3. Knowledge domain
epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of
human knowledge. The term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”)
and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the
theory of knowledge.
An example of epistemology is a thesis paper on the source of knowledge.
(uncountable) The branch of philosophy dealing with the study of knowledge;
theory of knowledge, asking such questions as "What is knowledge?", "How is
knowledge acquired?", "What do people know?", "How do we know what we
Branches of knowledge - knowledge domain
5. Sport as Entertainment
What is wrestling?
Roland Barthes (Mythologies) begins with wrestling exactly because of the transparency of actions and symbols. It is
a spectacle of excess. Every single action has to be exaggerated, and has the character of the ancient Greek theatres. ...
As with the masks of ancient Greek Theatre, they represent the internal life of the character.
9. When are we Playing the
[u]nless players have some agency to affect the outcome of a game and
intentionally exercise it, they are not really … playing a game. (Björk and
PASSIVE - ACTIVE
Yet, the essence of a game is rooted in its interactive nature, and there is no
game without a player. (Ermi and Mäyrä 2005)
1. Setup-only games: Games for which player input is only possible in the initial
setup, after which the game proceeds on its own.
2. Games played by AIs: Games where computer code assumes the roles of
3. Solved games: Games that are solved through analysis, such that every
session is captured in a single atemporal description.
4. Hypothetical games: Proposed but non-implemented games described to
examine a question, or actually existing games that are for practical purposes
13. Idle Games
Idle games, also referred to as passive, self-playing or clicker games,
are characterised by automated gameplay, which makes the player’s
participation optional or entirely redundant.
Are we playing, how much interaction is enough.
look at idle games through the lens of interpassivity, a concept revealing
the nature of delegated pleasure, developed first by Robert Pfaller (1996)
Click games - clicking the mouse or tapping is enough.
16. James Newman
Videogames present highly structured and, importantly, highly segmented experiences.
Play sequences, from where the idea of the interactivity or ergodicity of videogames
derives, are framed and punctuated by movie sequences, map screens, score or lap-time
feedback screens and so on.
The pleasures of videogames are frequently enjoyed by those that commonsense might
encourage us to consider as non-players – "onlookers" that exert no direct control via
the game controls. In this article, I want to suggest that videogame players need not
actually touch a joypad, mouse or keyboard and that our definition needs to
accommodate these non-controlling roles. The pleasure of videogame play does not
simply flow through the lead of a joystick.
the pleasures of videogame play are not principally visual, but rather are kinaesthetic. In this way, the appearance of Lara or Vibri is
not crucial to the primary-player during play. The way it feels to be in the Tomb Raider or Vib Ribbon gameworld is, however, of
Aarseth (1997) has rightly pointed out the redundancy of the concept of "interactivity". The use of the term in a variety of contexts as
qualitatively and experientially diverse as videogames and DVD scene access menus has rendered it meaningless and of use only to
27. GAME DESIGN
(Aarseth, 1997). The perception of video games within ludology as a product of the
relations between the concepts of rules and mechanics seemed to take priority over
its narratological distinctions (Frasca, 2003). The prevalence of this focus made it
seem likely that it would be developed while oriented toward a procedural rhetoric
(Frasca, 2003), whose study would be later known as “proceduralism” (Bogost,
42. Fluxus 1960-70s
Fluxus had no single
unifying style. Artists used a
range of media and
processes adopting a ‘do-it-
yourself’ attitude to creative
activity, often staging
random performances and
using whatever materials
were at hand to make art.
Seeing themselves as an
alternative to academic art
and music, Fluxus was a
democratic form of creativity
open to anyone.
encouraged between artists
and across artforms, and
also with the audience or
spectator. It valued
simplicity and anti-
commercialism, with chance
and accident playing a big
part in the creation of works,
and humour also being an
44. Jason Rohrer
Passage’s creator, Jason Rohrer, is the subject of a new exhibition at Wellesley
College’s Davis museum, “The Game Worlds of Jason Rohrer,” which is being
touted as the first solo art museum retrospective for a video-game designer.
