1. Art in the age of mechanical reproduction
distinguishing his categories from traditional aesthetic values, those of “creativity and genius, eternal value and mystery
modern technological reproduction strips these institutions and their iconic artworks of their aesthetic authority
Here the artwork’s use value was located in its central position within ritual and religious tradition (223-4). A statue or idol conveyed a
sense of detached authority, or frightening magical power, which inhered in (and only in) that particular historical artifact.
The reproduction in mass of such an item would have been unthinkable because it was its unique
aura.” As the term implies, the aura includes the atmosphere of detached and transcendent beauty and power supporting cultic
societies. It also includes the legitimacy accorded to the object by a lengthy historical existence..
2. Authenticity -
The statue is not like any other object produced or used within a society; it appears free from the taint of ideological control
or human interference, as though its power, like that of the mountain, issues independently from within.
3. AURA - auratic art.
the authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration
to its testimony to the history which it has experienced
The film actor, unlike stage performers, does not face or respond to an audience. The audience’s view also becomes
synonymous with the imperious perspective accorded to the camera. The net effect of these innovations is to place the
viewer in the impersonal position of critic—something prior cultic experiences of art would never have allowed (229). The
prevalence of film, as well as other mechanical reproductions, also creates a culture of minor experts ready to judge art
rather than loose themselves in participatory ritual (231). Benjamin also notes that film relies on a series of cut and spliced
images that must be assembled to form an aesthetic whole. Like Dadaist painting, film’s swift juxtapositions and movements
strike the viewer violently, disrupting contemplation and easy consumption of the image
4. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Electronic Mutability
Benjamin investigates the role that technological reproduction plays in shaping aesthetic experience as he
catalogues the profound consequences that film and photography have had on the decline of autonomous
aesthetic experience. Specifically, Benjamin teases out the role of art historically in providing a “ritualistic basis”
for the cult which places the work of art’s uniqueness, what he calls its aura. Through technological
reproduction, the aura of the artwork is stripped of its esthetic and historical resonance, its role within ritual and
religious tradition entirely removed.
3-D printing and the many friends who were once thriving photographers, now struggling to keep up with the
era of selfies and the death of photography as an artistic field.
5. The death of photography: are camera phones
destroying an artform
The Phygital Experience is one of the latest marketing trends that alludes to the union between the physical and digital
worlds as part of a much more complete, human and efficient experience by integrating electronic commerce or e-
commerce with traditional physical stores.
Thus, the idea of phygital items has appeared in the industry — they are physical souvenirs with
digital data kept on an internal chip. This idea already has some practical implementations, and
still, it promises much bigger potential growth. And this growth is good news for consumers of
gaming products and for business people in the industr
7. amiibo by Nintendo — it’s almost the perfect
implementation of phygitality. Advantages here
are a huge variety of high-quality popular
characters in an amazing artistic style, and the
possibility to get additional content in games. The
most obvious limitation of amiibo is the strong
connection to Nintendo devices and the whole
Nintendo ecosystem. Also, the functionality of
these figurines and cards could be much bigger —
in fact, amiibo only open some additional content
in games; they don’t offer, for example, data on
release or edition, which is quite a significant
aspect for collectors.
Toys-to-life is a video game feature using physical
figurines or action figures to interact within the game.
These toys use a near field communication (NFC), radio
frequency identification (RFID), or image recognition data
protocol to determine the individual figurine's proximity, and
save a player's progress data to a storage medium located
within that piece. It was one of the most lucrative
branches of the video game industry, with the Skylanders
franchise alone selling more than $3 billion worth over the
course of four years.
8. NFTs non-fungible token
NFT stands for 'non-fungible token'. Non-fungible means that
something is unique and can't be replaced. By contrast, physical
money and cryptocurrencies are fungible, which means they can be
traded or exchanged for one another
It’s inevitable that NFT gaming will take off. NFTs, or non-
fungible tokens, are a digital currency held on a blockchain that
can track ownership of an asset wherever it goes, and can offer
resell percentages to past owners. The act of seeking out rare
items, collecting limited trinkets, and unlocking scarce art and
souvenirs to hold and cherish should be a no-brainer for the
world’s 3 billion gamers.
9. Where does the Value lie in the digital.
Is it in the artefact - the object - or the ideas.
the paratext of a novel would be the novel’s title, the author’s name, the synopsis on the back cover, chapter titles, publication details, or the
cover art. It appears marginal to the experience of the text, but actually provides a significant network of ideas around which our approach to
the text is shaped
10. What are NFTs?
NFTs are designed as way for digital files to be secured in a way that ensure ownership and create scarcity. Like physical
art an NFT can be sold but the artist can retain the copyright, or they can offer it to the buyer, or decide the on a percentage
of secondary sales an owner can have.
What are NFTs used for?
Essentially, NFTs can represent any form of digital file, whether that's a jpeg of a piece of art, a video, or even real estate.
Turning these files into 'tokens' and securing them on a blockchain make buying, selling and trading these files efficient and
11. A single NFT represents unique ownership of a physical or digital asset. NFTs appeared as early as 2012, evolving
from digital art to “phygital” assets – physical assets that are linked with digital tokens. In the world of art,
collectibles, fashion, events, music, real estate, golf courses, virtual land, in-game assets and beyond, NFTs
12. A few weeks ago, Beeple (aka Mike
Winklemann) made history when
his piece Crossroads, an NFT
issued work, resold for $6.6 million.
On Thursday, March 11, his digital
artwork Everyday: The First 5000
Days sold for over $69 million at
the conclusion of a Christie’s
auction held with MakersPlace (an
NFT issuer). Making history again,
the artwork is both the most
expensive NFT ever sold, as well
as the first to be hosted by a major
13. Axies are registered on a blockchain their rarity and
value can earn you real money. This play-to-earn
model is what NFT games are known for, and it can
be great when values go up but not so good when
they decline. To offset the market forces imposed on
the game Axie Infinity now has a free-to-play model
similar to games such as Elder Scrolls Online, so
players can join without needing to pay, but their
Axies have limited development.
NFTs place more power in players hands,
and will enable them to sell items, and
even earn a percentage from future
his is where major game
publishers are already exploring
NFTs. Konami released a 35th
anniversary collection of NFTs
for Castlevania, to fan backlash.
Yet these NFTs still sold,
averaging $12,000 per NFT,
showing there's demand.