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Science - All About Animals 2

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This is a continuation of the previously done work on Animals (which can be found here: http://www.slideshare.net/aoweiyang/animals-42759738).

This deck is created based on the Science Syllabus Primary 2014 (Singapore), which serves as a foundation for scientific studies at higher levels.

The illustrations provided can be used as a complementary material for teaching, as well as for reading by students who wish to expand their knowledge through additional self-effort.

And of course it is also meant for anyone who is interested in the topic itself and does it for leisure reading.

Feel free to drop me some comments or suggestions.

Subject: Science
Level: Lower Primary School, Singapore (Should be equivalent to Grade 3 - 4 for Western Countries)
Topic: Diversity of Living and Non-Living Things
Sub-topic: Animals

Publicada em: Ciências
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Science - All About Animals 2

  1. ANIMAL ) I. '-, BASED ONTHE SCIENCE %LlABUS (PRlMARYSCl'K)OL). M| NTRYOF EDUCATT SINGAPORE -' DIVERSITY OF LIVING AND NON‘LlVING THINGS ‘ I
  2. Produced b :33 ' Yang Ao wg |4angaoW¢I@ovrI00k. com
  3. WHAT'S INSIDE 1. 8. 6. Insects - Ahuutlnsects - Characteristics - Types - Wingedlnsects - Vlingiesslnsects - Auuaticlnsects BASED ON THE SCIENCE FILLABUS (PRIll. ARYSCI'l)OI. )~ MINTRYOF EDUC. AT| % SINGAPOE — DIVERSII‘! OF LIVING AND N}‘LIVWG THINGS Mammals About Type: Reptiles About Type: Mammals characteristics land Mammals Aquatic Mammals Reptiles Characteristics crocodilians Turttes 8. Tortoises Snakes Lizards
  4. — _‘¢A-o-. . - -__*AAA. ..- ‘AAA. ..’ ‘---. ..
  5. ABIIUT INSECTS
  6. A Insects are the largest group in the animal kingdom and there ' — A are ahoutl million (but could be much more) living species. 132,» *7‘ They are divided into 29 groups or orders. I » ' I ; I. ’ 4 ‘I ‘ ~ 4'] ’/ 1 ‘E; ,. ‘ . y ‘ -. A ' a V I I I » _ ‘ I > 5 L’ _ ‘I V . F ‘ ~ ABOUT INSECTS , . “SW5
  7. Beetle, the largest group, contains more than 310,000 species. vs I- V In vs Z I- 3 O Q 4
  8. Beetles, the largest group, contains more than 370,000 species. Following that is the butterfly, with 150,000 species. vs I- V In vs 5 I- 3 O M 4
  9. Insects do not have backbones and belong to a group of invertebrates known as ARTHROPO0S, along with arachnids, myriapods, molluscus, and crustaceans. E -~, I “A -A 4 ‘ at ' ‘ / / } “. -, _ l V, ‘ I‘ d I: I” I I VI. » has TV . V “-"V ' "“ I. »-‘O ‘V , ‘_| I 1 “I, X” A ‘I lo _> . -"6. / L I - I lr’ ‘ ‘. . ~ 3 I: 3‘, I, ‘ 3‘ ‘V S "3: L ' . I. V . _ ‘ _ I . i ' > "5 ‘ “, ~I / ’ I F A . ’/1"’; . "". ::3'a-'”". . : .--a-. ‘ 7 ' ‘ ‘ "“ I ‘ ' gkx, . P. . " "” , b“ '«:7——_-:7‘-I“ >__~. ‘_-, _‘ - c. - _. v - . > . ... I W‘, N‘ 40 »r»‘~. "“ T‘; -')’ "~ " 3‘ ‘ ' ""“"‘/ -'»- $5 I . ta. ’ I . , , .,, ,9». . . -q .3‘. ~s5Q-‘.9: ~-I - &IRéS@I}'I]lR‘I[l@§ A5ST? IR[IA| }>@@§ ZI¥S@[Lfl. QD§@QD§ @| RQD§‘FA@lEAlI‘‘I§
  10. ,‘ l 1 I 0 ~‘l An insect has an exeskeleton, a 3-part body, 3 pairs I of legs, and a pair of antennae (or feelers). " _ -8 —-< f. . I . -2 _J'‘‘ ' ‘—f1~'“-1 . «"3 | l‘. 1 .
  11. vs I- U in vs Z I- D O M 4 They undergo either an incomplete (3-stage) or a complete (4-stage) metamorphosis. metarmrlnsis : (in an insector amphibian) tie prurzss oi transformirg fmm an immature form to an adult form in tin or more oistinctstqes
  12. For those which undergo a complete (4-stage) metamorphosis, the larvae look completely different from their parents. @ : the active immature form of an imectesyncially one that differs greatlylmmtle adult and fonnstle stqe lntreenegg and pupa In I- V , . In vs z . I‘ 4.. I : I. 5 - In - - : 0 uowmnmv _ ,6, , ,_ _- ‘ g &)) C ‘‘_. :I'; ‘ ‘I: .1, ‘. K’‘‘ i ’ O ‘(O . ' 3' . c. - . . J‘ ‘V. . '5‘ '1' ‘I . " 0 ", .x , -‘ 0. . _ . . ‘ oowaneew ((A@QDIl. fi§)
  13. .1.‘ ‘ . ‘ And for those that undergo an incomplete (3-stage) metamorphosis, the larvae (usually known as nymphs) lookjustlilte the smaller version of their parents. @alRA§§lHl©ElR omvmizveuo / . V @RA§§E1 ((A| DQDlL‘Ei’in
  14. ABOUT INSECTS It is elid that the largest insect is the White Witch moth, having a wingspan of about 28cm. » ‘ 2’ A e
  15. AB; o;u1f rpesews The longestinfisect is the stick-insect, which is known to be over 36 cm.
  16. ABOUT INSECTS The smallest insect is the fairyfly, which has a bwrgth ofiust about 0.13 to 0.5 mm.
  17. CHARACTERISTICS CF INSECTS
  18. Have Exoskeleton Have 3-Part Body »-O ‘V '. ‘I : _. A I , K . Have 3 Pair Of Legs Have A Pair of Antennae
  19. i@fl@@@zrn Insects do not have bones‘) an sletons. The exoskeleton is the hard uter coing that maes up their skeleton. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
  20. All insects have a 3-part body consisting of the: ABDOMEN v ‘_’ I- 2 K HI I- U 4 Z 4 I U . | 3 V In Q- vs 33cvtE>: e@ @@Tly
  21. '_: l_Hj+"fl_r -' . T @ mega 'TI'l}{]©lRA$3 They always have 3 pairs of jointed legs which are all attached to the thorax (middle part) of the body.
