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7 Digital Photography Concepts You Have To know

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Photography, or rather, digital photography seems to have become a way of life.

Today, about 2 billion photos are uploaded every day to various sites like Flickers, Facebook, Instagram, and many others.

Imagine that - 2 billion uploads on a daily basis! Wow!

What if you know that you can start shooting photos or selfies that are really appealing to the eyes, and you can do just that without having necessarily to buy or use any of the expensive cameras and equipment?

Well, here’s the good news! The truth is you can!

In this deck, you will learn about the most basic (which is also most important) concepts of digital photography.

Once you begin to grasp these fundamental ideas, you can really start getting creative on improving the aesthetics of your photos (while your friends can start marveling over what they see.)

Publicada em: Arte e fotografia
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7 Digital Photography Concepts You Have To know

  1. ‘ I . -.1‘? j/ ’I 9 ‘ :9 ll I/ /*4 , .yIl/ IL/ '3¢I/ IJ i E Lpltotégitaphg - , , 3 I5’ I / ~. }.. »:. ,r‘L : ¢l / - gou HAVE to know
  2. as illustrated big rang A0 wet l4angaowai@ovnooLcom. /
  3. how much light passes through the lens to enterthe camera.
  4. The width of the cpeningiletermines the actual amount of light that enters the camera (to reach the image sensor. )
  5. Apenure provides two main functions: 0 exposure '. ’c1epuh of ‘field
  6. 0 Firstly, aperture controls the GXPOSUTG - i. e. the amount of light passing through the lens. . 7 Aperture Lens
  7. When you change the aperture value, you are actually varying the amount of light passing through the lens. ‘ Aperbure Lens
  8. The aperture is defined as an f-stop (aha f-numher or f-ratio), commonly expressed in the form of an “'f/ ” follow by a
  9. The aperture is defined as an f-stop (aha f-numher or f-ratio), commonly expressed in the form of an “'f/ ” follow by a For example:
  10. A smaller aperture has a higher f-stop value. . ._ --. »§. ‘
  11. A smaller aperture has a higher f-stop value. . ._ --. »§. ‘
  12. A smaller aperture has a higher f-stop value. . ._ --. »§. ‘
  13. A larger aperture has a lower f-stop value.
  14. Large Aperbure 'r"/ 'i.8 A larger aperture has a lower f-stop value.
  15. Large Aperbure = Low f-stop A larger aperture has a lower f-stop value.
  16. E . .£”‘: r', ‘I: —1,i: *e1I. .I, 'r’; -1‘ 2,ljr. r«il l_.1;‘ lli1'rl | _.; !1;4_l -alri ii , §,ll, =.. l_fil'»"l? -ll .3 f-stop Value f/1.8 f/2.8 f/4.8 f/5.6 fI8 r/11 light level “"’““‘“~—-
  17. <1‘; The other function of aperture is to adjust the li l: rl‘l l 7 l “l ell and the image sharpness. h . Image source - https: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=fmKAeF3Zl4Y
  18. 9 The other function of aperture is to adjust the depth Of field and the image sharpness. Area Sharpened Focus Point: ' ‘(NI ‘: I38
  19. -$- Focus Point: A large aperture (low f-stop) reduces the depth of field (MT) and results in the background looking blur. Image source - https: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=iHxG1f3X1f4
  20. Large Aperbure = Low f-stop = Shallow DoF = :': c"ki; ,'ound A large aperture (low f-stop) reduces the depth of field (DoF) and results in the background looking blur. e source » hups: //www. youxube com/ warch? v:rHxG1f3X1f4
  21. Y W : :— ? 'o1ol| .l~‘w"Il1I1"‘ When the aperture is decreased (high f-stop), the image gains a deeper depth of field (DoF) and results in the background looking clear.
  22. -$- Focus Points Sharper Small Aperbure = High f-stop = Deep DoF = Baokgmund When the aperture is decreased (high f-stop), the image gains a deeper depth of field (DoF) and results in the background looking clear. Image source — hnps: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=iHxG1f3X1f4
  23. I80 is the level of sensitivity of your camera to available light. Image source - Imp: //www. wired. co. uk/ news/ archive/2013-08/2/lighbmoves-hydrogels/ viewgallery/306811
  24. I80 stands for Ii~! TERlvIATl0l~IAl 0IlllAl»! |ZATlflI~! ron STAl»! DARDlZATlul»I - the main governing body that standardizes sensitivity ratings for camera sensors.
