
  32. 32. Improve the understanding and product awareness of indigenous fermented vegetables Documenting the traditional knowledge to ensure that the huge diversity is not lost Developing a scientific understanding of the microbial processes, with a view to improving the efficiency of the process. This can be developed by: I. The isolation and characterization of the essential micro- organisms involved; II. The investigation of the effects of pre-treatments of raw materials on the fermentation process III. The identification of the options for further processing and how these affect the taste and texture of the product.
  33. 33. Refining the process The commercially produced products, such as sauerkraut, pickles are all examples of processes which have been studied and optimized. Refining of the process for indigenous fermented vegetables can be achieved through 1. Process Control • The selection or development of more productive microbial strains • The control and manipulation of culture conditions • The improvement of product purification and concentration. • Development of pure starter cultures.
  34. 34. 2. Quality Control The sort of areas that should be investigated include:  Selecting good quality raw materials  Processing under correct conditions  Ensuring high standards of personal hygiene by the food processors  Ensuring the processing area is sufficiently clean  Using correct packaging
  35. 35. Conclusion • Vegetable Fermentation is a desirable process and used as vital tool for preservation of vegetable which are highly perishable. This practice dates back to thousands of Years ago in China. • Fermented products have desirable characteristics such as flavor, improved nutritional quality i.e. Nutrient composition, increase in digestibility, removal of anti nutritional factors etc. • Most traditionally fermented vegetables have remained largely untapped in parts of the world such as Africa, latin America e.t.c • Adequate investment into research and scientific studies should be made so as to commercialize these products. • Examples of Products already consumed largely are sauerkraut, pickled vegetables e.g. cucumber, pepper, olives e.t.c Lactic acid bacteria are the major microorganisms involved in the fermentation of Vegetables.
  36. 36. References • Anestis, M (2006). AP Biology 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional pg 6. • Battock, M and Azam-Ali, S (2000). Fermented Fruits and Vegetables; A Global Perspective. FAO Agricultural Service Bulletin, Italy. Pp 12-35 • Bautista Gallegio, J, Rautsiou, K, Garridio-Fernandez, A, Cocolin, L and Arroyo-Lopez, F.N.(2013) Vegetable Fermentation. Salt Reduction: Reality or Desire. Journal Food Science, Vol 78:8. • Buruleanu, L.C, Bratu, M. G, Manea, I, Avram D., and Nicolescu, C. L (2013). Fermentation of Vegetable Juices by Lactobacillus Acidophilus LA-5, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/lactic-acid-bacteria-r-d-for-food-health-and- livestock-purposes/fermentation-of-vegetable-juices-by-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-5 • Egwim, E, Amanabo, M, Y. and Bello, M (2013). Nigerian Indigenous Fermented Foods: Processes and Prospects, Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries http://www.intechopen.com/books/mycotoxin-and-food-safety-in-developing- countries/nigerian-indigenous-fermented-foods-processes-and-prospects Retrieved 17th March, 2014. • Frazier, J and Westhoff, D.C (2008). Food Microbiology. Indian Special Edition. McGraw Hill Inc., New York
  37. 37. • Hannon, J.R, Bakker A., Lynd, L.R, Wjman, C.E (2007). Comparing the Sale-up of Aerobic and Anaerobic Processes. AICE, Salt Lake City, Utah. Pp 3-4 • Karovica, J. and Kohajdova, Z (2003). Lactic Acid Fermented Vegetables Juices-Palatable Wholesome Foods. Solvak University of Technology, SK-812 37, Bratislava. • Kohajdová, Z and Karovičová, J (2007) Fermentation of Cereals for Specific Purpose. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research Vol. 46, , No. 2, pp. 51-57 • Keller, I (2012). The WHO Fruit and Vegetable Survey-Definitions and RecommendedIntakeshttp://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/media/gs_fv_ppt_ikeller.p df Retrieved 13th March, 2014. • Lynn, P (2010). Canning Pickles and Sauerkraut. Montana State University-Bozeman; and MSU Extension Agents. • Meija, D and Marshall, E (2011).Traditional Fermented Fruits and Beverages for Improved Livelihoods. Rural Infrastructure and Agro industries Decision, Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome, Italy. pp 30-32

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