  22. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS .1» . l 4 ' 'a'. :' . A - . .. -' , :y, .gv . . at 3:, » *—. .V* . ,.-y, -. -. r - Theyhave a pair of antennae (or feelers) attached to their head. The antennae are their main sense organs which they use to feel, smell, hear and communicate.
  23. TYPES CF INSECTS
  24. Wmged Insects T-. ‘if’ '0 - —’T. '.~ ,7 ,4 / /, . V ' p I'. ..{ TYPES OF INSECTS: Wingless Insects Aquatic Insects
  25. Majority of the insects in the world are winged insects. V I- )- $' Ill- ‘if V‘ ",5 3 3 3. 3 >- I-
  26. ~-»; -_. - *1: pry-. -a3 WINGED INSECTS Among them, most have 2 pairs of wings while only a small number (belonging to a group called DIPTERA), have onlyl pair. Below are some examples of Diptera:
  27. TYPES UF INSECTS . . '1 . ‘ _-, . ' n . 7. - I , . , _. _ 1 ’ '. — 7‘: . K K‘. x ; H ’ as T rearea leeolinginseetsthatare ‘r -g r V‘/ w’)«2 . -. '-4‘ ‘ml “ 7 best known for producing ‘X. "§T"/ ;,. ”/ J 4;’ [3 honey (a sweet food). / ‘(”~“"«o/ .' ‘“‘$~«-"- 3 '“. ”—T*. *'; ' 1 . - » §a; /’ species of these llower- / f«, , we . u I. l l l a / 7/ .[: '/ .-"9“'_, /3.~'? t; X/A/ .}4/‘_,4.
  28. TYPES OF INSECTS . }y Bees are also known for their role in the / ' B . . . / »/4,2‘. pollination of plants, which enables / I them to fertilize and reproduce. .', -f I : __ ‘ ygmrztlepromsslrywhichynlbnistranslerredlrom i: E ‘I 1 I tleantber(malepart)totlestgma(lemaIepart)olalhwer.
  29. TYPES OF INSECTS . '-'. LL“. '.'. ‘H. ' LL*‘. l;Ll‘. ’T. ":' They are stinging insects and therefore keenly avoided by many people because a bee sting can be quite painful! I’ ‘ I I . . I g I I : BEE ’
  30. TYPES GE INSECTS u_-w:13.: on Houseflies belong to a family of flies known as Muscidae, which contains about 4,000 species. They are the most common among _ r all household flies. _
  31. .4 2, , --—- V‘ v '1 " @t. ';J@o, £smA lam-n= r:gooas 5 “. I- V H G E 9| " - 3 ' E 3 é$[R‘1‘L—r‘[K]| }3A§X§ @&QD§U}€l@ A@'iFlERllé$ vs I- U Ill vs Z IL 0 vs III Q. )' I- . I These pest are also known as “filthy flies” as they carry bacteria that cause diseases like typhoid fever, cholera and anthrax.
  32. TYPES GE INSECTS . '-'. l. L“. l:H. ' L| .*‘. hL“. ’T. ";' 0ne adult fly can carry overl million bacteria, which it usually picks up on its hairy legs and then transmits them by contaminatingthe food that we eat. transmg : causes somethirg to passive lmm one thirg to amtlser T. g. - contaminatlmmlrirgsonsethirgimpureordirty ‘ ‘E " ' , _
  33. Ebzcezyi g Meomxfiisgg There are over 2,300 species of mantises 3 worldwide. % I- vi 1 V‘ . Zr 1 O % HI H. )- I-
  34. '-»; -_. - ’I: ly. v-. -33. WINCED INSECTS These fierce insects are predatory and eat other small insects.
  35. ‘I! ;_| _.*-. ".'; ;1 “ WINCED INSECTS "‘vI: -.- These fierce insects are predatory and eat other small insects. Larger species have been known to prey on other animalslike scorpions, lizards, frogs and even birds. l gg‘gl:2ll'| ll, -.7ll| llilTtllllnlflilllllillllll
  36. WINCED INSECTS TYPES OF INSECTS L ' :1’! J Praying mantises are popularly us I eilby many flow ; un er and vegetable ‘ ' gardeners as a natural pest controller in their gardens. _4J! ' "'0 ‘I’
  37. INIGED IN. $E¢_TS' Garden pes s like aphids and grasshoppers often feed on and destroy the plants grown in gardens. When praying mantises are TYPES OF INSECTS put into the gardens, they start eating up all these pests.
  38. WINCED INSECTS More examples of winged insects: 9); ‘ “ N‘ _, _g . . B X , /‘A/ f lLA@»? ?QJJ@ . ‘~ I §&[R‘llDlFl1R? . . l‘r @@@[RlR@A@l}l] 1’: - ; - - .27‘ . ' I . I’ ,1’ @lR&@: ©lR‘llFfl, ’??
