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5. Internet and Education,
5.1. Introduction to Internet and its applications
5.2. History of the internet-
5.3. Understanding WWW-
5.4. Web browsers –
5.5. Favorites and bookmarks –
5.6. Kinds of information available –
5.7. Parts of internet,
5.8. searching the net,
5.9. Researching on the net.
5.10. Critical Issues in Internet usage –
5.14. Ethical and Legal Standards
5.1. Introduction to Internet and its applications
Internet is interconnection of large number of different types of computer networks all over the
world that can share information among themselves. These interconnected network exchange
information by using same standards and protocols
The Internet, sometimes called simply "the Net," is a worldwide system of computer networks -
a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get
information from any other computer (and sometimes talk directly to users at other computers).
It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. government in
1969 and was first known as the ARPANet. The original aim was to create a network that would
allow users of a research computer at one university to "talk to" research computers at other
universities. A side benefit of ARPANet's design was that, because messages could be routed or
rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it
were destroyed in the event of a military attack or other disaster.
Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of
millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses a portion of the total resources of the
currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the
Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol). Two recent adaptations of Internet technology, the intranet and the extranet, also make
use of the TCP/IP protocol.
For most Internet users, electronic mail (email) practically replaced the postal service for short
written transactions. People communicate over the Internet in a number of other ways including
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Internet telephony, instant messaging, video chat or social media.
The most widely used part of the Internet is the World Wide Web (often abbreviated "WWW" or
called "the Web"). Its outstanding feature is hypertext, a method of instant cross-referencing. In
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most Web sites, certain words or phrases appear in text of a different color than the rest; often
this text is also underlined. When you select one of these words or phrases, you will be
transferred to the site or page that is relevant to this word or phrase. Sometimes there are buttons,
images, or portions of images that are "clickable." If you move the pointer over a spot on a Web
site and the pointer changes into a hand, this indicates that you can click and be transferred to
Using the Web, you have access to billions of pages of information. Web browsing is done with
a Web browser, the most popular of which are Chrome, Firefox and Internet Explorer. The
appearance of a particular Web site may vary slightly depending on the browser you use. Also,
later versions of a particular browser are able to render more "bells and whistles" such as
animation, virtual reality, sound, and music files, than earlier versions.
The Internet has continued to grow and evolve over the years of its existence. IPv6, for example,
was designed to anticipate enormous future expansion in the number of available IP addresses. In
a related development, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the burgeoning environment in which
almost any entity or object can be provided with a unique identifier and the ability to transfer
data automatically over the Internet.
How the Internet Works
The internet is a world-wide network of computers linked together by telephone wires, satellite
links and other means. For simplicity's sake we will say that all computers on the internet can be
divided into two categories: servers and browsers.
Servers are where most of the information on the internet "lives". These are specialised
computers which store information, share information with other servers, and make this
information available to the general public.
Browsers are what people use to access the World Wide Web from any standard computer.
Chances are, the browser you're using to view this page is either Netscape
Navigator/Communicator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. These are by far the most popular
browsers, but there are also a number of others in common use.
When you connect your computer to the internet, you are connecting to a special type of server
which is provided and operated by your Internet Service Provider (ISP). The job of this "ISP
Server" is to provide the link between your browser and the rest of the internet. A single ISP
server handles the internet connections of many individual browsers - there may be thousands of
other people connected to the same server that you are connected to right now.
The following picture shows a small "slice" of the internet with several home computers
connected to a server:
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ISP servers receive requests from browsers to view webpages, check email, etc. Of course each
server can't hold all the information from the entire internet, so in order to provide browsers with
the pages and files they ask for, ISP servers must connect to other internet servers. This brings us
to the next common type of server: the "Host Server".
Host servers are where websites "live". Every website in the world is located on a host server
somewhere (for example, MediaCollege.Com is hosted on a server in Parsippany, New Jersy
USA). The host server's job is to store information and make it available to other servers.
