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Discovering new functional materials for clean energy and beyond using high-throughput computing and machine learning

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Discovering new functional materials for clean energy and beyond using high-throughput computing and machine learning

  1. 1. Discovering new functional materials for clean energy and beyond using high-throughput computing and machine learning Anubhav Jain Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Presentation given at Intel, Oct 2022 Slides (will be) posted to hackingmaterials.lbl.gov
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction to group and overview of our projects • The Materials Project and virtual materials design • The Matbench protocol: benchmarking ML algorithms • Natural language processing applied to materials design • Automating materials synthesis and characterization 2
  3. 3. Overview of our research group • Located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA) • Group composition • Usually 10 people in size (e.g., 5 postdocs, 5 graduate students) • Major funding from U.S. Dept. of Energy, some funding from industry (Toyota Research Institutes) • Areas of emphasis • Computational design of new functional materials • Typically semiconductors, ceramics, or alloys • e.g., past work in Li-ion and multivalent batteries, thermoelectric materials, carbon capture materials, catalysts for water purification, etc. • Not really polymers, molecular systems, or organic systems – although some past work here, too • Machine learning applied to materials science • Automated laboratories (recent) 3
  4. 4. We develop software frameworks for performing materials simulations, including automation at supercomputing centers Summary • We develop and maintain several software packages for computational design of materials • These include “FireWorks” for automating calculations at supercomputing centers, “atomate” for defining materials science workflows, and “matminer” for generating descriptors for crystal structures 4
  5. 5. We develop methods to calculate materials properties based on density functional theory, often adapting methods for high-throughput applications Summary • Many materials properties are either difficult to calculate or require impractical amounts of computer time • We develop methods to calculate materials properties both accurately and efficiently • Examples include “AMSET” (electron transport) and ongoing work on thermal properties of materials 5 Old method (BoltzTraP – screening is qualitative w/pitfalls) New method (AMSET – screening is more quantitative) Ganose, A. M.; Park, J.; Faghaninia, A.; Woods-Robinson, R.; Persson, K. A.; Jain, A. Efficient Calculation of Carrier Scattering Rates from First Principles. Nat Commun 2021, 12 (1), 2222. acoustic deformation potential (ad) deformation potential, elastic tensor ionized impurity (ii) dielectric tensor piezoelectric (pi) dielectric tensor, piezoelectric tensor polar optical phonon (po) dielectric tensor, polar phonon frequency a Phonon renormalization at T > 0 K Force constant fitting b T= 0 K T=100 K T=200 K Cubic SrTiO3 (Tc=105 K)
  6. 6. We use a combination of density functional theory calculations and machine learning to design materials for various functional applications Summary • We trained machine learning models (on open benchmark data sets) to determine catalytic performance of materials in removing nitrate from drinking water • The models were used to pre- screen ~60,000 materials to only 23 materials that were subjected to expensive physics calculations for verification “Funnel” diagram illustrating how an initial list of ~60,000 compounds was passed through a workflow to identify 23 interesting compounds. ML was used in the workflow to pre-screen on high activity and selectivity of N2/NH3. The ML models show good correspondence with significantly more expensive physical simulations (“DFT”), demonstrating that they can be swapped into the screening workflow reliably while extending the search to ~500 times more compounds than would be possible without ML augmentation. 6 “Screening of bimetallic electrocatalysts for water purification with machine learning” Tran et al., J. Chem Phys 2022
  7. 7. We help develop and maintain a comprehensive database of materials properties, with a user community of >250,000 registered users Summary • In general, only a small fraction of materials have available experimental property measurements • The Materials Project uses massive supercomputing resources to calculate the properties of materials using first principles calculations • The data is disseminated to large user community 7 Past year: average of ≈200 new regs/day