  39. Winged Insects , ,.. ;_. ,. -'~ . . . I .2 I-7 "V ' . ' I --s '. / h L: Wingless IIIseCts Aquatic Insects
  40. TYPES GE INSECTS WINGLESS INSECTS Wingless insects undergo little or even no metamorphosis.
  41. k. . As they cannot fly, most have developed the 4 ability to crawl extremely fast so that they ; can escape from their predators. E V -5.. I- _Z 33 -I §Z *3 I-
  42. TYPES GE INSECTS WINCLESS INSECTS 400 species of these little insects exist in our world.
  43. ‘I! lyx-. -33 I. ‘ . :.v l~-_.1: ‘ The silverfish body is elongated and flattened, and often covered in scales that give them a silver-gray color.
  44. .42‘: . D~A. M.A. (4E$ ON A Bf@l@lI. '( 6.AIl'J}S1EiD Bl-Y SIl.7-'/ ‘EII‘. IlF; |lSf| ‘.'I ~. :'»: —v—-— 4~—~r ; v—-—_——‘v-7 ‘I. TYPES GE INSECTS wmcuss INSECTS . . ‘-752 ; . f. ’’’Silverfish are common household pests, feeding on starchy i‘ materials such as wallpaper, books, or starched clothing.
  45. vs I- V In vs E vs vs In -I V Z 3 Filceax There are over 2,000 species of these common bloodsucking pgrorganisnis that liveon orin amtlserorganism (the lost), in avaythat visually harmllielnst vs I- V In vs E II. 0 vs III H. )' I-
  46. ‘I: l_| _.*-. '~}_: : ‘'7. "#3 Though there are several species of fleas that can infest your home, by farthe most common species found (on cats or dogs) is the Bat Flea.
  47. I2 V‘: '''''v “at Z; 3% .32 *3 I- . __> ‘ ‘ _‘-r‘. '§'_' - V ‘- . . _ L‘ 1 _ A x I (‘Hag They prefer blood from your pet, but in the absence I of a cat or dog as host, fleas will bite people. i‘i ‘ ¢‘ _ ll .
  48. TYPES UF INSECTS WINGLESS INSECTS 1’ Bed bugs or bed lice A and appear reddish-brown when engorged with blood. Llflfalicausedmswellwhhhholhraoerorawlluid ' ' ‘ . l M 5- — . *5 are oval and flat, brown in colour
  49. TYPES 0F INSECTS WINGLESS INSECTS . " ; =‘ ‘ . ; - r. 4/ . .'—. /i ’ "‘ ’ Q. . - . ,' "‘- -jz. They like to hide in the day and come out at night in search of blood - from humans and other mammals.
  50. vs I" V In vs Z an 0 v u A )' I- . ‘ ' "*2 / .="‘ '. T. ’‘; ‘h _ . These nuisances usually hide in mattresses, carpets, hehind peeling paint or wallpaper, and in crevices in wooden furniture (like in the cracks of the wooden headhoard of a bed).
  51. More examples of wingless insects : TERMWE @VV©lRlK%E51R§) [KIEAIE [LIKE §©llL Mllffli ' f 4: -f ! ! " ~ l . « §N@W §@@lRlPl]@lR’l §N©W [FIIJEA zA[PD‘{]lI@ ((§l? lR[I: ‘l@»§) @Ad¥bl? @@l§A vs -5. I- -2 III 33 -I §Z *3 I-
  52. Winged Insects Wingless Insects I Aquatic Insects
  53. TYPES OF INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS Truly aquatic, or waer insects spend at least a portion of their lives in the water, either skimming along on
  54. W A TER S U RF A«(‘E : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 TYPES OF INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS I v’ To breathe, some aquatic insects like Water S ‘ Sticks have breathing tubes that extend to the surface of the water to take in air.
  55. x J A llthers, such as the great diving beetles, breathe through air bubbles which they trap and carry with them while they submerge underwater. llnce the oxygen in the bubble is used up, they have to re- surface for new ones.
  56. Water sticks belong touthefamilyfof ater Scorpions which is made up of about 270 species. "‘ .8‘ ' I TYPES GE INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS I
  57. , [Z _: _ T’ at . . l~* ”; ‘fl ' -‘; “;_3_ { ".1-je .0 "/ ,3 ‘. ‘ if ; ;,. _ . ‘ v f. g . P Q ‘ T6’! .‘ V v- " -~ - u v S“ » Y‘ Y z 3*‘ f‘ Y 4% - z N a . ... . IL v 1V 59' 1 4‘ O : 2 ~ ’ - ‘ VI 3 I . _ W U . 9- < ~‘-“S s )- .1‘ * ~ I- They usually crawl on aquaticegetatio above or below the water while they hunt for tadpoles, small fish and other insects or their eggs.
  58. PRAYING MANTIS :2 gr. ‘ «T Z; --2 Or- «.3 go )_< I- like the praying mantises, their front legs are adapted for capturing and holding live preys.
  59. TYPES GE INSECTS A_QUATlC INSECTS ' There are about lllll known species of backswimmers.
  60. These insects are called “backswimmers” because they swim upside down - on their back.
  61. I3 I / = 35 . , '1' — Z " IL v "'~ ‘ ~~' — 4: O I- V5; I! ‘ 2: v <- * < B»‘OeCI($WIMMER I- . l The backswimmer is often mixed up with the Water Boatman, which looks very similar in appearance. (*A backswimmer swims upside down but a water boatman doesn't. ) W L: /‘—. 'J? EIR lE‘: <@c’§. ‘T5$‘o/ ;vlFil
  62. TYPES GE INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS Dragonflies are often referre d to as ancient insects because A -_ their ancestors existed even before the dinosaurs. 1‘-? ._
  63. TYPES GE INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS 1 . Today, more than 2,800 species of these predatory insects are still in existence.