The picture below show a slightly larger slice of the internet:
To view a web page from your browser, the following sequence happens:
1. You either type an address (URL) into your "Address Bar" or click on a hyperlink.
2. Your browser sends a request to your ISP server asking for the page.
3. Your ISP server looks in a huge database of internet addresses and finds the exact host
server which houses the website in question, then sends that host server a request for the
4. The host server sends the requested page to your ISP server.
5. Your ISP sends the page to your browser and you see it displayed on your screen.
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Applications of internet
The internet is treated as one of the biggest invention. It has a large number of uses.
1. Communication: it is used for sending and receiving message from one and other
through internet by using electronic mail. Some of the web sites
providing this service are yahoomail.com Hotmail.com
2. Job searches: getting information regarding availability of job in different sectors
and areas. You can publish your resume in online for prospective
job. Some of the web sites providing this service are naukri.com,
monster.com, summerjob.com, recuritmentindia.com etc.
3. Finding books and
study material :
books and other study material stored around the world can be easily
located through internet. Latest encyclopaedias are available online.
4. Health and medicine: internet provide information and knowledge about field of health
medicine people can have information about various disease and can
receive help .patient can be taken to virtual check room where they
can meet doctors. Some of the web sites providing this service are
5. Travel: one can use internet to gather information about various tourist place
. it can be used for booking Holiday tours , hotels, train and flights.
Some of the web sites providing this service areindiatravelog.com,
6. Entertainment one can download e jokes, songs music, latest sports updates through
internet Some of the web sites providing this service
arecricinfo.com, movies.com espn.com
7. Shopping : internet is also used for online shopping. By just giving accounts
details you can perform the transaction. You can even pay your bills
and perform bank related transaction.
8. Stock market updates
you can sell or buy shares while sitting on computer through
internet. Several websites like ndtvprofit.com, moneypore.com,
provide information regarding investment
9. Research : a large number of people are using internet for research purposes
you can download any kind information by using internet
10. Business use of
different ways by which internet can be used for business are:
• Information about the product can be provided can be
provided online to the customer .
• Provide market information to the business
• It help business to recruit talented people
• Help in locating suppliers of the product .
• Fast information regarding customers view about companies
• Eliminate middle men and have a direct contact with contact
• Providing information to the investor by providing
companies back ground and financial information on web
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History of Internet
The following section presents a chronological record of significant events in the internet world
with an explanation of their causes
1957 – USSR launches Sputnik into space. In response, the USA creates the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) with the mission of becoming the leading force in science and new
1962 – J.C.R. Licklider of MIT proposes the concept of a “Galactic Network.” For the first time
ideas about a global network of computers are introduced. J.C.R. Licklider is later chosen to
head ARPA's research efforts.
1962 - Paul Baran, a member of the RAND Corporation, determines a way for the Air Force to
control bombers and missiles in case of a nuclear event. His results call for a decentralized
network comprised of packet switches.
1968 - ARPA contracts out work to BBN. BBN is called upon to build the first switch.
1969 – RPANET created - BBN creates the first switched network by linking four different
nodes in California and Utah; one at the University of Utah, one at the University of California at
Santa Barbara, one at Stanford and one at the University of California at Los Angeles.
1972 - Ray Tomlinson working for BBN creates the first program devoted to email.
1972 - ARPA officially changes its name to DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects
1972 - Network Control Protocol is introduced to allow computers running on the same network
to communicate with each other.
1973 - Vinton Cerf working from Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA begin work developing
TCP/IP to allow computers on different networks to communicate with each other.
1974 - Kahn and Cerf refer to the system as the Internet for the first time.
1976 - Ethernet is developed by Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe.
1976 – SATNET, a satellite program is developed to link the United States and Europe. Satellites
are owned by a consortium of nations, thereby expanding the reach of the Internet beyond the
1976 – Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, sends out an email on 26 March from the
Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern.
1976 - AT& T Bell Labs develops UUCP and UNIX.
1979 - USENET, the first news group network is developed by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and
1979 - IBM introduces BITNET to work on emails and listserv systems.