  8. 8. We develop and maintain “matbench”, a machine learning benchmark for materials science, uncovering what works and what’s needed Summary • We created a comprehensive set of benchmark tests for ML algorithms that aim to predict materials properties • The benchmarks clearly reveal what community algorithms work • They also helped show the field that more research was needed into “small data set” algorithms, motivating external works The Matbench benchmark contains 13 data sets that vary in size and application. Community algorithms compete for best performance on each data set. The full ”leaderboard” of all algorithms to date tested against all 13 data sets, organized by data set size. Deep learning approaches typically excel at large data problems but typically struggle with small data; some hybrid approaches were subsequently developed to address this. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41524-020-00406-3 8 Bigger datasets Better relative performance
  9. 9. We use natural language processing to parse scientific abstracts and articles and generate data sets and hypotheses Summary • We used natural language processing (NLP) to analyze the text of several million article abstracts • With no domain-specific training, the ML system internalized a representation of the periodic table • More impressively, it could predict what materials researchers would study for “thermoelectrics” in the future A representation of the periodic table generated automatically by analyzing >3 million abstracts Materials compositions for thermoelectrics applications as predicted by NLP ~3 years ago. Since then, approximately 1/3 of the predictions had been reported by researchers. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1335-8 Sponsor: SPP, Toyota Research Institute 9
  10. 10. Summary • We are collaborating with other groups at LBNL (G. Ceder, H. Kim) to develop an automated laboratory for automated inorganic materials synthesis • A contrast to other similar efforts is working primarily with powder based synthesis procedures • Several aspects already completed, but still a work in progress 10 July 2022 - Tube furnaces and SEM ready Hardware development Platform Integration Automated Synthesis AI-guided Synthesis April 2022 Box furnace, XRD, & robots ready November 2022 - Powder dosing system - First automated syntheses Summer 2023 AI-guided synthesis Closed- Loop Materials Discovery Summer 2024 Closed-loop materials discovery Moving from the virtual world to the physical world: A-lab for automated synthesis of inorganic materials
  11. 11. Miscellaneous projects – analysis of large solar PV data sets, data extraction from figures Summary • We also have various other miscellaneous projects at any given time • For example, we recently trained an ML algorithm to classify electroluminescence images from solar power plants and use this to assess fire damage • We also developed software to help parse data from figures Pipeline developed to process raw EL images (bottom-left), extract modules, segment individual cells, and classify cells into various defect categories using deep learning models. This open-source pipeline can replace tedious human annotation of module EL images at a large scale. 11 Examples of using machine learning to identify portions of chart images and extracting data curves based on color
  12. 12. Outline • Introduction to group and overview of our projects • The Materials Project and virtual materials design • The Matbench protocol: benchmarking ML algorithms • Natural language processing applied to materials design • Automating materials synthesis and characterization 12
  13. 13. The core of Materials Project is a free database of calculated materials properties and crystal structures Free, public resource • www.materialsproject.org Data on ~150,000 materials, including information on: • electronic structure • phonon and thermal properties • elastic / mechanical properties • magnetic properties • ferroelectric properties • piezoelectric properties • dielectric properties Powered by hundreds of millions of CPU-hours invested into high- quality calculations
  14. 14. The core data set keeps growing with time … 14
  15. 15. Apps give insight into data Materials Explorer Phase Stability Diagrams Pourbaix Diagrams (Aqueous Stability) Battery Explorer 15
