1. Design is defined as any
arrangement of lines, forms,
colours and textures. A good
design shows on orderly
arrangement of material showed
and in addition creates beauty in
the finished product and in addition
fulfill a particular function.
2. History of Interior Design
Traditionally the carpenter or the store-keeper used to advise the
arrangement of interiors for their clients.
Until the First World War interior decoration was closely related to
the trade of antiques.
The social and economic situation during the 20th century
increased the importance of an interior decorator. Interior
decoration is still remain luxury available only to the upper class
of the society.
Certain status is attached in the society in taking professional
advise to the appearance of home or work place.
3. It is one of the profession in which women did very well. Interior
decorators were mainly responsible for selecting suitable textiles, floor
and wall coverings, furniture, lighting and colour schemes for room.
God has gifted humans with anonymous talents to generate new
creations, ideas and skills. One of the biggest interests that human
always had was bent for living in an almost pleasing and comfortable
In his eagerness to live in good surrounding, man has constantly
experimented upon his mental projects, which were ultimately laid done
by him on paper.
---- projects after passing centuries of tastes have given birth to
profession …. Interior Designing. Interior designing is one of the most
existing and …… occupation in life for long time.
4. The problem starts with the planning of
their homes their furnishings and their
apparel and extends upto their community
Throughout history, the taste of designers
has been undergoing alterations
constantly and has resulted in the success
of various forms of designs.
Today we refer more to the art of designing
which encompasses every aspect of selection and arrangement.
5. Thus creating a design is a problem for everyone and not just for
students alone with their so called artistic ability.
Consequently, each one of us needs a through background to
appreciate, to select and to arrange the elements to create
We surrounded with beautiful things everywhere around us. The
nature has many beautiful things that make living pleasant for us.
Almost all objects which we choose and use everyday have a
certain amount of aesthetic value.
It is important therefore to know some of the fundamentals of
developing a good taste in choosing these objects of daily living.
6. Good taste in selecting things is
inborn in some, although everyone has
a natural ability to recognize beauty
and suitability in their surroundings.
This latent talent can be developed by
study observation and experience in
solving creative problems.
Developing good taste in selecting
things is not enough to creative a
beautiful surroundings, but these
objects have to be arranged and
displayed in proper way.
7. Thus, for economy and beauty in developing good taste lies in
proper selection and arrangement of things you buy everyday.
There is a general misconception that art is decoration. The
wall of our houses are covered with pictures and calendars
and all sorts of decorative objects that it becomes confusing.
We cannot appreciate the beauty of object unless it is
displayed attractively. Decoration is fine so long as it
enhances the basic structure of the article.
Too much of decoration is as bad as too little. Aesthetic
beauty of an object is seen in its line, form, colour and
8. Where it is a house, hotel, office or school, people have started
recognizing the importance of pleasant and cheerful
An attractive orderly arrangement in a room radiates
Interestingly decorated windows and attractive lamps and
pictures lend a finishing touch to the interiors.
Colours which blend with each other unite various items in a
room and give it a pleasing glow.
Beautiful surroundings constitute the most important factor of
any environment whether it is for work or relaxation.
9. Environment which is comfortable and beautiful has a
decided effect on output of a worker. A room decorated in
good taste and with a comfortable temperature can make
work more pleasant and not a prison.
Similarly one can relax thoroughly in pleasant
surrounding. The result effect can be created by soothing
colours and textures and by using lines and forms of
objects which are soft, smooth and comfortable.
Selection of a good design plays an important role in
creating beautiful objective and surroundings.
10. Design – Meaning
The term ‘design’ means aim, intention, plan, scheme, selection and
organization. When these terms are put together, they describe the total
design procedure of deciding on one’s aim developing a plan or approach
and selecting and organizing the form and materials best suited to the
In the visual art, designer works with the elements of art and design, by
selecting and arranging them to suit a purpose, which might be to create
something that is purely functional or purely ornamental or both.
In simple words, design is the selecting and arranging of materials, with
two aims – order and beauty, the order denoting organization or structure
and beauty that shows character through interpretation of an idea by an
11. In doing so, the designer express various ideas, moods and
values and such expressions evoke some response in the minds
of the viewers.
It is interpretation of idea by an individual which is based on the
psychological or emotional significance attached with certain
lines, forms, colours and textures. Importance of good design is
not limited to artists and painters. It is an essential requirement of
any object whether it is decorative or functional. Appreciation of
beautiful things and using them attractively in our surrounding
also reflects our aesthetic taste.
In a nutshell, “design can be defined as the selection and
arrangement of lines, forms, colour and texture of an object in
space, or a drawing of it on a piece of paper.
12. Need for Design
Design, as ever, is directed by the use and combination of tools and materials,
methods and construction and use as well as the designer’s personality and
creativity. It helps the students of design to develop a philosophy and a creative
approach to design as a way of life and to learn to analyze a design to make a
wise choice, considering both utility and beauty.
By learning to use and live with such selections of artistic objects, design finds a
definite place in one’s daily life. No text or a course by itself can guarantee that a
student would automatically develop the knowledge and understanding the
designs. It takes the eye, the hand, the brain and the heart to make a good design.