1981 - The National Science Foundation releases CSNET 56 to allow computers to network
without being connected to the government networks.
1983 - Internet Activities Board released.
1983 - TCP/IP becomes the standard for internet protocol.
1983 - Domain Name System introduced to allow domain names to automatically be assigned an
1984 - MCI creates T1 lines to allow for faster transportation of information over the internet.
1984- The number of Hosts breaks 1,000
1985- 100 years to the day of the last spike being driven on the Canadian Pacific Railway, the
last Canadian university was connected to NetNorth in a one year effort to have coast-to-coast
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1987 - The new network CREN forms.
1987- The number of hosts breaks 10,000
1988 - Traffic rises and plans are to find a new replacement for the T1 lines.
1989- The Number of hosts breaks 100 000
1989- Arpanet ceases to exist
1990 - Advanced Network & Services (ANS) forms to research new ways to make internet
speeds even faster. The group develops the T3 line and installs in on a number of networks.
1990 - A hypertext system is created and implemented by Tim Berners-Lee while working for
1990- The first search engine is created by McGill University, called the Archie Search Engine
1991- U.S green-light for commercial enterprise to take place on the Internet
1991 - The National Science Foundation (NSF) creates the National Research and Education
1991 - CERN releases the World Wide Web publicly on August 6th, 1991
1992 – The Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered
1992- Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000
1993 - InterNIC released to provide general services, a database and internet directory.
1993- The first web browser, Mosaic (created by NCSA), is released. Mosaic later becomes the
Netscape browser which was the most popular browser in the mid 1990's.
1994 - New networks added frequently.
1994 - First internet ordering system created by Pizza Hut.
1994 - First internet bank opened: First Virtual.
1995 - NSF contracts out their access to four internet providers.
1995 - NSF sells domains for a $50 annual fee.
1995 – Netscape goes public with 3rd largest ever NASDAQ IPO share value
1995- Registration of domains is no longer free.
1996- The WWW browser wars are waged mainly between Microsoft and Netscape. New
versions are released quarterly with the aid of internet users eager to test new (beta) versions.
1996 – Internet2 project is initiated by 34 universities
1996 - Internet Service Providers begin appearing such as Sprint and MCI.
1996 - Nokia releases first cell phone with internet access.
1997- (Arin) is established to handle administration and registration of IP numbers, now handled
by Network Solutions (IinterNic)
1998- Netscape releases source code for Navigator.
1998-Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) created to be able to
oversee a number of Internet-related tasks
1999 - A wireless technology called 802.11b, more commonly referred to as Wi-Fi, is
2000- The dot com bubble bursts, numerically, on March 10, 2000, when the technology heavy
NASDAQ composite index peaked at 5,048.62
2001 - Blackberry releases first internet cell phone in the United States.
2001 – The spread of P2P file sharing across the Internet
2002 -Internet2 now has 200 university, 60 corporate and 40 affiliate members
2003- The French Ministry of Culture bans the use of the word "e-mail" by government
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ministries, and adopts the use of the more French sounding "courriel"
2004 – The Term Web 2.0 rises in popularity when O'Reilly and MediaLive host the first Web
2004- Mydoom, the fastest ever spreading email computer worm is released. Estimated 1 in 12
emails are infected.
2005- Estonia offers Internet Voting nationally for local elections
2006- There are an estimated 92 million websites online
2006 – Zimbabwe's internet access is almost completely cut off after international satellite
communications provider Intelsat cuts service for non-payment
2006- Internet2 announced a partnership with Level 3 Communications to launch a brand new
nationwide network, boosting its capacity from 10Gbps to 100Gbps
2007- Internet2 officially retires Abilene and now refers to its new, higher capacity network as
the Internet2 Network
2008- Google index reaches 1 Trillion URLs
2008 – NASA successfully tests the first deep space communications network modeled on the
Internet. Using software called Disruption-Tolerant Networking, or DTN, dozens of space
images are transmitted to and from a NASA science spacecraft located about more than 32
million kilometers from Earth
2009 – ICANN gains autonomy from the U.S government
2010- Facebook announces in February that it has 400 million active users.