  16. 16. The code powering the Materials Project is available open source (BSD/MIT licenses) just-in-time error correction, fixing your calculations so you don’t have to ‘recipes' for common materials science simulation tasks making materials science web apps easy workflow management software for high-throughput computing materials science analysis code: make, transform and analyze crystals, phase diagrams and more & more … MP team members also contribue to several other non-MP codes, e.g. matminer for machine learning featurization 16
  17. 17. The Materials Project is used heavily by the research community > 180,000 registered users > 40,000 new users last year ~100 new registrations/day ~10,000 users log on every day > 2M+ records downloaded through API each day; 1.8 TB of data served per month 17
  18. 18. Today, the Materials Project has led to many examples of “computer to lab” success stories MP for p-type transparent conductors References ✦ Hautier, G., Miglio,A., Ceder, G., Rignanese, G.-M. & Gonze, X. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides. Nature Communications 4, (2013) ✦ Bhatia,A. et al. High-Mobility Bismuth-based Transparent p-Type Oxide from High- Throughput Material Screening. Chemistry of Materials 28, 30–34 (2015) ✦ Ricci, F. et al.An ab initio electronic transport database for inorganic materials. Scientific Data 4, (2017) Prediction Screening based on band gap, transport properties and band alignments. Experiment Predictions revealed material with s–p hybridized valence band (thought to correlate well with dopability). When synthesized, material has excellent transparency and readily dopable with K. Ba2BiTaO6 MP for thermoelectrics References ✦ Aydemir, U. et al.YCuTe2: a member of a new class of thermoelectric materials with CuTe4-based layered structure. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, 2461–2472 (2016) ✦ Zhu, H. et al. Computational and experimental investigation of TmAgTe2and XYZ2compounds, a new group of thermoelectric materials identified by first-principles high-throughput screening. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 3, 10554–10565 (2015). ✦ Pöhls, J.-H. et al. Metal phosphides as potential thermoelectric materials. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 5, 12441–12456 (2017). Prediction Screening of tens of thousands of materials with predicted electron transport properties revealed a family of promising XYZ2 candidates Experiment Several materials made: YCuTe2 (zT = 0.75), TmAgTe2 (zT = 0.47, 1.8 theoretical), novel NiP2 phosphide TmAgTe2 MP for phosphors References ✦ Wang, Z. et al. Mining Unexplored Chemistries for Phosphors for High-Color- Quality White-Light-Emitting Diodes. Joule 2, 914–926 (2018) ✦ Li, S. et al. Data-Driven Discovery of Full-Visible-Spectrum Phosphor. Chemistry of Materials 31, 6286–6294 (2019) ✦ Ha, J. et al. Color tunable single-phase Eu2+ and Ce3+ co-activated Sr2LiAlO4 phosphors. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 7, 7734–7744 (2019) Prediction Statistical analysis of existing materials that co-occur with word ‘phosphor’ followed by structure prediction for new materials Experiment Predicted first known Sr-Li- Al-N quaternary, showed green-yellow/blue emission with quantum efficiency of 25% (Eu), 40% (Ce), 55% (co-activated Eu, Ce) Sr2LiAlN4 ≈ç ≈ 18
  19. 19. One of the applications we looked into was thermoelectric materials 19 • A thermoelectric material generates a voltage based on thermal gradient • Applications • Heat to electricity • Refrigeration • Advantages include: • Reliability • Easy to scale to different sizes (including compact) www.alphabetenergy.com
  20. 20. It is difficult to balance trade-offs in thermoelectrics properties, so use screening 20 ZT = α2σT/κ power factor >2 mW/mK2 (PbTe=10 mW/mK2) Seebeck coefficient > 100 V/K Band structure + Boltztrap electrical conductivity > 103 /(ohm-cm) Band structure + Boltztrap thermal conductivity < 1 W/(m*K) • e from Boltztrap • l difficult (phonon-phonon scattering) Heavy band: ü Large DOS (higher Seebeck and more carriers) ✗ Large effective mass (poor mobility) Light band: ü Small effective mass (improved mobility) ✗ Small DOS (lower Seebeck, fewer carriers) Multiple bands, off symmetry: ü Large DOS with small effective mass ✗ Difficult to design! E k ~50,000 crystal structures and band structures from Materials Project are used as a source F. Ricci, et al., An ab initio electronic transport database for inorganic materials, Sci. Data. 4 (2017) 170085. We compute electronic transport properties with BoltzTraP and minimum thermal conductivity (Cahill- Pohl) for some compounds About 300GB of electronic transport data is generated. All data is available free for download.