  64. ‘E 5‘ ‘ . _ 5, ‘ ‘ ‘ A t a F T E : 4 ‘ it . 1!; ij‘J ' , I S c Q; *"(Q. £'. . - ~ C -2»? :s. 'I. ... ,.. ., _ The young of dragonflies (called nymphs) spend their entire time inside the water until they reach adulthood where they 3 start developing wings and are ready to move out of water. - 1‘%: ::; ...7~f ; & 13.55 p TYPES OF INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS ‘ ~¢r, :! . o"'| ‘
  65. TYPES GE INSECTS AQUATIC INSECTS An adult dragonfly is a true master of flight, capable of moving vertically up or down, flying backwards, stopping and hovering in mid-air, and doing all of these at full speed or in slow motion!
  66. Dragonflies can be easily confused with damselflies, which look almost identical. :2 3: ; § —z I- '62 4 3: > I-
  67. *1: l| .*'. - gt , .1. l / J‘. I ' "' . ,, ' -(. ~ t . _ @l73[S@@l? ’llED, . V, Dragonflies can be easily confused with damselflies, which look almostidentical. g J, r ll To differentiate, look at the position of the wings when the insect is at rest - a dragonf| y’s wings remain open when it is at rest while a damselfly’s wings are folded.
  68. More examples of aquatic insects: WATER | }3©ZA‘t'J’AAAl: ‘‘l fl git «e Z; --2 ov- me‘. go *4 I- $3T@lR‘l[fiEl1~R? GREAT’ lDl'. R7lI: ‘‘l@r IBEIETILE IEARASIELIFTLS? @$3©lR‘TlElL’T?
  69. hllllklhlhbl/ HMS
  70. AB0llT MAMMALS
  71. There are about 5,400 species of mammals alive today.
  72. 4- _-v; '-" (VIII - ’ They are the only animalsthat raise their young on milk . ‘.“
  73. LHJANT [H][l? >@@ lK§AlR’]@Afi3©@ DQQDRAAN All mammals have hair (or for), covering at least part of their body at some time during their life. 2' 2 2 < 2 I- 3 o M < @lRAl? £l@rQlJ'fi’Al§l | P©fl. A|R EAR ZIRA
  74. ABOUT MAMMALS The largest mammal is the blue whale, with a length of up to 30 meters long.
  75. , ’ , _ I ’ T MIAI ABRAMS TANK SOT/ ISU TOOIIEDM BLUE WHILE l l
  76. . -- ‘ 2:» “so-; ~_, ’ — , _~, J;_5_. _»_-‘_"_'-‘x515 efirsfi-. .rq, ,S‘-_ -34’. 1 . . . -. . . . . .. . . . ..- . v_ .1 ‘A The largest land mammal is the African Bush elephant, which is almost? meters long and 3.3 meters tall.
  77. ABOUT MAMMALS ~» ’ ‘T972’ kl’-‘D * T «A The tallest mammal is the giraffe, 0 . .. ‘ »‘-. ~‘7 ‘'5 , ‘ K . W, ._ E ; ._. ‘I‘ - V standing at 0 meters tall. i~ 2"‘: K. C I ".7, 4,7,. , , -7 J‘. T =4 3“ 3- ‘: iv. %, §' I l.15i*: s~ C’. J
  78. ABOUT MAMMALS The smallest mammal is the bumblebee bat, which measures about 29 - 33 mm.
  79. CHARACTERISTICS CF MAMMAIS
  80. Warm-Blooded Give Eirfih ‘E0 Young Alive El ,7- I » 7 ‘ A ‘ ‘ NW1» . 3. , ‘ ‘+1:. LLA. ..‘:4i“; .,. 1 --£’. .'. ‘1.Jl'; .L-, ' .4 _. Have Hair or Fur . 'E‘he'E’oung' . ' . . ; /v - ~ » ~; »-— ~, . . “CI/ jylgg‘ r U) . >.1- , / I ,
  81. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS . F All mammals are warm-blooded, capable of producing their own body heat and maintainingtheir body temperature. No matter how much the temperature of the surrounding changes, their body temperature remains pretty muohtheesame. nraintainig zeausirg a mndithn to eontim:
  82. _ : ‘ LI‘. _-. fifl _1_l‘1_§: "l_W_(; .‘; ‘ I 1-‘ T ‘l "I "7! n V l7 T In 1'] “' , :f—; .*, T ) f: _ [-4 A '—+ ~ ‘ "”“ ; ‘: A;xv*g3 abx; zE , fl Almost all mammals give birth to their young. The babies grow and develop inside the mother to fully formed young before they are born.
  83. _ jlM5:"i_”1(; .‘: ' _. _‘"fl _ _ llnly 2 specials mammals lay eggs instead of giving birth, and they are the sprny anteaters and the platypus. ‘ V, L K K , -‘: l~‘ ‘" , , ~‘“‘V&““ ' "’/ ’ . . K‘) H, ‘. . ‘t_ ,1 , / I I ‘, M, ‘ k; ‘s‘‘ V 7 '~. . H . g, ) I ? .;~_§ x , ~, a , “‘ a . I 7 L : , ' ‘'_~’ ‘ x. “ -. §?= ~ 1-: ,e; ex<m 2 .22; , 972 $551!": Q u as. » '7 ""‘ ' " -1, -e . --w ‘ . r 1 -' - 4*‘ x)-3:“ ' T-“"‘ »/ ‘ E
  84. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTHCS 7? V u7"" " ' »’ , "A L ‘forganisms possess true hair, which can take on several 4 , :,§f§, j;diilerent forms including for, whiskers, quills or horns. -, _~ . ._, -_. . r‘ _‘ K‘. 7 , / 1/’ '- . « 5+ — 4‘ r A , __{. _e A W
  85. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTHCS H Mammals nurse their young with milk produced by mammary glands. The milk provides the young with much needed protein, vitamins and salts. 1.. f‘ ~ 7
  86. TYPES 0F MAMMALS
  87. . -. «-, j;"‘: .vu. E Land Mammal ‘T'‘‘: - . ;:; ..: W " * fl“, .. '.~ - 1'-Q‘ l . .- 1-~" . i.-: . :3. ~.4;~‘-*4 ‘ft ‘,1 ~u~ "I -1.9!‘ an] ‘*. _ ' . .I>-*1‘ sip: __-’. g ‘ . ‘{7.-’o. '~'vV, '.i‘u'7( -2 _‘v” .5) ‘g, ‘.3’. ‘Ar .4? ‘ ‘ _, gives me '1.’-, u’ 1 —, — I V K .1. , 51 . ‘'v I - I’ . . - I’ r 1 . . 1., . L.