  25. The component within your camera that can change sensitivity is called “image sensor” or simply “sensor”.
  26. I I" I Ij J r It is the most important (and most If I expensive) part of a camera and it ' ‘T is responsible for gathering light j and transforming it into an image. G I : 2 E j . ' 1 ‘ J1y_-7, Image source - https: //www. flickr. com/ photos/ dailym/3769023686fin/ phot oooo eam/
  27. When you change your ISIJ settings, you are adjusting your camera's sensitivity to light. Low ISO ____. --2 High ISO
  28. The value of I80 doubles with each increment - 25, so, inn, :uli, , (iii ll , All ll , l”l*lllll , fL ll l, Tl ll
  29. The higher the number, the more sensitive your camera is to light.
  30. lower I80 (full, 200) is good when you are shooting in bright day light
  31. When you have less light (i. e. darker surrounding), you will raise the I80 up (400, 800, I000) to compensate.
  32. s, r . , ‘ ‘I a , _ . ~. . . : ~s. ~ *. /» i« ‘-3 . _ x, . , _ , H S? " ‘ ‘V ‘I ~ "g 1 K '-7;_‘, ' 3 3.. ?{. . ..-_ -. - ' K‘ __ ‘V‘}. ,, _, , LF§1‘? § i : IOIC1i gu. c<i2;! irfi ~v I<i1l: —.e; i:’I, I l'I; r.ei; :i: ++ You should always start with the lowest I80 setting possible.
  33. *i”i, i:—. e;i: I,I lufr_r; =.1L—, You should always start with the lowest I80 setting possible. Because a higher I80 typically translates to a noisy or “grainy” image. j@. ,l. l.i*i1i: .i , ljrn, i;*I-ii; ;i*; —>
  34. I66. 6;: éihwlder c§’pIeed This is where you find the shutter. - a D a . . --
  35. When a shutter opens and closes, it looks like this. ‘I’ 95;" E A ‘Q; L -"F"
  36. I l I l l The shutter is a mechanism that opens and closes to allow light into the camera to reach the image sensor. e"4e"4e”4;_"_4S"4S"4;_. ”_4 l l l l l l l '. 1' I ‘ l .
  37. Shutter speed is the AMO0NT 0F TIME the shutter remains opened.
  38. In other words, it’s how long or how much time the aperture is opened. Image source - http: //www. ifans. corn/ forums/ Ihreads/ camera-shulter<anima(ion-is-hashed-up.388713/
  39. Shutter speed is measured in seconds. (V
  40. The shutter speed is usually found on the viewfinder or the I00 screen.
  41. ' ‘ I . ‘, Y I l , ‘g . . l*” JPEG V -JH AISERVO RAW ‘ ldost cameras display the shutter speed as whole numbers.
  42. Most cameras display the shutter speed as whole numbers. Efl = 1/00"‘ of a sec
  43. V . I [,1 . l ; vl ' El ['8] me o, L l , ‘g . ' V l -JH AISERVO ldost cameras display the shutter speed as whole numbers. = 1/00"‘ of a sec I/15"‘ of a sec
  44. Most cameras display the shutter speed as whole numbers. Efl = I/00"'ofasec Efifl = I/250"'ofasec I5 = 1/15"‘ of a sec
  45. D JPEG ‘ flH3V '= ]JH AISERVO RAW ldost cameras display the shutter speed as whole numbers. = 'l/00“'oiasec A = ‘I/ ?.50"'oiasec I/15"‘ oia sec A = I/ 'l000"' of a sec
  46. Slower shutter speed is normally displayed in quotation marks.
  47. Slower shutter speed is normally displayed in quotation marks. U "E = 0.0 sec
  48. Slower shutter speed is normally displayed in quotation marks. U "E = 0.0 sec E’ "U = Zsec
  49. Slower shutter speed is normally displayed in quotation marks. U "E = 0.0 sec E’ "U = Zsec 7U ”U = I0 sec
  50. Depending on your camera, shutter speeds can range 30. of a sec (or even faster).
  51. _. “‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ~ II ‘ ; ;_ S’ u 7 I J. ‘ — 2. -‘ . . ‘£1: , e I» l I‘ ' A l l 7‘ 2"‘ »- 4.- ‘ S ' — — -- _ -4;. l. —, . : T._. _.. ~.. ;’: e v; ~!fi—r«~. :;--: i'— xawieu ‘S :3: '5 Shutter speed allows you to control TIME and iii0l’EiilEllT in photography.