  21. 21. We found several compounds with promising figure-of-merit, but no breakthroughs 21 • Calculations: trigonal p- TmAgTe2 could have power factor up to 8 mW/mK2 • requires 1020/cm3 carriers experiment computation • Calculations: p-YCuTe2 could only reach PF of 0.4 mW/mK2 • SOC inhibits PF • if thermal conductivity is low (e.g., 0.4, we get zT ~1) • Expt: zT ~0.75 – not too far from calculation limit • carrier concentration of 1019 • Decent performance, but unlikely to be improved with further optimization • Expt: p-zT only 0.35 despite very low thermal conductivity (~0.25 W/mK) • Limitation: carrier concentration (~1017/cm3) • likely limited by TmAg defects, as determined by followup calculations • Later, we achieved zT ~ 0.47 using Zn-doping TmAgTe2 YCuTe2
  22. 22. Outline • Introduction to group and overview of our projects • The Materials Project and virtual materials design • The Matbench protocol: benchmarking ML algorithms • Natural language processing applied to materials design • Automating materials synthesis and characterization 22
  23. 23. There are many new algorithms being published for ML in materials – New ones constantly reported! 23
  24. 24. But it is very difficult to compare algorithms 24 Data set used in study A Data set used in study B Data set used in study C • Different data sets • Source (e.g., OQMD vs MP vs JARVIS) • Quantity (e.g., MP 2019 vs MP 2022) • Subset / data filtering (e.g., ehull<X) • Different evaluation metrics • Test set vs. cross validation? • Different test set fraction? • Can be difficult to install and retrain many of these algorithms MAE 5-Fold CV = 0.102 eV RMSE Test set = 0.098 eV vs. ? ?
  25. 25. Can we design a standard test set for ML algorithms for materials science? 25 • There is no single type of problem that materials scientists are trying to solve • For now, focus on materials property prediction (from structure or composition) • We want a test set that contains a diverse array of problems • Smaller data versus larger data • Different applications (electronic, mechanical, etc.) • Composition-only or structure information available • Experimental vs. Ab-initio • Classification or regression
  26. 26. Matbench includes 13 different ML tasks 26 Dunn, A.; Wang, Q.; Ganose, A.; Dopp, D.; Jain, A. Benchmarking Materials Property Prediction Methods: The Matbench Test Set and Automatminer Reference Algorithm. npj Comput Mater 2020, 6 (1), 138. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41524-020-00406-3.
  27. 27. Models tested by Matbench to date Model Representation type Representation summary Magpie + Sine Coulomb Matrix + Random Forest Composition or Structure Hand-created chemical features coupled with random forest ML algorithm Automatminer Composition or Structure Hand-created chemical features with genetic algorithm based ML algorithm and hyperparameter selection MODNET Composition or Structure Hand-created chemical features with various neural network layers CGCNN Structure only Graph convolution based neural networks with basic initial atom/bond features ALIGNN Structure only Graph based convolutional networks based on bonds/angles in addition to atoms/bonds CRABNet Composition only Transformer-based self-attention for composition; initialized using NLP-based embeddings 27
  28. 28. How to read the Matbench leaderboard 28 Bigger datasets Better relative performance • A scaled error of 0.0 means all predictions are correct • A scaled error of 1.0 is equal to always predicting the average value
  29. 29. Magpie + SCF Model • Composition features using chemical descriptors such as averages/stdevs of elemental properties such as melting point, electronegativity • Structure features using sine Coulomb matrix 29 Ward, L., Agrawal, A., Choudhary, A. et al. A general-purpose machine learning framework for predicting properties of inorganic materials. npj Comput Mater 2, 16028 (2016). Faber, Felix, et al. "Crystal structure representations for machine learning models of formation energies." International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 115.16 (2015): 1094-1101. https://matbench.materialsproject.org
  30. 30. Automatminer Model 30 Dunn, A.; Wang, Q.; Ganose, A.; Dopp, D.; Jain, A. Benchmarking Materials Property Prediction Methods: The Matbench Test Set and Automatminer Reference Algorithm. npj Comput Mater 2020, 6 (1), 138. https://matbench.materialsproject.org
