2. Participatory Arts
Claire Bishop: agency - egalitarian authorship - social bond
Social Practice: 2005
Dialogical – (Grant Kester) 2005
Delegated performance, (Claire Bishop) 1990s
Relational (Nicolas Bourriaud) 1998s
Between the Door and
the Street 2013
Gillian Wearing I’m Desperate
3. Position Statement
Games and participatory art have a common need for human interaction in order to
become fully realised. My research to date has revealed game structures in existing
participatory artworks? How can synthesising this games studies research in the form
of case studies and taxonomies inform the creation of new participatory artworks.
What kind of art does participants responding to game structures reveal? How do such
gameful artworks balance participatory experience with aesthetic creation?
Can Huzinga’s Magic Circle be a useful interface for examining art game activities and their
relationship to location. How do circle properties effect participants who play the work and
those around this occurrence.
4. Method: Gameplay –
Modes of Analysis: Reading, Formulating, Applying, Exploring, Making.
literature review of games studies, feeding the creation of taxonomies and Artist Focuses
investigating the synthesis of games and participatory art.
The creation of Game Artworks illuminating the effectiveness, or not, of game mechanics
and elements, in participatory artworks
Examining the way people encounter such works.
Assessments of other live artworks by relevenat artists, to observe participants relation to
The playing of and development of Games for the purpose of
5. Taxonomy of game structures 1). Agôn, competition;
2). Alea, chance; 3). Mimicry 4). Ilinx, physical disorientation
Paidia ------------------------------LudusCaillois (1950s)
Sutton Smith (1990s) Ambiguity/Rhetorics of play - Dark play.
Huzinga (1930s) The Magic Circle – space apart
What is a game, what makes play?
Competition - Jules Meaningful – Salan and Zimmerman Rules Suits/ Bogost – (Proceduralism)
Uncertainty – Costikyan Goals – Suits Fun – Koster Role Play - Stenros
Suit’s (1970s) Lusory Attitude
DeKoven (1970s) The Well Played Game - The New games Movement
6. Mary Flanagan Critical Play
Gustavo Artigus Rules of the Game 2001
Yoko Ono white chess 1966Fluxus 1960-70s
7. The Magic Circle
(A)rts Magic Circle
Additional elements emerging
from research into it’s application
in participatory artworks
Review of traditional
(L)abours is redundant in
relation to artworks
(Cl)osed Is stronger
(P)rotected enables the
participant’s behavior towards the
Huzinga: Originates the
Caillios: Reinforces the
Salen and Zimmerman:
Make it relevant for todays
David Cross Level Playing Field (2013)
Location of activity
How, and where the game
occurs and how those in
and around respondOriginal Game
9. Example of Artists’
use of the Magic
Viva Le Resistance, (2004)
10. rwin Wurm One minute sculptures (1997) Roman Ondák Measuring the Universe (2007)
ART-Game mechanics for
Creation: Inner elements that
Connects and transfers to to the
participants the requirements for
11. Game Mechanics and their use by artists:
Destabilisation Collusion Lusory
X X X X
One Minute Sculptures
X x X X
x x x
X X X
Ann Hamilton: The
event of a thread.
x x X X
X X X X
12. Bart Simon Wii are out of control
Gordon Calleja Incorporation
Chaim Gingold The Magic Crayon
IGNORE A Visualisation of the
Magic Circle effect
In Participatory Art
(Work in Progress)
Deterding (2017) Alibis of Adult Play
Harry Weeks (2014) Ethic in Public
Susie Scott etal (2013) Goffman in the Gallery
Christopher Moore (2011) The magic circle and the mobility of play
Alison Harvey (2007) The Liminal magic circle
14. Investigated historical evolution of the elements .
Well in France - Bull and Matador in Spain - Spock and Lizard in popular culture.
David Lovelace adds elements up to 100.
Aware of the problem of unplayability, and the work becoming a metaphor. Keep
to three, but make rounds.
Even if I create new elements, how to sign them in a satisfactory manner.
Recalibrate the Lusory contract of Paper Scissors Stone
Issues of Compliance inherent in people contributing to artwork through game play
The balancing and acknowledging of input from participants.
The ethical implications of public play with people around being bought in, who at
times unknowingly or unaware they are involved in the work.
Balancing participants need to know that the art game-works are research with a
need to acquire clear and unbiased feedback and maintain fun and challenge.