  88. .g‘ . , “ TYPES OF MAMMALS LAND MAMMALS Chimps, or chimpanzees, are t nimals most closely related to us - the human beings.
  89. TYPES OF MAMMALS LAND MAMMALS They are highly intelligent animals that have been observed to use and modify tools such as sticks and stones so they can obtain food like nuts, insects and water. They can even use some tools that the humans use.
  90. There are only 2 species of chimpanzees, and beingthe closest living relatives to humans, they communicate in many ways thatare similarto us - through facial expressions, 1 2:21». “. if. t “ postures, movements, P . =3. touch, as well as g T A " " 3 ’ vocalizations. , “ft. :5 gm-" , .
  91. s - . Z‘, . E k ‘as. The Bat Family, known commonly as Felids, is diverse wi 41 species, including leopards, cheetahs, lions, jaguars, tigers, domestic cats, and many other groups of cats. TYPES 0F MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS
  92. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS r>AN¢T'r7r, rsr2, C ‘ . .‘-IA ' ' ' . - 7 J-‘ -— L. - ' N -. ,~": . - . J. _,. / / " _ * V V» _ K ‘ T f V, J A g» . ' "7 , ., 9.’ ‘n, '—f’”. k‘ I’) 1.’ . ‘ ' " I A ‘K EYRA KODKODK" '- DOMESTIC‘ CAT
  93. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS : * “/ ' — i: .'. - "* ‘ . - u . 5"‘ . . ‘: - : ' y _. u. .. >_ : /1 ’ " ' K I . ~ . e ' A-. 5 " / '1' ’ u - . .: < 5'2’ ~ -~-= w: _‘‘v , _‘g. _C. 2- av. § .1’ 1: flats are natural hunters, armed with muscularbodies, keen eyesight, powerful claws and a sharp set of teeth.
  94. LAND MAMMALS VI —I < 2 2 < 2 ll- 0 m A. )- I- 3 i A . y , .. ,. . , , Some cats can take down prey that ’ ___t. :l>'7 . ~" 5: A1 are much largerthanthemselves. A
  95. 1"‘ "I '3 , _"‘. «-A "“"““ ‘: .: :. r.’‘5: tidehemenhealir. .e; .el; it‘alcl, - water, but many species like tigers, jaguars and leopards willingly wade into water to catch prey.
  96. Bats are thelonly mammalsthat have wings and are capable of sustained flight. m. .<2.>. <£ nz<. _ .3d. <.. .<<¢. << "5 E9.. ._. 0
  97. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS Bat wings are supported by modified hand bones and each wing is made of a double layer of skin (called wing membrane) that stretches between the bat's elongated finger bones and attaches to the side of the body and the hind leg.
  98. llnlike mammals such as the flying lemurs and sugar gliders, which are able to m through air, only bats are capable of true flight. ‘T ‘A
  99. LAND MAMMALS M A33 jiw MICROBAT .11’. TYPES OF MAMMALS There are close to 1,000 species of bats, divided into 2 main groups - MEGABATS and M| lIRllBATS.
  100. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS There are less than 200 species of MEGABATS, which are more commonly known as fruit bats or flying foxes. They are generally large hats that have a dog or fox-like appearance.
  101. TYPES OF MAMMAES . .W~'° MAMMAL? 2- 1 1'-. ‘-1’ y . . . . _g: :_ z‘-’'___ . , They are frurt and ne tar eatrng bats which navigate and s'gm: tlealrllitytnsee usirgeyes . _. _~. --:3.‘ L . .. . 1., ‘ l ’ mgfi: (ofananirnalorlrird)lindhsway V {L-'2. ‘C v . - . , _ _ . V ,
  102. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS - ' 1.93,. , ' 33.1.. ¥““~“'. ~'1:v~' J V e r-. are I 3 K "A v ‘ d’ . ._. 7 , ‘” / K Pu-. ..'_'—', . [ ¢‘. - .3 / ( MIBRUBATS are mostly small hats that feed on insects and other small animals like frogs, lizards, birds and fish.
  103. TYPES OF MAMMAES LAND MAMMALS Unlike megabats which rely on sight and smell to navigate and find food, ldllIRllBhT8 use echolocation - producing pulses of high pitched sound and listening for the echoes. Therefore, they often have large, sensitive ears.
  104. More examples of land mammals: LAND MAMMALS (15 @@W V _l < 2 2 < 2 LL 0 :3 n. )- I-
  105. Y: .}“; N A. V’4.“""-. , r.r. v -‘ M- ’. . I Marine iiviammale
  106. TYPES OF MAMMAES MARINE MAMMALS ‘t 5 Y} lllarine manmmalsiformi iafi5d'iverse group of lztlispecies which depend on the ocean for their survival.
  107. They can be divided into 4 main groups: V 2 3- CETACEANS - There are more than 80 species 2 i of cetaceans, including all whales, dolphins and 2 ; porpoises. lietaceans are fully aquatic. "5 § § PINNIPEIJS - These semi-aquatic mammals | >_- form 3 families which contain 33 species, including seals, sea lions and the walrus.
  108. SIRENIANS - Bommonly known as sea cows, sirenians are fully aquatic and include the manatees and dugongs. There are only 4 species of these herbivores which feed on aquatic plants. FISSIPEDS - This small group describes the carnivorous semi-aquatic mammals, which includes the polar bear and 2 species of sea otter. MARINE MAMMALS V —l < 2 2 < 2 IL o 3 A. )- I-
  109. .. K ,3 , ._. _é. __‘ ‘ it ‘ ‘” ‘. ;:jé'§‘3- L -' 1: I. V. {fir . ,1-. (‘I5 TYPES OF MAMMAES MARINE MAMMALS e£J. dfi£°n. g§. let 0. Earth-
  110. TYPES OF MAMMAES MARINE MAMMALS They are often referred to as “sea cows” because their diet consists mainly of sea-grass.