  31. 31. MODNet Model 31 De Breuck, P.-P.; Evans, M. L.; Rignanese, G.-M. Robust Model Benchmarking and Bias-Imbalance in Data-Driven Materials Science: A Case Study on MODNet. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Volume 33, Number 40, 2021 https://matbench.materialsproject.org
  32. 32. CGCNN Model 32 Xie, T.; Grossman, J. C. Crystal Graph Convolutional Neural Networks for an Accurate and Interpretable Prediction of Material Properties. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2018, 120 (14), 145301. https://matbench.materialsproject.org
  33. 33. ALIGNN Model 33 Choudhary, Kamal, and Brian DeCost. "Atomistic Line Graph Neural Network for improved materials property predictions." npj Computational Materials 7.1 (2021): 1-8. https://matbench.materialsproject.org
  34. 34. How much have we improved overall? 34 • In some cases (e.g., Ef DFT) we have made a lot of improvement • In contrast, for others (e.g., σy steel alloys) we have barely improved • Possible reasons • Amount of attention paid to certain problems • Small vs large data emphasis – there is a lot more room for improvement for small data
  35. 35. How could we improve Matbench? • Additional tasks – but how to keep it manageable? • Adding external conditions (temperature, reducing gas presence, microstructural characterizations) • Other materials classes (polymers, metal alloys, multi-material composites) • Other types of properties (e.g., predicting spectra) • More dynamic tests, e.g. update the test periodically and re-evaluate • Other scoring metrics • e.g., active learning searches • cross-validation by leaving out chemical systems rather than random splits 35
  36. 36. Outline • Introduction to group and overview of our projects • The Materials Project and virtual materials design • The Matbench protocol: benchmarking ML algorithms • Natural language processing applied to materials design • Automating materials synthesis and characterization 36
  37. 37. Literature data can be a key source of materials learning 37 Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze local db + ML Automated Lab A Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze Conventional Lab B Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze local db + ML Automated Lab C Literature data + broad coverage – difficult to parse – lack negative examples Other A-lab data + structured data formats + negative examples – not much out there … Theory data + readily available – difficult to establish relevance to synthesis
  38. 38. The NLP Solution to Literature Data • A lot of prior experimental data already exists in the literature that would take untold costs and labor to replicate again • Advantages to this data set are broad coverage of materials and techniques • Disadvantages include: • Getting access to the data • lack of negative examples in the data • missing / unreliable information • difficulty to obtain structured data from unstructured text • Natural language processing can help with the last part, although considerable difficulties are still involved • Named entity recognition • Identify precursors, amounts, characteristics, etc. • Relationship modeling • Relate the extracted entities to one another
  39. 39. Previous approach for extracting data from text 39 Weston, L. et al Named Entity Recognition and Normalization Applied to Large-Scale Information Extraction from the Materials Science Literature. J. Chem. Inf. Model. (2019) Recently, we also tried BERT variants Trewartha, A.; Walker, N.; Huo, H.; Lee, S.; Cruse, K.; Dagdelen, J.; Dunn, A.; Persson, K. A.; Ceder, G.; Jain, A. Quantifying the Advantage of Domain-Specific Pre-Training on Named Entity Recognition Tasks in Materials Science. Patterns 2022, 3 (4), 100488.
  40. 40. Models were good for labeling entities, but didn’t understand relationships 40 Named Entity Recognition • Custom machine learning models to extract the most valuable materials-related information. • Utilizes a long short-term memory (LSTM) network trained on ~1000 hand-annotated abstracts. Trewartha, A.; Walker, N.; Huo, H.; Lee, S.; Cruse, K.; Dagdelen, J.; Dunn, A.; Persson, K. A.; Ceder, G.; Jain, A. Quantifying the Advantage of Domain-Specific Pre-Training on Named Entity Recognition Tasks in Materials Science. Patterns 2022, 3 (4), 100488.