  52. > Faster shutter speed allows you to “freeze time”, stopping motion still. ‘. —. /_ Image source — https: //www. f|ickr. com/ photos/ darlym/3769023686/in/ ph0tostrcam/
  53. The faster the shutter speed, the more still the image will appear. - ~ . —fa= .~} 9 "' 1» " 33*! ’ ‘ . ... ~ asb Shutter Speed Slow Shutter Speed Image source - https: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=CmjeCchGR(1o
  54. Focal length (Fl) is the distance between the focal point and the image sensor. Iurqxzax-rm-i-~ <ill1s)17}III= l4l? =nillflittll-BlI| l=I¢= |‘I‘l-)4FI-(I)! III‘-‘IE0-(-)| I(E4I| "|lslllklilffill(= ¥14Vflll'lI'i! 'AIl§l§: :)l: ,'II= I‘I'l|5)y
  55. More specifically, Fl is the distance (measured in millimeters) from the optical center of a lens image sensor to the imaging sensor, where the lens is focused at infinity. Focal Length Opbical center of lens Image source — http: //www. schooI-of-digital-photography. com/2014/10/focal-length-of-camera-lens. html
  56. Fl measures how strongly an optical system converges (focuses) or diverges (defocuses). Concave '<—Foca| Length—>' Convergence Divergence Image source - hrtp: //www. npl. co. uk/ pubIications/ goodvpractice—online-modules/ optica| —radiation-safety/ what-is-light/ lens-basics/
  57. There are 3 basic Fl categories: Wide-angle (aka Wide Telephoto (aka Tight shot or Zoom out) Standard (aka Medium) shot or Close up) f__; m"E 7 Fr
  58. Wide-angle lets you see much more of the surrounding area in the image you are trying to capture (and usually places less emphasis on the subject. )
  59. V 1 - g I‘. I» r It tends to expand the distance between the foreground (or subject) and the background. . -*5 W -' . '.' ', ‘ }j I: -' . ~ ‘. .- 3” '; w ', -’-~’, : -'«'r', 'l~- , / "I . Iv . .’ . _ ‘I’ . J_ I. _. «-¢_I , ._. _‘. . , / .»- ‘_ _ 2 1 _1, p<, ‘ ' - ‘ '« ‘ in‘ , -r-04.‘ A 4.»)-'. "1314.-—‘5.‘ yl '- tan. '1] a. . - . "‘. ‘." _ _- ‘ . Io'' ‘ ~ J ‘/3 ' I’ A . ‘._. .x. I - . .A. -.. _,. 1.. .__ __ ‘I , : _. _._. p.. . - , _ _ - - - ‘ ‘ as . .-V . . .9-4‘ ' A _ A_ ‘ ‘,7 > ‘; _‘. . > -4 - ~ __. — — __ f g — ~ __ — _ - {T-—— i §_ —« Image source - hups: //pholographylife. com/ telepl-ioto—| ens-focal-length-comparison
  60. Telephoto gives you a much narrower view, where you see less of the surrounding area in the image you are trying to capture (and puts more emphasis on the subject. )
  61. _, _ -. 'i t / ’ ‘ I) - ‘ / ")5 ‘ 1'5’ ; ’ 4 5/ _ _ / [1, / j_ . ,.; , , .2 e-— «~‘-- ~_"" 7 , , ’ - ‘: J1;£; _Q, ‘:: .I: J '_". ’___°a _—, _'. . __"x _I__. —— _- ; i -" A‘i'*"-. '-_ —; ’ ‘ - ' . ‘ 5 '- --- _, ,, _. llnlihe Wide-angle, it compresses the distance between the foreground (or subject) and the bachground. Image source - hups: //photography]ife. com/ telepi-roto—| ens-focal-length-comparison
  62. Wide-angle Shots Telephobo Shots Image source - hups: //pholographylife. corn/ Ie| ephoto—| ens—focal-length-comparison
  63. As you have probably guessed it, Medium or Standard neutralizes the distance between the foreground (or subject) and background. Image source ~ htrps: //pholographylife. com/ telephoto-| ens—focaI«| engIh-comparison
  64. The diagram below shows the range of the accepted focal length and definitions in each category of lens: 1| -8| fifigfifififi 14mm 20mm Zlrnm 35mm 50mm 70mm 135mm 200mm loomrn 600mm Image source - http: //av. jpn. support. panasonic. com/ support/ global/ cs/ dsc/ knowhow/ knowhow12.htmI