(Passage is already a permanent part of MoMA’s collection.)
46. Surrealist games
According to the Surrealist
Manifesto, automatism is a
pure state where one
expresses the actual
functioning of thought not
being dictated by reason
and exempt from any
aesthetic or moral concern.
Based on the creative use
of automatism, the
Surrealists borrowed from
48. Ricardo Miranda Zúñiga’s
Vagamundo: A Migrant’s Tale A platform games.
Art games that question the media, and question society Critical gaming.
Vagamundo: A Migrant's Tale is a mobile public art project designed for on
the street interaction to create temporary public commons as well as an
online game. Through a mobile cart resembling an ice cream cart
pedestrians are invited to play a video game that reflects the plight of illegal
immigrants in New York. The project is informed by interviews that I
conducted with new immigrants from Latin America residing in Manhattan
and Brooklyn. The game is composed of three levels each level represents a
move up in the social scale and assimilation to the United States. making
playful gamified works that are critical of society, are progressive
and revolutionary. Artists use games to critique society.
49. Serious Games - Games designed for purposes outside of entertainment and to encourage participants to
engage with a subject.
According to the logics of interpassivity, pleasure is something
experienced passively and it may be passed over to other people or
technical devices. As Pfaller explains:
Interpassivity is delegated ‘passivity’ – in the sense of delegated pleasure,
or delegated consumption. Interpassive people are those who want to
delegate their pleasures or their consumption. Interpassive media are all the
agents – machines, people, animals, etc. – to whom interpassive people can
delegate their pleasures. (Pfaller 2017, 55) In an idle
game, the click – the most basic action that has defined computer use
since the invention of the mouse in the 1960s – may no longer be
associated solely with agency, activity and freedom. Instead, it becomes
a sign of “human tragedy”, of entering the game as a service prison from
which one may never escape (Bogost 2010). The click seems to have lost
its empowering dimension, if it ever had one. Idling and self-play subvert
digital games as entertainment forms, relying on active participants and
engaged players. Interpassivity deconstructs interactivity-centred
discourse and lays bare the illusory nature of interactivity.
In my previous research, I have proposed a model based around the identification of two fundamental states of engagement with videogames that I have termed "On-Line" and "Off-Line". Broadly, On-Line refers to the state of ergodic participation that we would, in a commonsense manner, think of as "playing the game". So, I’m On-Line when I’m actually playing Metal Gear Solid - when I’m Mario in Super Mario 64; when I’m hurtling round a track in a souped-up Skyline in Gran Turismo 3. Off-Line engagement, could be seen as equating with non-ergodicity, and while it is important we do not allow ourselves to confuse this with passivity for reasons shall explain below, Off-Line describes periods where no registered input control is received from the player. In this terminology, I refer to players’ On-Line or Off-Line engagement with games and also On-Line or Off-Line sequences or sections within games.
Even ostensibly single-player games like Tomb Raider are often played by "teams" – with the primary-player performing the traditional task of control while others (secondary players) – interested, engaged with the action, but not actually exerting direct control through the interface, perform tasks like map-reading, puzzle-solving and looking out for all the things that the principal player doesn’t have time for.
The secondary-player role is frequently taken by players who like the idea of games but find them too hard and is just one example of the ways players appropriate videogame experience in manners often not intended by producers (or observed by researchers). A number of players I have worked with love the idea of the Legend of Zelda series but get frustrated as their attempts lead to a few minutes of joystick mashing and then death. So they play together. Furthermore, adopting a "co-pilot" role allows one to notice aspects of the game that are missed in the role of primary player. Thus one can perfect one’s own skills Off-Line through the adoption of the secondary-player role.
