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E-learning formale e informale nel Web 2.0

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Intervento presentato allo ZenaCamp di sabato 28/4/2007 a Genova

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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E-learning formale e informale nel Web 2.0

  1. 1. Antonio Fini Università di Firenze [email_address] E-learning formale e informale nel Web 2.0 <ul><li>Un mashup di slide con contributi di: </li></ul><ul><li>M.C. Pettenati </li></ul><ul><li>G. Bonaiuti </li></ul>
  2. 2. Apprendimento <ul><li>Formale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scuola, Università, Formazione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diploma, Certificazione </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intenzionale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non formale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luoghi di lavoro, associazioni, club, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Di norma: nessun riconoscimento formale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intenzionale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Informale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalla vita quotidiana… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental learning / Experential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non sempre intenzionale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Alcune immagini suggestive… © 2006 Jay Cross, Internet Time Group LLC, Berkeley, California Formal Si va dove va il bus Informal Si va dove si vuole
  4. 4. Un quadro riassuntivo http://agelesslearner.com/intros/informal.html
  5. 5. Qualche idea non proprio nuovissima… <ul><li>Learning webs – nuove istituzioni educative </li></ul><ul><li>Un buon sistema educativo dovrebbe avere 3 obiettivi: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fornire accesso a risorse a chiunque lo voglia ed in qualunque momento della vita; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fare in modo che chiunque voglia condividere suo sapere possa trovare con chi farlo; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creare opportunità per quelli che vogliono esporre le proprie idee pubblicamente. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Deschooling Society, Ivan Illich , 1973 </li></ul>1973!! M.C. Pettenati – Università di Firenze
  6. 6. Digital natives - Netgeneration - Gen Y – iGeneration – Millenials – Internet Generation, New Millenium Learners, … <ul><li>Nel 72% dei casi i motori di ricerca sono la prima scelta che permette la ricerca di informazione </li></ul><ul><li>2% usano il sito della biblioteca dell’università </li></ul><ul><li>Nel 67% dei casi i riferimenti alla risorse sono diffuse attraverso reti sociali (amici) </li></ul><ul><li>53% ritiene che l’affidabilità dei motori sia equivalente a quella della biblioteca </li></ul><ul><li>55% dei teenager usa siti di social networking </li></ul><ul><li>55% ha creato un profilo personale </li></ul><ul><li>49% usa social networking per fare nuovi amici </li></ul><ul><li>57% dei teenager crea contenuti (blog, pagina web, foto, etc.) </li></ul>De Rosa, Lenhart 2006 in Oblinger , 2007 Educause M.C. Pettenati – Università di Firenze
  7. 7. Immigranti, Nativi o Rifugiati? W. Fryer , 2006 In Italia 58% Non Internet users (Refugees, knowing..) 13,5% Laggards (Voyeurs..) 20,5% Followers (Voyeurs/Immigrants) 7,25% Advanced users (Natives) Ortega et al., 2007 M.C. Pettenati – Università di Firenze
  8. 8. Il Web 2.0 Ancora???? Ma basta!!!!
  9. 9. Web 2.0 per apprendere <ul><li>L’ utente 2.0 è anche, implicitamente, un learner , anzi un lifelong learner? </li></ul><ul><li>Usa Google e Wikipedia come strumenti per apprendere </li></ul><ul><li>Contribuisce a costruire la conoscenza attraverso le reti a cui appartiene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commenti, trackback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mi tengo aggiornato su… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condivisione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documenti (wiki, web office, foto, video, …) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risorse (social bookmarking e RSS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mi può interessare conoscere quali sono le fonti degli altri colleghi, amici, compagni di studi, … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Impara da tutte queste fonti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Può selezionarle, filtrarle, commentarle, riprenderle, espanderle, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Però: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ha il problema di selezionarle, filtrarle, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>È sempre più vittima del’ Information overload </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I social software sono anche potenti filtri informativi! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More signal, less noise </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Il web 2.0 “incoraggia” il cambiamento G.Bonaiuti – Università di Firenze
  11. 11. E-learning? <ul><li>Da Wikipedia (It): </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning è apprendimento supportato dalle tecnologie di rete </li></ul><ul><li>La definizione della UE: </li></ul><ul><li>L’utilizzo delle nuove tecnologie multimediali e di Internet per migliorare la qualità dell’apprendimento agevolando l’accesso a risorse e servizi nonché gli scambi e la collaborazione a distanza </li></ul><ul><li>http:// europa.eu.int / comm / education / elearning / index.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Il paradigma dominante dell’e-learning <ul><li>E’ il modello formale-istituzionale : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Il corso è solitamente l’unità base dell’e-learning formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sistemi tecnologici si sono “adeguati” a questa visione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Da qui il concetto di piattaforma LMS o VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isomorfismo tra “istituzione” e LMS/VLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un sistema software che ricrea virtualmente l’ambiente reale di apprendimento di una “istituzione” (scuola, università, azienda,..): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centralizzazione </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accesso controllato e riservato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walled garden </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus su contenuti precostituiti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asimmetria tra docenti e studenti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiente “uguale per tutti” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aderenza agli standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracciamento , controllo , … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Durata limitata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finito il corso… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Due visioni a confronto <ul><li>Paradigma tradizionale </li></ul><ul><li>Piattaforme (VLE) </li></ul><ul><li>Centratura sull’istituzione </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controllo accessi, ruoli asimmetrici </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comunità di studenti </li></ul><ul><li>Separazione studio-resto della vita </li></ul><ul><li>Strumenti selezionati </li></ul><ul><li>Focus sugli “standard” </li></ul><ul><li>Contenuti costruiti, chiusi </li></ul><ul><li>Learning object </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigma emergente </li></ul><ul><li>Ambienti personali (PLE) </li></ul><ul><li>Centratura sul soggetto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomia, simmetria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comunità aperte (studenti, amici, ecc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrazione diversi momenti della vita </li></ul><ul><li>Strumenti illimitati </li></ul><ul><li>Focus sui “connettori” (servizi aggregabili) </li></ul><ul><li>Contenuti aperti, dinamici, co-costruiti </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is learning </li></ul>Le tecnologie sono finalizzate a supportare il processo. Funzione contenitiva. Le tecnologie si ampliano con l’evoluzione del web e si rinnovano al variare delle esigenze di chi le usa G. Bonaiuti – Università di Firenze