  111. TYPES OF MAMMAES MARINE MAMMALS Dugongs are mainly found in warm, shallow waters near the coast where sea-grass beds are common. ms: : tin partof the land adpinirg or martin sea
  112. flrcas, or the Killer Whales belong to the Delphi Family and are the largest of dolphins.
  113. 1‘? 2 2 4 2 '6 E )- I- They eat a wide range of prey, including penguins, octopuses, turtles, sharks, seals, smaller dolphins, fish and even whales.
  114. u" 2“ _ , — like any other species of dolphins, orcas are regarded as amongst the most intelligent animals. 3 2 2 < 2 3 E )- I-
  115. TYPES OF MAMMAES MARINE MAMAMALS ‘T fry-‘tr >{' . K . . ‘ - .1 - L . V _. .; .u-7. . A Q A Y - — : ,_. - N ‘ ’7:4,"”‘ '. A I 4 "“ & 3 V’ ‘V’, // «L ‘_. _ . ‘ . / g _‘‘‘$, / . ’ If " , _ . 4 . ‘ 1' »/ " -, ’ _ ~. ; ~. _ ~ . : ‘I’ E 7 ' ' 1' ~ ‘ _ 2 - " - A » 1- x _; — _ - ' a At‘ ‘ 4:: , ' J— V, __ 7 . _~ 4 ‘A i_ -. ., ' 5 - 3 2 — 2.- . _> _. f——V 7 , —-—~-r_ —. A V’, _ . .: — ~ 4 ‘ ' ‘ , .. ,., . _“‘: fly. .. . . . ,.g, . , ,g, . abTtersarethesmallestofthe marinervnammalgs, / g with a body length of about 1.3 meters.
  116. TYPES OF MAM)-AALS MARINE MAMMALS ’} -~1. r-' ’. These furry animals spend oi theirllives in water (even giving birth), although they come ashore from time to time.
  117. Their fur is the thickest of all mamma| s,containing almost it a . ’ million hairs per square inch! ' . .n. ,.. _n.
  118. More examples of marine mammals: W AILIRQDS I1 ‘ " . ' I fl‘ I v fig . . ‘ ~. ’,; . , . . ‘ -(6') Q’ _ 9* 1* e_‘ . ‘ [R‘l&lRW[HlZAll. @©lLlPlH1[L‘’l I. .9 I 5: r r rv. ssmu ‘ I _ c2@rmp@o§e '_. //,7?"
  119. RETH hE$
  120. ABOUT REPTILES
  121. ABQUT REPTILE5 . . _> ‘ ,3 ‘. xx‘ '74 V ' - . , . 4’ . ;3n‘- “'1' «; ea‘ c . .’ I ' 4;‘ 'I ’ . . I » gr ' 2 , , , ."V A , _. )_ -on 1 a-' . . - , ' . .~ " ' _- - . ~-". ’_ , " . ‘ - , -. =--. -M. T. e '‘. ‘.‘—. ""/ ,' --', "’: - ‘ Ta. -'. -":9. ‘ _V ‘/ - '. v- ’ o“ ’_-. _.v‘_-o . .,_‘ "-. v. , . . . . . . . , ., )._: .:~: I;2ft;1;_a, .,v. g,; ._(, ._, ' l‘~'»-'. .-. ---r. - -'r, ,. . .e. ,-*7 There are species of alive today that inhabit a wide range of temperate and tropical habitats including deserts, forests, wetlands, and open ocean. @ no live or dwell in (a place) temperate : nnderate in temperature; mtsulrjected to overt; lntor cold weathers tropical : Int and humid
  122. ‘l’ ' ‘_‘. §_; ~ "1 L lleptiles have scales, whichprovi ethem . . . atough, protective layerto theirskin and to - . e Q / ABOUT REPTILES ‘ L. g g_ _ I‘. “ . ,. . ill ‘I’ ’5fi. ‘,I'. L,/ I I I I » 4- help minimize the loss of body moisture. '5 ‘j. _*; ‘,o- ‘W ‘-<u_. .a~‘* ! :.wl3‘ _ . ,_ W ' . "~ --: ,*7§. ;; ‘, -137.2»-3fi1’%3£*°4€r7%%§7‘4%$$m; 7 V ~--~-‘ '_ ' . “l”“_—r, ;,_, '*f 4 I ‘g 5'. ‘ J‘ ‘gt, fig v , l’: _7ki. lei -jg‘; . _ ~“ --4 . ... y« _. ' ‘- ‘ “
  123. They lay hard-shelled eggs which provide a conducive environment for the mm to develop and also enable them to lay their eggs in dry environments (unlike the amphibians, which must lay their eggs in or near . . wate| ')_ mzrmuranle embm : tle develop‘ urgoi an animal irom tie earl’ gas alter cnnoepthn up to irirthor hatchirg
  124. ABQUT REPTILE5 The largest reptile isthe T “ saltwater crocodile, which can grow to more than 6 meters long. i —
  125. The longest reptile is the green anaconda, reaching as much as almost in meters long.
  126. ABOUT REPTILES O ( as The smallest reptile is the leaf chameleon, which measures less than 30 mm from nose titail. 6
  127. CHARACTERISTICS CF REPTILES
  128. Cold-Blooded Lay Hard-Shelled Eggs ' . n_-r~'- IiTsI*I: 'i¢s or R o . - . l , . I . I, I. ._-- »- »‘ . , -as 'E . -—: :.—. L -. ¢«1haI wk : *”z”'~r-5-vi~o. ~'r: ¢!ao‘: ‘.'g, ;&°‘4;*r. .‘. . , . . n Have Tough Scales Breathe W‘nth Lungs
  129. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS heat and that their body temperature will vary to that of the environment they are in, as well as the surrounding temperature. 7 ’ ‘
  130. "j"-' _‘ I 1. v ; . , . ~ .1 y. . .1 _ _, ‘ _~ I v‘; ’ -, g. a 4. - 0- -‘ - "~ . 1 2. -' . . . . A‘ ‘ ' . / -’ ’ , ,, .. -' -. -:. S». ,; . _ . , . Most reptiles lay e which are encased in a rleathery , _"shell that protects the embry . .