Therefore, the students must therefore study, see, feel and evaluate their
reactions to explore and experiment new designs. With increased understanding
of designs, one can not only create a functional environment, but can also enjoy
a more satisfying life in a beautiful environment.
13. Types of Design
We must learn to judge the expressiveness of any design, by the way
all the elements are blended together to create the total effect. It is not
possible to study line without colour and texture. Neither it is possible
to ignore the effects that colour and texture have an each other.
Therefore the over-all design effect results from the intermingling of
these elements of these elements and we must learn to understand
how these elements work with one another in producing something
that is pleasing to the eye. In this manner, a number of designers can
be created. In all designs can be broadly be divided into two
categories. They are
14. Structural Design
While structural design is basic to all objects, decorative design
refers to the surface enrichment of these objects. Thus designing
the structure of an object is a “must” while decorative design
could be “optional”. Structural design is “essential” to all object.
In structural design the structure determines the form and
enrichment comes from the materials used. It is the design made
by the size, form, colour and texture of the object whether it be the
object intself in space or a drawing of that object worked out on
paper. Any line, colour, material that have been y and to constitute
its decorative design. Much of our modern design is of this type,
with form dictated by function. There is very little ornamentation
as far as such designs are concerned.
15. Requirements of a good structural design
The phrase “form follows function” is correctly applied to all structural
design. The real meaning is that form and function are complementary to
each other. In practice, we find a large number of objects with different
design, meant for different uses. It is necessary that all these objects are
of good designs. Some may be good and others, poor. A few guidelines or
requirements, the design is good or poor. If the designs conforms to
these guidelines or requirements, the design can be called a good one
and vice versa. Colddtein and Coldstein, 1960, lists four requirements for
a good structural design, when the object is these requirements. The
designer considers whether the form, colour and texture have given
enough interest to the object or, if a sense of bareness remains, it needs
to be relieved. In some structural designs, the forms, colours and textures
are already so beautiful that one does not feel the necessity for
16. The requirements for a good structural design
In addition to be being beautiful, it should be suited to its purpose
It should be simple
It should be well proportionate
It should be suited to the material of which it is made and to the processes which
will be followed in making it.
The design also has to do with the function of an object or the purpose for
which a form was created. Becoming familiar with the function of an object may
lead to a greater appreciation of the resulting solution. This function an always
be looked at as both aesthetic and utilitarian.
It is important that the design should suit the materials of which it is made and
to the processes followed in making it. While purchasing any article, one must
make a close scrutiny of the article, as to what is the purpose and how it was
made. The honesty of the designer and the technique involved in making an
object should get reflected at the mere appearance or look of it.
17. Decorative Design
Decorative design is the surface enrichment of a structural design. By surface
enrichment, it is meant the applied decoration, such as printed or painted
design, one that is etched, carved, appliqued or otherwise executed to decorate
the surface of the area. Any lines, colours or materials that have been applied to
a structural design for the purpose of adding a richer quality to it constitute its
decorative design. Decoration in generals, is the luxury of design. The elements
are simplified, exaggerated, rearranged by these decorative designs. Therefore
it can be said that decorative design can be created for meeting various
purpose and ideas.
Requirements of good decorative design
Once the designer has decided that the object will be enhanced by decoration
and that its structural design is simple and beautiful as well as functional, the
designer can plan his / her decoration.
Whether it is the decoration of a vase, chair, table or a costume the design.
18. Requirements of good decorative design
Once the designer has decided that the object will be enhanced by decoration and that its
structural design is simple and beautiful as well as functional, the designer can plan his/her
Whether it is the decoration of a vase, chair, table or a costume, the design. The decoration
should fulfill the following conditions:
The decoration should be strengthen the shape of the object by emphasizing
harmonizing with its proportions should be used in moderation.
It should reinforce the function of the object.
The decoration should be suitable for the materials and the service it must give.
There should be enough background space to give an effect of simplicity and dignity to
19. Surface patterns should cover the surface quietly.
The background shapes should be as carefully studies and as
beautiful as the pattern placed against them.
It should express individually and creative thinking.
While designing a decorative object. It is important to see that the
design is suitable to the material of which it is being made. If care is
taken to keep this point to mind, the design is made suitable to its
purpose or use. When the decorative design is placed all over the
space on the bowl, the bowl itself becomes beautiful and can be used
exclusively as a decorative piece on a mental place. When the
decorative design is used in modernisation and placed at structural
points, with enough background space, the decorative design will not
only be highlighted, but also makes the object most suitable for its
20. The future of interior Design
It is clear that in the future there will be a greater need for
designers to be knowledgeable about the complex and technical
aspects of interior design.
Increased litigation over design projects points the increasing
accountability of interior designers for the environments they
As more states pass title registration act and require licensing,
qualified interior designers will enjoy increased recognition in
the legal and business areas.
This trend should further protect the public against those who
are not qualified practice in the field.
21. Finally, computer technology promises to play a commanding role in the
future of interior designer.