2010 – The U.S House of Representatives passes the Cybersecurity Enhancement Act (H.R.
2012 - A major online protest shook up U.S. Congressional support for two anti-Web piracy bills
- the Stop Online Piracy Act in the House and the Protect IP Act in the Senate. Many in the tech
industry are concerned that the bills will give media companies too much power to shut down
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Internet use in education
The most important among them is the ability of a user to work with information. for effective
education a mere access to Internet information resources is not enough. It is necessary to
prepare the students beforehand to work with information or to provide those who use the
distance form of education with special tasks destined to develop intellectual skills of critical
thinking, working with verbal texts, multimedia environment, to create all kinds of so-called
secondary texts (abstracts, summaries, essays, etc.), to be able to work with information. It
means in other words to develop their critical thinking. This must be the goal of every education
system. So, this is the first factor, which influences the efficiency of the Internet in education
5.2. Understanding WWW-
The term WWW refers to the World Wide Web or simply the Web. The World Wide Web
consists of all the public Web sites connected to the Internet worldwide, including the client
devices (such as computers and cell phones) that access Web content. The WWW is just one of
many applications of the Internet and computer networks.
The World Web is based on these technologies:
• HTML - Hypertext Markup Language
• HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
• Web servers and Web browsers
Researcher Tim Berners-Lee led the development of the original World Wide Web in the late
1980s and early 1990s. He helped build prototypes of the above Web technologies and coined
the term "WWW." Web sites and Web browsing exploded in popularity during the mid-1990s.
Information retrieval Exploring the web and retrieve information from net.
E-mail It is the most widely used tool to send and retrieve messages
electronically on a network.
Search engine Is a program that searches though a database of web pages for particular
Chat Online textual take is called chatting.
Video conferencing A two- way videophone conversation among multiple participants is
called video conferencing.
FTP File Transfer Protocol, which defines a method for transferring files
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from one computer to another over a network.
Telnet Is an internet utility that lets you log onto remote computer system.
News group A new group or fourm is online community bulletin board, where users
can post messages, respond to posted message, or just need them.
5.3. Web BROWSERs
A web browser is the tool you use to access the World Wide Web. In order to get the most out
of the Web, it's important to understand the various features of a browser.
A web browser is the tool you use to access the World Wide Web. In order to get the most out
of the Web, it's important to understand the various features of a browser.
In this section, we'll talk about navigating the Web with a browser, downloading files,
bookmarking your favorite websites, tabbed browsing, and plug-ins.
To get the most out of your web browser, there are some basic concepts that you need to be
familiar with, including navigation, downloading, bookmarking, tabbed browsing, and plug-ins.
Common web browsers
Today, Chrome and Firefox are the most popular web browsers. Other browsers include
Internet Explorer, Safari, and Opera. Each one has its own look and feel, but they have the
same goal: to display webpages correctly. For most webpages, any well-known browser will
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Like most modern programs, browsers use a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which means
you can navigate by pointing and clicking with a mouse instead of just typing. Some devices like
mobile phones use different types of GUIs, such as touchscreens. However, many of the
principles remain the same. In the images below, you can compare a point-and-click interface
with a touchscreen interface.
Navigating to a website
To get the most out of your web browser, there are some basic concepts you need to be familiar
Browsers have an address bar that shows the web address (also called a URL) of the page you
are on. To go to a different page, you can type an address in the address bar and then press Enter
Most of the time, you will get to a different page by clicking on a link. A link can be text or an
image, and it's usually formatted to stand out so you know to click on it. Many text links are
blue, and they may also be underlined.
For example, this is a link. It will open a webpage in a new window, and you can close it to come
back to this page.
A link may lead to another webpage, or it could lead to a document, video, or any other type of
file. If you're not sure if something's a link, hover the mouse over it. The pointer should change
to a hand symbol.
Sometimes after you click on a link, you might want to go back to the previous page. You can do
this using your browser's Back button. Once you've pressed the Back button, you can press the
Forward button to follow the link again.