  131. There are a few reptiles that give birth to their young instead of laying eggs and they include boa constrictors, most vipers, the blue-tongued skink and the Jackson's chameleon. BLUE-TONCUED ""’5" . . , JA<| <soN's (HAMELEON _, .. I -— SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS CONSTRICTOR L T
  132. SPECIAL CHARACTERESTECS skin of areptile is Isovered with scales, made up of a hard substance known as keratin which is similarto human hair and fingernails.
  133. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS ‘cu; llTaptiles breathe airthrough lungs, as do all birds and mammals, and most mature amphibians.
  134. TYPES CF REPTILES
  135. Crofqdilians *7f<v¢%. TYPES or REILES:
  136. TYPES OF REPTILES roco ; ;'o‘J%. . '-. V.x. ‘7.‘; YaIx"l; I E. L r. v- T. ” Crocodilians are large reptiles and include 20 over species a av CROCODILIA NS co odiles, Alligatgors, andthe Ca_i_mans. f_7 I.
  137. . P , I _‘ III I-‘. ‘:. ' -n id. .. a . u_--. ,_ I; V, ‘/7 _ 1. . -V’‘, .. _y/ '_, ,' V. . . /I . 3 f __ vs . ".§7-.4 : ' V " I I‘ , 3" “ ‘, —l 9?? ‘ 7.‘! ,7 AC» V -I J‘ ’ ‘I I. -. :. v . ~ ~ . . I - tr . / in‘ H These animals are semi-aquatic and all species in this group have similar body structures - elongated snouts, powerful jaws, strong protective scales, long musculartails, and have eyes and nostrils that are positioned on top of the head.
  138. 1" er“ , ,,, ,, -r - ' - > ‘ C. T . ‘ N. ’ «J4 ‘'’j ~>- / - /4 — / v. ~’ ; , . .-. ; ‘CREE CAVIALS (or CHAVIAIS) have extremely ion and narrow snouts that set them apart from other crocodilians. They are usually clumsy when moving on land and prefer to spend their time in water.
  139. TYPES OF REPTILES CROCOD_ILIA NS CRllCllDllES are found mostly in salt water environments. They are the fastest moving crocodilians on land.
  140. TYPES OF REPTILES HCROCODILIANS A water eironments. I I They have wider, shorter snouts, and are generally darker when compared to crocodiles.
  141. ' ‘J T . ’ ‘A ">. E < A aft - , ~ - - ' ~’£'. ,E. '*x‘.2" " -' c 7 ""‘ ' ~“-¢ 2 _—» — - lllhlhTlS are the smallest cSrocodiliSans. They closely resemble alligators except for the small bony scales which are embedded in the skin of their bellies.
  142. ,, s ' __>. : r. -T‘? ‘ ' T --u _-. _‘ 4_; p.~. r)~~t. ‘"1 ' '-‘.7/Ir‘, -« . . ‘_‘ ‘ ~)6l}6.7_‘~ ‘
  143. TYPES OF REPTTEES TURTLES Sc TORTOISES ' . "?. '~" - J6’ «/ .‘/ ““-/ - I There are about 300 species this ancient group of reptiles.
  144. “Turtle” refers to any reptile that has a protective hard shell. This shell is actually a part of the turtle’s skeleton, and is formed from flat bones fused with part of the spinal column and the ribs.
  145. Several common names are used to describe the various groups of turtles and “turtle” itself, is often used to refer to the entire group in general.
  146. W r. ~*" that live entire «WEE: vm© $§. _.
  147. TYPES OF REPYTEE5 'run1'u: s 5. 1'on1'o| s:s L/ _, ‘. ‘ v— Terrapins commonly refer to freshwater turtles.
  148. Crocodilians Turtles Lizards
  149. ~ ~’ ~'. .. ... .. -' Snakes consist of over 3,000 species and are divided into more than 20 families.
  150. Most species are found within these 5 major families: Q ClllllBR| llAE - The largest family of snakes, ; § *‘ with more than 1,900 of individual species. llften referred to as colubrids, almost all of these snakes are non-venomous. BIIIIJAE - This family includes 40 over species that are collectively known as boas. They are non-venomous and rely on their sheer size and strength to kill their prey. v u = ' I- G. In Q an 0 VI In D. )- I-
  151. ELAPIDAE - Also known as elapids, the family consists of more than 300 venomous species, including cohras, mamhas and coral snakes. PYTHUNIDAE - commonly known as pythons, this family of non-venomous « y snakes contains about 28 species. rm»-p~, ¢, ” 72‘: . '. - C’ if’, if VIPERIDAE - Also referred to as vipers: there are 200 over species of these venomous snakes, including rattlesnakesand copperheads.
  152. The vertebrae of a snake's backbone are loosely jointed together and this enables them to move with great agfly and to wind their bodies into compact coils. vertebrae : each of tile seriesol small lnres lurmirg the backlnn: gljy : the pier of nnvirg quickly and really
  153. TYPES OF REPTILES SNAKES Many snakes have specialized jaws that enable them to swallow animals that are far larger than their own heads.