  65. Weicaflew Depth of Field (DoF) refers to the rangej/ of distance that is in acceptable focus.
  66. The squirrel is in focus and looks sharp (which means that it is inside the DoF). I
  67. ‘fibackgmund is out of focus (meaning the background is outside the DoF). looks sharp (which -. ‘ that it is inside the DoF).
  68. A large or deep DoF produces an image that has a large area that is in focus.
  69. A large or deep DoF produces an image that has a large area that is in focus. An image with a deep DoF appears more crisp and clearerthroughout the entire picture. Image source - http: //photography. tutsp| us. com/ tulorials/ Ihe-u| timate~beginners-introduction-lo~exposure--photo—3028
  70. A small or shallow DoF produces an image that has a small area that is in focus.
  71. A small or shallow DoF produces an image that has a small area that is in focus. This makes the image appears clear at one focus point while the rest is blur. I Image source « http: //photography. tutsp| us. com/ tutoriaIs/ the-u| timate~beginners-introduction-to-exposure—photo-3028
  72. {1l‘, t§. l,| ,l<’; *IYlY. / £ ICIF" Image source - h! tp: //phutography. tu! sp| us. com/ tulorials/ the-u| tima! e~beginners-introduction-lo—exposure--photo-3028
  73. There are 3 things that control the lIoF:
  74. There are 3 things that control the DoF: ‘'1 ‘ The Aperture (F-Stop) L J
  75. There are 3 things that control the DoF: V. large aperture (low I-ftop) ‘ The Aperture (F-Stop) _M°wD°F 45 Small aperture (high f-stop) = Deep DoF
  76. There are 3 things that control the lIoF: V’ Large aperture (low I-ftop) ‘ The Aperture (F-Stop) _sha"°wD°F Small aperture (high f-stop) The Focal length (Fl)
  77. There are 3 things that control the DoF: large aperture (low f-ftop) The Aperture (F-Stop) (high f-stop) = Deep lIoF Narrow Fl The Focal length (Fl) """"‘"“’°' Wide FL = Deep lloF
  78. There are 3 things that control the DoF: The hperture (F-Stop) The Focal length (Fl) The distance between the subject and the camera Inrsvgczjglocrillrcrallllvomiurojl = ’3l_l'Jl, l!l7lFJl! l.i" . t’I. lerlik:1j; r-rrrrrrcua(iogirFor-Jul =1lJl? l3jII| Jl! lr"‘ lInlI’fII'. 'F. IL =1I~IihI)| fI! I'. 'lIlIll" i'llll, l'»dIl. = “:'lTrlTrllII| :'lIl, E
  79. There are 3 things that control the DoF: Inrsvgczjglocrillrcrallllvomiurojl = =sll. rdl. I1rIvJlII§: -‘ . t’I. lerlik:1j; r-rrrrrrcua(iogirFor-Jul =1lJl? l3jII| Jl! lr"‘ The hperture (F-Stop) lInlI’fII'. 'F. IL =1I~IihI)| fI! I'. '!JlIll" i'l', lll, lel. Il. =“: 'lTrlTrllII| :'lIl, E The Focal length (Fl) _ l? .l‘lllil’r1Ill. lIL’1‘rI-‘iirzillilblili The distance between the = =‘+lir; IlIu'. vJlil: -‘ g subject and the camera if-§IIll‘rlri. rlfiIr“"ifillltflllillililli av -_-o; ,IIu‘rhu; IIrIl"
  80. Exposure is the control of the amount of light the image sensor can capture. Imago source’ hflpl/ /Cdl'T1I’. ‘F0l'I yungxicvlantart. com/ art/ Fncrgy Frlrn Long Fxposurc 53339778
  81. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount:
  82. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: ‘ Aperture ‘ controls the amount of light that can enter your camera
  83. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Aperture Bontrols the amount of light that can enter your camera large aperture Me light
  84. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Aperture Bontrols the amount of light that can enter your camera large I small aperture I aperture Me less light Light
  85. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Aperture ISII Bontrols the amount of Controls the sensitivity light that can enter of the sensor to a given your camera amount of light large I small aperture ‘ aperture Me less Light Light