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When you use the Back and Forward buttons, your browser may use its web cache to display
the page. The web cache stores recently viewed webpages so they don't need to be downloaded
again. This is good because it speeds up your web browsing, but sometimes you want to see the
most up-to-date information on the page. You can use the Refresh button (sometimes called
Reload) to tell the browser to load the page again.
There are some instances when you don't want to use the navigation buttons. For example, with
some online stores you shouldn't refresh the page after purchasing an item because it could cause
you to purchase the item twice.
Some browsers have a built-in search bar for performing web searches. However, many
browsers have combined the address bar and the search bar into a single bar where you can type
web addresses or search terms. We'll talk more about web searches in the next lesson.
Some websites may track your activities online, usually for marketing purposes. It's also possible
to encounter malicious sites that could harm your computer.
5.1. FAVOURITES AND BOOKMARK:
"Bookmarks" and "favorites" are two words for the same thing: web addresses that users have
asked the web browser to remember for convenient access in the future. Microsoft Internet
Explorer uses the term "favorite." Most other products, including the very first web browsers and
the modern Firefox browser, use the term "bookmark." In Microsoft Internet Explorer, you can
add a favorite by visiting the page you want the browser to remember, pulling down the
"Favorites" menu and selecting "Add to Favorites." In Firefox, you can do the same thing by
pulling down the "Bookmarks" menu and selecting "Bookmark This Page."
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With hundreds of millions of websites and more coming online daily, you will undoubtedly find
ones you want to revisit. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to
them quickly, without having to retype them. Whether you are using Mozilla Firefox, Internet
Explorer, Safari, Chrome or another browser, the procedure is similar.
To save a web page, go to Bookmarks or Favorites on the menu bar and click on Add to... When
you open your list, the title of the page you added will appear at the bottom of the list. To access
the page, double-click on the title.
Here's another way to bookmark a web page: click on this page once with your right mouse
button and select Add Bookmark or Add to Favorites from the pop-up menu.
Put Your Links in Order
After a while you'll discover that you've got dozens of bookmarks. It's now time to organize
them into folders.
If you use Internet Explorer 7.0 or 8.0 click on Favorites on the menu bar to open the Favorites
window. Now select Organize Favorites. Click the New Folder button to create a folder, then
name it. We suggest organizing your bookmarks in folders by subjects, such as Sports, Travel,
News, Games, etc. Now click on each Favorite once, hold down your left mouse button and drag
the Favorite into the appropriate subject folder.
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With Firefox 2.0 or later, click on Bookmarks on the menu bar to open the Bookmarks window.
Now select Organize Bookmarks. Click the New Folder button to create a folder, name it, click
on each Bookmark once, hold down your left mouse button and drag it into the subject folders.
Sometimes the names of the bookmarks aren't descriptive, so you may want to alter them. With
Explorer, open the Favorites window, then right-click the Favorite to change. Select Rename
from the pop-up menu and type a new name.
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Suppose you visited a webpage a few days ago but forgot to bookmark it. You can find the page
again by using your history, which is a list of websites you've visited. Usually, pages will stay in
the history for a certain number of days. To maintain privacy, you can delete your history at any
Viewing your history
To view your history in Internet Explorer 9, click the star icon, then select the history
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Deleting your history
1. In Internet Explorer 9, click the gear icon to open the Tools menu.
2. Click Safety, then select Delete browsing history....
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If you're using a browser other than Internet Explorer, the process of viewing and deleting
history will be slightly different.
Many browsers allow you to open a link in a new tab. This allows you to keep the current page
open instead of going directly to the new page. For example, if you're reading an article that has
a link in it, you can open the link in a new tab so you can finish reading the article. Then you
can go to the new tab to view the link.
Tabs are designed to make browsing more convenient. You can open as many links as you
want, and they'll stay in the same browser window instead of cluttering up your screen with
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To open a link in a new tab, right-click the link and click Open in new tab (the wording
may vary from browser to browser). To close a tab, click the "X" on the tab.