  154. TYPE OF REFTELES SNAKES r . V- A‘ *1‘ 4 7 '- *4 . 5’ -I 5 . -' N, - “‘T_u . - - -. < . .., Q3. - 47' ‘ , -2"‘ . ', “ . _ "When snakes Aeat. 'thTe. y‘sw‘allow their prey I u 8 x t " 5; whole ratherthanbiting off small pieces. 1? . . l _ . ,.. - ". _, 3 -. . . . . -_ . , . , .. 4. U. _ * - . ‘— . ' V ’ '. . -1. ‘ > . 4. _-, ., . * V‘ _’ _. -on . . _ I . , _> . . _ . ,.; _A .3: . .. , D’'§ , -, . , , .5 1 '_*"‘ , .K. '' ‘-. KI: N» -. _A . . 1
  155. .. u. wanna 99.. ,7, to #5;
  156. ' ' ~12 [HJ©0D§E nnzasrm @E@”§@, _;. ._; 3;, ~ u@uuasN¢s +4 / V“ ~--‘. :’‘‘’’? ° ’' ‘A/ "ff ,3 ' EDI; .'-; '-. ‘ ‘. "- vs, . ‘I nnzasuam 5 I 1.. . /2?", V 7 . 5. __)' ,1 0 l‘' ij‘ ‘*3 - ~ '@euAa¢st: u.E@N , I ¢ Lizards make up the largest living group of reptiles, with more than 4,300 species in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.
  157. .. »‘’’n‘’ , ,‘'. :A 7 ‘,4 2 --. . , .. '- . ~‘ . 1 7 . -- (1,. -.. , -__. A ; -‘ ’ / '3.-. 1- . v "Yv; r‘( “gt _‘ 3 >. ~_. -_ , .u— #1.. W 4_ , x, _ , V g 4 - «. ~m¥. "‘. ’.= “ 1» V V-1*»-»~. *"": ‘."'>‘“ ‘'-‘ ~ — , ,y . r r-. c‘ ; V . .~<' -s»"4" J. 1.1. ‘in In 3 g _%-1' -. < '~ ’' ‘$4 ‘ W '3 r "' 1«(. i_t, Qffe¢'; ;sVasu, asoas. /;srxic«>>m_3_’- - « x-. - x‘ ‘C . .1 . ( ' 3«‘L.4‘ lizards may resemble salamanders but they differ / ’ in that lizards have dry scaly skin, most have ’ clawed feet, as well as external ear openings. '. r V __l" 7’
  158. 4‘ 1 3”‘ "2"" ‘F. * . f*f . ,: Many lrzards have long tails, and In some species, their tails , - - can be broken to allow them to escape from predators. . ' n 4 1“
  159. uzAfibs TYPE OF REFTTLES A - 0 can grow up to3 meters long. Their saliva is full of s‘ j bacteria and can kill their prey with only one bite. ffi 0. ‘ - "t . ‘ }1_, .r, zh". . ‘.‘. ‘:'. ,i --. - .4”. _. ~’: 25'. -1"‘; «.;4£’t: .’7?"_, “", ;:i"2C? '5:~. _-: '., .‘ " """"V~ "' . _ . A, .. _- , 4. fr
  160. QUICK RECAP
  161. live on Land And In Want 5' ' ’ ' ¢HARA¢1.'ERTS'TI¢: Sv. '0F AMr7HrsrKF: s: [F , V / .4.‘ 1., . ‘ vi, “ El. ( _ frvpgs of AM}’lITB]§NS? ‘ ‘ LA ‘ I I V ‘ - x - 5 E l ‘B. e~~». .r- ' MS . ~ -~ - ' . .5 . :.a‘-". _ . .“§. - . .._. ._. .-. ... . ' Salamander: Caccllians ! 5fiAnA§: §nrsTrcs or srruis: / »- V’ J "I ‘ . - , / - ‘H ~. -1 ; l. .. -—-- IN’ ; / A « N’ V‘ ,1 ‘P’ '4 —" , ._- _1 V -«vs. » 7‘, y . . . /. ~ . ‘4 . ,_ . _ ' «'47.: J l 7 l In»- - ‘A ' , - llave Feather: Have A Palr 0| “flags 0 L231 I-‘Iighuen Birds Birds ‘nun swim T‘ I ~*’: F 7 <_ »—. — . I , _ J1 ’ rAw_? L=§: ss rgrfi . . 3% I vs; F‘L—'l ‘V “~ <«: . ” . —— 13,5- 4 TYPES OF FISH: -O-~-r “. L." -V x. . V. / T-. ‘ _, .3 g f"*. .us. vysr> rrsr-r( ‘ ' . - ' low Fla: cartilaginous rut: - .
  162. Haw I-Zxosltzlcton llavc 3—Pan Body '7. ' ‘TV ‘TV ‘ if ‘ , , ‘K7747 ‘F ‘—7 . ax»: ‘E’ . . Er} -A‘. ‘ vi v I ~ , , v4‘ L. _. .4 . .t E .1. ' -_ - ISTICS OF INSECTS: TYPES OF INSECTS: 7 T» K —— — 0 -‘~ 5;, ‘ A _ _ __. ._. ' "15- '. ‘ F . , . a E "I II’-F‘, : . Have A Fall‘ of Antenna: Wlngkn Insect: Aquuuc but-cu Enisrrés of _Aj. s: : ;' ' T. ..‘ . .-. A’ TYPES OF MA_MMAlS: . r—. .._. »a--—. Mm: ‘Dee Young lay Hard-Shelled Eggs _<HAnAac'r. :rus'. r'r<s or REPTILES: W , N . ‘I 1 4 v Bl-ea‘the Wm:
  163. click on the below to open the link to the l“ part of this series. . . j‘. a, _ . _ A . . ; . . , . - . L3’ ' ’ . » ‘ , . . .. » -. "" - . ‘ -: . . ~ ‘L’. 3 . .. 7*‘; «' ‘ / _. .. ’7' ‘ -.5 - . .7 I ' ‘ . '2 Iuuxuouxra -_. <1»<z : .‘vLuauuI'nuAnvbc-ooc. LMv<nv«vor[o<xAvuov¢ '. .noAro~ - oN1~urrvon_rvracu¢oNocLrvuc. rnucn

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