  41. 41. A Sequence-to-Sequence Approach • Language model takes a sequence of tokens as input and outputs a sequence of tokens • Maximizes the likelihood of the output conditioned on the input • Additionally includes task conditioning • Capacity for “understanding” language as well as “world knowledge” • Task conditioning with arbitrary Seq2Seq provides extremely flexible framework • Large seq2seq2 models can generate text that naturally completes a paragraph
  42. 42. How a sequence-to-sequence approach works 42 Seq2Seq model (GPT3) Text in (“prompt”) Text out (“completion”)
  43. 43. Another example 43 Seq2Seq model (GPT3) Text in (“prompt”) Text out (“completion”)
  44. 44. Structured data 44 Seq2Seq model (GPT3) Text in (“prompt”) Text out (“completion”)
  45. 45. But it’s not perfect for technical data 45 Seq2Seq model (GPT3) Text in (“prompt”) Text out (“completion”)
  46. 46. A workflow for fine-tuning GPT-3 1. Initial training set of templates filled mostly manually, as zero- shot GPT is often poor for technical tasks 2. Fine-tune model to fill templates, use the model to assist in annotation 3. Repeat as necessary until desired inference accuracy is achieved
  47. 47. Templated extraction of synthesis recipes • Annotate paragraphs to output structured recipe templates • JSON-format • Designed using domain knowledge from experimentalists • Template is relation graph to be filled in by model • Note: we are still formally evaluating performance • various issues in getting an accurate evaluation, e.g., predictions that are functionally correct but written differently
  48. 48. Example Prediction
  49. 49. Applied to solid state synthesis / doping We have performed the first-principles calculations onto the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of seven 3d transition-metal (TM=V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) atom substituting cation Zn in both zigzag (10,0) and armchair (6,6) zinc oxide nanotubes (ZnONTs). The results show that there exists a structural distortion around 3d TM impurities with respect to the pristine ZnONTs. The magnetic moment increases for V-, Cr-doped ZnONTs and reaches maximum for Mn-doped ZnONTs, and then decreases for Fe-, Co- , Ni- and Cu-doped ZnONTs successively, which is consistent with the predicted trend of Hund’s rule for maximizing the magnetic moments of the doped TM ions. However, the values of the magnetic moments are smaller than the predicted values of Hund’s rule due to strong hybridization between p orbitals of the nearest neighbor O atoms of ZnONTs and d orbitals of the TM atoms. Furthermore, the Mn-, Fe-, Co-, Cu-doped (10,0) and (6,6) ZnONTs with half-metal and thus 100% spin polarization characters seem to be good candidates for spintronic applications.
  50. 50. Use in initial hypothesis generation 50 classifying AuNP morphologies based on precursors used Predicting new materials for functional applications predicting doping – if a material can be doped with A, can it be doped with B? Investigated as thermoelectrics (independently of our study) Investigated by our own collaborators (as a result of our study) (done using an older method)
  51. 51. Outline • Introduction to group and overview of our projects • The Materials Project and virtual materials design • The Matbench protocol: benchmarking ML algorithms • Natural language processing applied to materials design • Automating materials synthesis and characterization 51
  52. 52. Developing an automated lab (“A-lab”) that makes use of literature data is in progress 52 Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze local db + ML Automated Lab A Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze Conventional Lab B Plan Synthesize Characterize Analyze local db + ML Automated Lab C Literature data + broad coverage – difficult to parse – lack negative examples Other A-lab data + structured data formats + negative examples – not much out there … Theory data + readily available – difficult to establish relevance to synthesis
  53. 53. The A-lab facility is designed to handle inorganic powders 53 In operation: XRD Robot Box furnaces Setting up: Tube furnace x 4 LBNL bldg. 30 Dosing and mixing Facility will handle powder- based synthesis of inorganic materials, with automated characterization and experimental planning Collaboration w/ G. Ceder & H. Kim July 2022 - Tube furnaces and SEM ready Hardware development Platform Integration Automated Synthesis AI-guided Synthesis April 2022 Box furnace, XRD, & robots ready November 2022 - Powder dosing system - First automated syntheses Summer 2023 AI-guided synthesis Closed- Loop Materials Discovery Summer 2024 Closed-loop materials discovery
  54. 54. Lab starting to take shape … 54 Courtesy Y. Fei, Ceder Group The embedded video shows a robotic arm performing various synthesis tasks, such as loading a box furnace and performing multiple steps needed to prepare and load an XRD sample. Other videos (not shown here) show ball milling, interaction with tube furnaces. A powder doser is expected to arrive in 1-2 months.
  55. 55. The continuing challenge – putting it all together! Currently we are still working on various components Historical-data Initial hypotheses data-api NLP and literature data ML algorithms High-throughput DFT data
  56. 56. Acknowledgements NLP • Nick Walker • John Dagdelen • Alex Dunn • Sanghoon Lee • Amalie Trewartha 56 A-lab • Rishi Kumar • Yuxing Fei • Haegyum Kim • Gerbrand Ceder Funding provided by: • U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Science, “D2S2” program • Toyota Research Institutes, Accelerated Materials Design program • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory “LDRD” program Slides (will be) posted to hackingmaterials.lbl.gov Materials Project • Kristin Persson • Matthew Horton • All MP collaborators, too many to name …

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