Your browser can display many different types of documents, media, and other files. But there
are times when you'll want to access a file outside of your browser. Downloading enables you
to do this by putting the file on your computer so you can access it.
For example, suppose you needed to complete and print a form you found online. You could
download it to your desktop, then open it with the appropriate program (such as Microsoft
Word) to edit it.
How to download a file
If you click on a link to a file, it may download automatically, but sometimes it just opens
within your browser instead of downloading. To prevent it from opening in the browser, you
can right-click the link and select Save Target As (different browsers may use slightly different
wording). You'll be able to choose the folder where the file is saved.
Because the process of downloading a file varies from site to site, it may require some trial and
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For various reasons, many sites do not allow you to download content. For example, YouTube
does not offer a way to download its videos.
Sometimes you might want to save an image to your computer. To do this, right-click the image
and select Save Picture As.
Some sites do not allow images to be saved to your computer.
Plug-ins are programs that are installed in your browser that enable it to play various types of
media, such as video. Examples of plug-ins include Quicktime Player and Flash Player. If you
don't have the correct plug-in, the site will usually provide a link to download the plug-in.
Once you have the necessary plug-ins, you'll be able to enjoy streaming video from sites such as
Hulu, and play games on sites such as Newgrounds.
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Your browser may have come with some plug-ins already installed.
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5.2. KINDS OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE:
The internet is flooded with uncountable amount of information, for and related to, a particular
object. Few information available are listed below:
Types of information resources
Following a discovery or event, information flows through different publications over time. This
differs between subjects but in general:
Primary literature is where new research or theories are first revealed, and includes
journals and conferences
Secondary literature provides a more digested overview of a subject e.g. books
Tertiary literature records facts and brief descriptions of key information, as in reference
Reference material can consist of a range of different types of material providing students with
background information. This material can either be general or related to specific subject areas.
Dictionaries: It is good to have a dictionary nearby when you are reading a document,
particularly if it is in a subject or topic that is new to you.
Encyclopedias: Encyclopedias‟ typically provide a little more detail than a dictionary,
Other reference material
Depending on subject area, there are many other kinds of reference material:
Books: Books may be textbooks at school or university level or more-detailed monographs.
e-Books: Many books are now available as electronic versions or e-books.
Journals: Journals (periodicals or serials) are published at regular intervals throughout the
Journal articles: Articles may be either reviews or research papers.
There is a great wealth of information available on the Internet. But don‟t rely on Wikipedia and
YouTube for your university studies and do ensure that the websites you use are reliable.
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As sources of current information and topical comment, newspapers can be good sources for
primary research information.
Conference proceedings consist of a collection of papers reporting on presentations or posters
delivered at conferences, seminars or workshops. They are sources of primary research
information as this may be the first place the information has been made public.
Reports are produced by agencies and departments on specific topics or issues. These agencies
can include Government departments, research establishments, charitable foundations and more.
Standards are consensus agreements drawn up by representative collections of people who have
a particular interest in the subject. These might be manufacturers, users, research organisations,
or government departments.
Manuscripts and Special Collections
Manuscripts and archives are unique items which were created or collected by a person or
organisation in the course of their ordinary business, and retained by them as evidence of their
activities, or because of the information they contain. They may be written by hand, but can also
be typewritten or even printed from computer. The rare books collections at the University
include books published before the mid-19th century, and also research collections on particular
themes. Because these resources are often unique, and can be fragile, they are stored in special
conditions, and consulted under supervision in a reading room
Patents are legal documents which give the owner exclusive rights to profit from an invention,
protecting it from exploitation by others unless they have the prior agreement of the patent
owner. Patents also establish the ownership of advances in the subject.
Theses submitted for doctoral degrees are major sources of primary research output. Some of the
most current and original research every year is produced by postgraduate researchers at UK and
Business information: Organisation charts, networks of outlets and addresses, annual reports,
press releases. Example: Rainfall report.
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Libraries and documentation centres: Online catalogues, specific (bibliographic) files.