  14. 14. Una (o più cose) alla volta? Teemu Arina , Dicole Ltd , 2007
  15. 15. Personal Learning Environment PLE Rielaborazione di un grafico di Scott Wilson, CETIS, 2005 PLE Un idea Un concetto Un mix di tool NON UN NUOVO SISTEMA!!! Controllo a cura dell’ utente, non dell’ istituzione <ul><ul><li>Tecnologie: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Verso l’e-learning 2.0 La tecnologia come risorsa per aggregare E-learning 2.0, G.Bonaiuti , 2006 G.Bonaiuti – Università di Firenze
  17. 17. Un’esperienza in atto: LTE - Unifi <ul><li>Laboratorio di Tecnologie dell’Educazione </li></ul><ul><li>Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione, Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Educazione, dei processi culturali e Formativi – Università di Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>www.scform.unifi.it/ lte </li></ul>
  18. 18. Una community ? <ul><li>Il LTE è di fatto una comunità! </li></ul><ul><li>Chi sono i partecipanti? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboratori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partecipanti ai corsi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Docenti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studenti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-studenti ( Alumni ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altri.. (studiosi, ospiti, dottorandi, ecc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esigenze: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantenere i contatti! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Il corso è finito, e ora? Mi raccomando, sentiamoci… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condividere e collaborare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avere un ambiente “personale” ma anche “sociale” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uscire dai confini della “piattaforma e-learning” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestire il proprio apprendimento informale, oltre e dopo il “corso” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un e-portfolio da affiancare alla piattaforma istituzionale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporto tecnologico per una comunità di pratiche </li></ul></ul>LTE Staff Collaboratori Corsisti Ex-corsisti Docenti Altri
  19. 19. Bridging formal and informal… <ul><li>La nostra ipotesi di lavoro: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amministrazione e gestione dei corsi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blog, e-portfolio, narrazioni, social networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elgg </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. LTEver si basa su Elgg Dave Tosh - 2005 http:// elgg.net / dtosh / weblog /398.html <ul><li>Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Tecnologie: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Php/mySQL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Site: elgg.org </li></ul><ul><li>Esperienze simili: </li></ul><ul><li>Athabasca Univ . (Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpen-Adria Univ. (Austria) </li></ul><ul><li>Univ . Of Brighton (GB) </li></ul>
  21. 21. LTEver www.lte-unifi.net/elgg
  22. 22. Le funzioni base di LTEver <ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spazio web personale utilizzabile liberamente per riflessioni e racconti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregatore automatico di altri blog personali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporto per podcasting/video/foto sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cruscotto (dashboard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Una “vetrina” o pagina web totalmente personalizzabile con appositi elementi ( widget ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Un archivio personale di file liberamente condivisibili </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risorse RSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggancio a fonti esterne via RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profilo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni parola inserita in ogni campo diventa automaticamente un tag , utilizzabile per “collegarsi” ad altri </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La propria “rete” di contatti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Le proprie comunità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni utente può creare comunità aperte e/o chiuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni utente può invitare colleghi e amici </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Caratteristiche fondamentali <ul><li>Uno spazio personale liberamente gestibile </li></ul><ul><li>Nessun ruolo privilegiato (eccetto un admin) </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy e sicurezza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni elemento (ad es. un post del blog, un file o un campo del profilo) è soggetto al: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controllo di accesso </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pubblico: tutti possono vedere il dato </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utenti loggati: solo gli altri utenti di LTEver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privato: solo l’utente ha accesso </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comunità/gruppo di accesso: liberamente definibili… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Il livello di accesso è sempre stabilito dall’utente </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comunità e gruppi di utenti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ogni utente può creare nuove comunità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accesso libero / controllato </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sperimentazione e prospettive <ul><li>Il servizio è attivo da febbraio 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oltre 150 utenti attivi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molto utilizzati il blog e i commenti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comunità predefinite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prossimamente: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporto alle attività e alle conversazioni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuazione di Animatori di comunità tematiche </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ricerche: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilità dello strumento per studenti ed ex-studenti </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dinamiche relazionali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prospettive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tecniche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OpenID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuove features (CV, presentation, integrazione con wiki, …) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metodologiche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLE come middleware pedagogico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Un ponte tra VLE e PLE? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Grazie! <ul><li>Contatti: </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio Fini </li></ul><ul><li>LTE - Laboratorio di Tecnologie dell’Educazione </li></ul><ul><li>Università di Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>www.scform.unifi.it/lte </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  26. 26. Il blog
  27. 27. Il cruscotto
  28. 28. I file
  29. 29. Le risorse RSS
  30. 30. Il profilo
  31. 31. Il network

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