Increasingly capable database and business management applications will
assists in the coordination of research and documentation, analysis,
organisation and processing of all the documentation handled by the interior
Financial programs will aid in preparing estimates, purchasing goods and
services and monitoring budgets.
Graphic applications such as CAD will become more powerful; we might even
expect that designers and clients will utilize virtual reality as a tool for
visualizing and planning how an interior will look and feel.
In addition to predictions we can make on the basis of what we presently
know, we can sure that computer technology will continue to burgeon and as
a result, that things we may not even be able to imagine will become possible
as the interior design profession moves ahead in the twenty first century.
22. Design specialties and related fields
Art and accessory dealerships - Selling fine art and / or unique
accessories retail to the public or wholesale to interior designer.
Colour consultation – for marketing firms, industry, architectural
or interior design firms, business corporations, government.
Buying – for large department and furniture stores. Buyers
select floor merchandise or lines (merchandise offered by
particular companies) carried by the company.
Cabinet, closet and storage design – custom design to suit
individual, needs or dealerships in retail modular storage
23. Communication design – working with specialized needs in
officers for computer terminal stations, telecommunication
conference room and other areas.
Construction / Project management – overseeing the
construction and acting as liaison between client and
contractor. This may include hiring the architect. Engineers,
subcontractors, craftspeople and consultants.
Design for corporate parties – charity balls, design shows or
other large gatherings where there must be organizations of
many details within a given length of time.
Design for the handicapped, aged or inform – including design
for medical facilities, rest homes, residences or products.
25. Structural Design
It is a design made up
of size, form, colour and
structure of an object. It is
essential to every object.
Bad structural Design
26. It should be beautiful
It should be simple
It should be proportionate
It should be suitable to the
It should be suited to the
material of which it is made
It should be suitable to the
process which will be followed
in making it.
Requirements of good Structural Design
27. Requirements of good Decorative Design
Decoration should be in moderation.
Decoration should be placed at structural
points and strengthen the shape of the
Decoration should have enough background
space will give simplicity and dignity to the
The surface pattern should cover the
The decoration should be suitable for the
materials and the service it must give.
31. Conventional Design
The natural source of the
stylized motif, but the design makes
no pretence at actual representation.
Flowers, animals and figures are
favourite themes. They are simplified.
Exaggerated. Re-arranged or even
distorted to achieve the purposes of
the designs. The colouring of stylized
design may also be unconventional.
32. Abstract Design
patterns are based on
geometric forms. The
abstract design is also a
type of stylized design;
takes place to such an
extent that distortion
35. Biomorphic Design
• Biomorphic designs are mostly made of curves. Eg. Sea waves, wak drippings.
• Structural design is far more important than decorative design because it is
essential to every object while decoration is the luxury of a design
• Since art is involved in most of the object seen and used every day, one should
have a knowledge of the principles fundamentals to good taste. Good taste is the
application of the principles of design to the problems in life where appearance as
well as utility is a consideration.
• Good taste includes selection and arrangement of all belongings as well as
36. Finally all decorative designs can be categorized as unique
creations, when it expresses individuality. Creative thinking plays
a significant role in preparing beautiful and exemplary objects.
Designs are created carefully to express their functional quality,
i.e. their exclusive use and the purpose, as a decorative object or
otherwise. Some objects are created for the sake of beauty only
and are not connected in the designer’s mind with practical use.
When an object is chosen for their appearance alone, they should
be judged critically, because our taste must grow up toward
beauty and we must learn to discard that are inferior aesthetically.
37. The designer whose work shows fine quality, adapts and
conventionalizes or stylizes his design to suit the materials
he is using. He does not attempt to deceive by imitating
real object, as flowers and fruits, done in materials like
wood, clay, plastics or threads, but having decided to take
flower / leaf idea as the theme of his decoration, he alerts it
The shape of the object
The purpose for which the object will be used
The limitation of the material
The tool and processes he must use while making the
38. • Thus a lot of effort is put in to create objects either for beauty or for
• A good judgement of structural and decorative design is essential for any
person while selecting an object. If a design is to give satisfaction, it
cannot stop at being merely correct, but should go beyond that for the
person to get maximum amount of satisfaction from the object he has
purchased. It must have character or style and individuality. A distinctive
feature of a designed object is style. When a design possesses a positive
and dramatic appearance, it is said to be ‘decorative’, i.e., it has a
‘decorative quality’. These two terms denote character in a design and
are different from decorative design. ‘decorative quality’ is never found in
a design that is ‘pretty’ or ‘sentimental’ and it does not appear in imitative
designs. Simplicity is an attribute of ‘decorative quality’, while fussy
elaborations is never associated with a good decorative design.
Everyone dreams of beautiful and comfortable
home where one can express one’s choice and
individuality. Their interior arrangement of the house
which is functional as well as beautiful provides the
highest satisfaction to the inmates of the house. The
homemakers or family members themselves may
decorate the interiors or may assign this responsibility to
the professional interior decorators. By following certain
guidelines even one can decorate the interiors which can
provide utmost satisfaction.