Secondly, the audio-visual richness of the gameworld potentially serves the secondary-player. In addition to map making and reading, pre-empting danger and puzzle solving, being able to scrutinise the gameworld, marvelling at the reflections, discerning graphical nuances and even spotting glitches, amplify and heighten the experience of the non-controlling, secondary player. Off-Line ergodicity can be characterised by this combination of activity contributing to the attainment of the game objective and the pleasure of the audio-visual.
the interface is a continuous feedback loop where the player must be seen as both implied by, and implicated in, the construction and composition of the experience. Locked into this feedback loop at the level of interface or controls (hence the significance of the feel of the game), the player experiences at the level of first-hand participation and can then sustain and decode multiple and apparently
In recollection of their play, players talk not of playing or controlling but of "being". The concentration on viewpoint (often erroneously referred to as "perspective") reveals an over-reliance on representational models and mechanisms of player/viewer connectivity.
proposed by Sicart (2008), focusing on mechanics as “methods invoked by agents,
designed for interaction with the game state,” is one of the most widely accepted in
the current approaches to the subject (Dubbelman, 2016, 2017).
While Ja¨rvinen’s (2008) definition of
mechanics as “means to guide the player into particular behavior by constraining
the space of possible plans to attain goals” (p. 254) still could not represent
mechanics as a concrete and separate entity from rules, Sicart’s is valuable in that
it focuses on its decision-making aspect and thus on the game functions that are the
is one of the first location based games. Online players compete against members of Blast Theory on the streets. Tracked by satellites, Blast Theory's runners appear online next to your player on a map of the city. On the streets, handheld computers showing the positions of online players guide the runners in tracking you down.
The idea of instructions, a modern updatng of the FLuxus kits, is this Caillios Mimicry.
Artist Ricardo Basbaum (Brazilian, b. 1961) leads a workshop exploring group dynamics and the relationship between architecture and individual bodies through a series of interventions throughout the Museum. Participants wear t-shirts imprinted with the word “ME” or “YOU” in either English or Portuguese. Each group performs a set of instructions that correspond to drawings and proposals developed by the group. The resulting experiences are documented and displayed in the Studio.
What is the metaphor here,has she added any gaming elements to the game. Yoko Ono broke down the prototype of the chess and generated open-ended and infinite games. Changes the way people play the game, the stratergies and skills needed. Maybe makes them play collaobratilvly. Fluxus - Yoko Ono (1971) ‘Play it with trust’ all pieces are white. Opposed to serious-ness and the ossiﬁcation of art as object, Fluxus artists sought a new art practice, one that was open to humor, intimacy, player agency, and various aspects of performance. “Because games lend themselves to humor, often require physical participation, and undermine the seriousness of art that certain Fluxus artists opposed, they were a per-fect medium for Fluxus expression and experimentation.
Can we play critically
Passage’s creator, Jason Rohrer, is the subject of a new exhibition at Wellesley College’s Davis museum, “The Game Worlds of Jason Rohrer,” which is being touted as the first solo art museum retrospective for a video-game designer. (Passage is already a permanent part of MoMA’s collection.) Aside from putting to bed any lingering doubts about the genre’s artistic potential, the show presents an oeuvre that spans genres and conceits that would be difficult, maybe impossible, to tackle in a different pmedium. “It works both as a kind of philosophical object, but it’s also an immersive, playful experience that transcends any kind of interpretation that I might offer of it,” says Mike Maizels, the exhibition’s curator. Maizels first learned about Rohrer’s work via a Wired magazine article about the game Chain World, which was conceived to exist only as a single copy on a flash drive, to be played once and then passed on.
The Surrealists games were Chain games, Conditionals, Echo poems, The Game of Exquisite Corpse
Art games that question the media, and question society Critical gaming. Vagamundo: A Migrant's Tale is a mobile public art project designed for on the street interaction to create temporary public commons as well as an online game. Through a mobile cart resembling an ice cream cart pedestrians are invited to play a video game that reflects the plight of illegal immigrants in New York. The project is informed by interviews that I conducted with new immigrants from Latin America residing in Manhattan and Brooklyn. The game is composed of three levels each level represents a move up in the social scale and assimilation to the United States. making playful gamified works that are critical of society, are progressive and revolutionary. Artists use games to critique society.
Darfur is dying - Welcome to Darfur is Dying. This narrative-based simulation was created in 2006 to put you in the shoes of a displaced Darfurian refugee.
S1 Brutulist playground Baltic - The play grond project