  86. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Aperture ISII Bontrols the amount of Controls the sensitivity light that can enter of the sensor to a given your camera amount of light large I small lbw aperture ‘ aperture I30 Me less More
  87. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Aperture ISII Bontrols the amount of Controls the sensitivity light that can enter of the sensor to a given your camera amount of light large I small low high aperture ‘ aperture I30 I30 Me less More 3 V
  88. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Shutter Aperture ISII speed Iiontrols the amount of liontrols the sensitivity . light that can enter of the sensor to a given c""tTI: tehx: ]:: ;:'°" of your camera amount of light '? rge-W TIIIITI Wow I’_high II. ‘£‘*V"E. "?. J I§I ‘L480 More less More less light light light Light
  89. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Shutter Aperture ISII speed Iiontrols the amount of liontrols the sensitivity . light that can enter of the sensor to a given c""tTI: tehx: ]:: ;:'°" of your camera amount of light ’Trge-TI ”§I'aIT‘. Wow If-ll-lgll slow II. ‘£‘*V"E. "?. J I§I ‘L480 steed More less More less More light light light light light
  90. There are 3 elements that determine the exposure amount: Shutter Aperture ISII speed Iiontrols the amount of liontrols the sensitivity . light that can enter of the sensor to a given c""tTI: tehx: ]:: ;:'°" of your camera amount of light ’Trge-TI QIITI Wzw ("high slow fast Iganerlurfijl ganerturevg‘ ISII IL ISII speed speed More less More less More less light light light light light light
  91. These 3 elements together form what is known as an Exposure Triangle. Exposure Triangle
  92. These 3 elements together form what is known as an Exposure Triangle. The Triangle works such that if you change the value of one element, you will need to change the value of another Exposure by an equal, but opposite Triangle amount to make the triangle balance (so as to achieve an “ideal exposure”. )
  93. Aperture You can therefore use many combinations of these 3 settings to achieve the same exposure. Shutter '80 Speed
  94. The key, however, is knowing which trade-offs to make, since each setting also influences other image properties.
  95. For example, aperture affects depth of field, shutter speed affects motion blur and ISII speed affects image noise. Aperture / , 1’ I'. I / =*. :; I; II: I; iIV”§c@I’; I:IT§: “I+IIFII_-II-. - _/ . . V V , Shutter '80 Speed
  96. @ Bokeh is the quality of the out-of-focus blur that makes it look like the subject is isolated from the background.
  97. It is visually appealing for us to see a photograph with a soft, creamy and beautiful background. Image source F https: //www. flickr. com/ photos/ trekmtber/ S119781864/in/ ph oooooo eaml
  98. It helps concentrate our eyes on a single area and creates a sense of depth and dimension on an otherwise flat-looking image. Image source F https: //www. f|ickr. com/ photos/ trekmtber/ S147919424/in/ photostream/
  99. L‘. I I I . I I :1 ' 1 n . , ‘A ' . . I - I ,9» . . ' I’/ I F I “ .1‘. V It‘ I ‘ V‘ ‘‘‘_y V 3‘ , ,Vl‘VV’ 1 ': ..‘. I V"V . F.': .VF -_F (‘V F‘-(,3)/ " : '.j'. ‘ '3! -. -y F» _w Note that it is NIIT the blur itself or the amount of blur in the foreground or the background of a subject (which is usually rendered by a shallow DoF. )
  100. Bokeh is the llllAl| TY and feel of the background/ foreground blur and reflected points of light. Image source F https: //www. fIickr. com/ photos/ ke| p1966/4210245991]
  101. Bokeh is rendered by the lens, not the camera.
  102. Bokeh is rendered by the lens, not the camera. Different lenses render bokeh differently _ " due to unique optical designs.