Example: the Universsity Library (UL) website of TNTEU, British Council Library.
Private persons: Personal homepages and uniquely individual collections with links. Example:
the homepage of a lecturer or professor.
International organisations :Partners, members, goals, publication overviews, statistics (often
downloadable), links to related organisations and/or individual members. Examples: The World
Bank or UNESCO.
Government information: Ministries, provinces, municipalities: overviews of directorates,
departments, contacts, publication lists and order information; explanations of the main outlines
of policy; specific campaigns (e.g. a digital discussion platform). Example: the official site of
the Indian government.
Publishers: New publications, order information, information for authors (e.g. referee system).
Examples: Publishers' Catalogues, a website with home pages of publishers around the world; or
Bibliofind: „More than 20 million used and rare books, periodicals and ephemera offered for sale
by thousands of booksellers around the world‟.
Universities (Total campus information providers): Overview of facilities, departments, e-
mail addresses of staff, research and teaching programmes, rosters and publication lists.
Example: the home page of TNTEU.
SOCIEMES, ACTION GROUPS AND ASSOCIATIONS:
Goals, press release, publication list, campaigns, links to related areas. Ex: UGC.
Many newspapers and popular magazines provide web versions of their publication and news
updates throughout the day. Current financial and weather information is also easily accessible.
Ex: Indiatoday news NDTV live…
The internet is a virtual gold mine of information for people who are interested in buying a
particular item and wand opinions about the item from other people. ex: Google groups.
In addition to several excellent sources of medical information provided by hospitals,
pharmaceutical companies, and non-profit organization,
Usenet newsgroup are collection of group discussion, questions, answers, and other information
shared through the internet. The message are called articles and are grouped into categories
called newsgroup. The newsgroup number in the thousands, with tens of thousands of articles
Many search engines include the option of searching archives of usenet articles.
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The web tends to include to information that it is in demand to a large portion of the public. The
web can‟t be relied upon consistently for historical information. For example, if one needed
today‟s weather data for Chennai, India, the web will certainly have it. But it the climatic data of
Chennai for November 1976 is wanted it might not be founded in the web.
5.3. PARTS OF INTERNET:
The four parts of the internet are
1. WWW (World Wide Web),
2. FTP (File transfer protocol),
3. E-MAIL, and
4. Instant messaging.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files
from one host to another host over a TCP- based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on
client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and
the server. For secure transmission that protect the username and password, and encrypts the
content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS(FTPS). The FTP client applications were command-
line application, and are still shipped with most windows, unix and linux operating systems.
Telnet is an application layer protocol used on the internet or local area networks to provide
bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
Telnet provided an access to a command-line interface on a remote host.
Instant messaging is a type of online chat which offers real-time text transmission over the
internet. A LAN messages operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages
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are typically transmitted bi-directionally between two parties, when each user choose to compute
a through and select “send”. Some IM application can use push technology to provide real-time
text, which transmit messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced
instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, and voice over IP or video chat.
Non IM types of chat include multicast transmission, usually referred to as “chat rooms” where
participants might be anonymous or might be previously known to each other. Instant messaging
system tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM
protocol, the technical architecture can be peer-to-peer (direct point to point transmission) or
client server (a central server retransmits message from the sender to the communication device.
E-mail is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. E-
mail is like sending a letter, only the message (ie) the mail is send thro internet and reaches the
recipient within seconds. To send an email, one needs an account with identical e-mail address.
Every e-mail account we can store our e-mail on the internet or store them on a computer, laptop
or another internet connected device. The internet e-mail message consists of three components,
the message envelope, message header and the message body.
PARTS OF AN INTERNET ADDRESS:
The information on the internet is retrieved thro a URL. The URL is the “address” of mark the
location of a website or other internet service.
( the address of the Oregon Institute of Technology Library )
Http: indicates what type of protocol one need to view the item. The protocol is the
way in which two systems communicate.
Ex: FTP or telnet
WWW: the name of the “host” computer where the web page is stored and is a
common name given to the computers connected to the web.