  103. See those round circles of yellow around the lantern?
  104. See those round circles of yellow around the lantern? Those are light reflections and they are circular because that's how the lens rendered them. 6% ~ 3' "A D 573
  105. cf“: -6,‘ ’ _. r; K‘ 9,. 7. r. _"" ' f (‘V Somearguethathokehis ' W % _. !I about the quality of the ‘5* r 93* circular light reflections. ‘ _ 311.4‘-fi. _ ‘ ". . éa. -_ _ _‘-‘_~ ’ A. n!. ___-_’_““ _- ~ _ . . ‘- ~ 4- . ‘ W’-~ _, - .4-‘ , ’ ' “ . . . . _ _ . A_ ' I» s ~' . . . , _ , .., .. . " *4. y" . ... 4 ‘ c—- »- 2.. -- -- « Image source - hnp: //wugange. com/ image/2013/17/teddy-bear-chrismas-bokeh-23613-hd~waI| papers. ]pg
  106. Many others believe that bokeh is about the quality of the entire out-of-focus area, not just reflections and highlights. Image source — https: //www, lluckr. com/ phoms/ sumon_mccheung/8235102961/
  107. photography ‘ =11 you HAVE to know
  108. ‘/ V dl, Ltal photography “you HIWE to know A The opening that controls how much I] light passes through the lens to enter the camera.
  109. ‘/ #9: dl, Ltal photography OU 0 now tag HAVEt k A The opening that controls how much I] light passes through the lens to enter the camera. The level of sensitivity of your camera to available light .
  110. 59/: dl, Ltal photography you HAVE to know The opening that controls how much light passes through the lens to enter the camera. The level of sensitivity of your camera to available light . The amount of time the shutter remains open to allow light to reach the image sensor:
  111. d——ki ‘:9! INT W ‘T miflleuii! ‘ iivélnigxoo up ‘ ‘ -. —r. «,¢. ... .,a. ~;, ..; ,.. -Mk. -.~é j‘ ' V A The opening that controls how much ' A I] light passes through the lens to enter the camera. I The level of sensitivity of your j camera to available light . The amount of time the shutter remains open to allow light to reach the image sensor. The focal length of the lens is the distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus.
  112. ‘A 8 re V V The opening that controls how much ' A I] light passes through the lens to enter the camera. I The level of sensitivity of your camera to available light . The amount of time the shutter remains open to allow light to reach the image sensor. The focal length of the lens is the distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus. Denthoffield : .:: :'; ::: ::; ::: .:: :;: ::*: "°* l
  113. ‘A 8 re V V The opening that controls how much ' A I] light passes through the lens to enter the camera. I The level of sensitivity of your I camera to available light . The amount of time the shutter remains open to allow light to reach the image sensor. The focal length of the lens is the distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus. ' Refers to the range of distance that is in acceptable focus. The amount of light the image sensor of a camera is able to capture.
  114. .93 Aperture lSll Shutterspeed Focallength Depth of Field Exposure Bokeh is W, ‘hm ’ l ‘ ‘I _ T'‘. , V . _.‘ ‘_‘ ‘- “ “, *‘C‘. 3;’; to-J, .9.B1ex"ZE. l;rr: i:z.4.:1ar, gz'. A.« {: (-‘-.1-ss'. Ai ‘ l ’A perm u. . —; ,»; .«. —__—~. ,s. v;> . The opening that controls how much light passes through the lens to enter the camera. The level of sensitivity of your camera to available light . The amount of time the shutter remains open to allow light to reach the image sensor. The focal length of the lens is the distance between the lens and the image sensor when the subject is in focus. Refers to the range of distance that is in acceptable focus. The amount of light the image sensor of a camera is able to capture. Represents the quality of the out-of-focus blur that makes it look like the subject is isolated from the background. <7’

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