Oit.edu : it indicates the domain name.
Some of the common types of top-level domain are listed below:
Besides the institution official web pages, students or faculty
members can also publish personal pages on these websites.
Anywhere in the world can have this type of website. This is the
most common type of…….site for companies and is often used to
advertise and sell products, as well as to post company annual
report and other financial information. Online journals and
newspaper also have .com web pages.
.org Organisation This destination is used for any types of organization, including
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Originally designated for organisations directly involved in
internet organization, .net can now be used by anyone-companies,
organizations and individuals. It is often used by businesses when
the desired name under “.com” is already registered by another
.gov Government Originally for the federal government , .gov is now used for any
level of government. These site are used to publish tax forms,
census information, legislation, and other government news or
Some of the other top-level domains names are .mil, .museum, .info, and .biz. These are also
sometimes country codes in the URL , such as US for United States, ca for Canada or .in for
5.4. SEARCHING THE NET:
The internet is a big place and getting information from it can seem a little haunting. Its really
not very hard, though. All we have to do is ask one of the many search engines to go and look
for. To engines is essential.
Search engines are the key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of the WWW.
Without the sophisticated search engines, it web without knowing a specific URL. Search engine
in relation to the web, they are usually referring to the actual search forms that searches through
database of HTML document, initially gather by a robot.
There are basically three types of search engines:
Those that are powered by robots.
Those that are powered by human submissions.
Those that are a hybrid of the two.
The first tool for searching the internet created in 1990, was called “archie”. An year later,
“Gropher” was created. “veronica” and “jaghead” came along to search Goher‟s index systems.
The first actual web search engine was developed by Mathew Gray in 1993 and was called
KEY TERMS TO UNDERSTANDING WEB SEARCH ENGINES:
Spider Trap: A condition of dynamic web site in which a search engine‟s spider
became trapped in an endless loop of code.
Search Engine : A program that search document for specific keywords and returns a list
of the documents where the keywords were found.
Meta Tag : A special HTML tag that provides information about a webpage.
Deep Link : A hyperlink either on a web page or in the results of a search engine query
to a page on a web site other than the site‟s home page.
Robot : A program that runs automatically without human intervention.
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DOCUMENT RETRIVAL ON WEB :
The document retrieval on the web is taking place with the help of URL. The URL specific the
internet address of a file stored on a host computer connected to the internet. Every file on the
internet, no matter what it access protocol, has a unique URL. Web software programs use the
URL to retrieve the file from the host computer and the directory in which it resides. This file is
then displayed on the monitor connected to the user‟s local machine.
URLs are translated into numeric addresses using the internet domain name system (DNS). The
numeric address is actually the “real” URL. Since numeric strings are different by end users once
the translation is made, the web server can send the requested page to the user‟s web browser.
A website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are
addressed with a common domain name or IP address in an internet protocol-based network. A
website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via the internet or a private local area
5.5. RESEARCHING ON THE NET:
More and more students are turning to the Internet when doing research for their assignments,
and more and more instructors are requiring such research when setting topics. However,
research on the Net is very different from traditional library research, and the differences can
cause problems. The Net is a tremendous resource, but it must be used carefully and critically.
The printed resources you find in the Library have almost always been thoroughly evaluated by
experts before they are published. This process of "peer review" is the difference between, for
example, an article in Time magazine and one in a journal such as the University of Madras
Quarterly. Furthermore, when books and other materials come into the University library system,
they are painstakingly and systematically catalogued and cross-referenced using procedures
followed by research libraries the world over. This process is the basis for the way materials are
organized in the Library, and it makes possible the various search functions of the Web
On the Internet, on the other hand, "anything goes." Anyone can put anything they want on a
Web site, there is no review or screening process, and there are no agreed-upon standard ways of
identifying subjects and creating cross-references. This is both the glory and the weakness of the
Net - it's either freedom or chaos, depending on your point of view, and it means that you have to
pay close attention when doing research on-line. There are a great many solid academic
resources available on the Net, including hundreds of on-line journals and sites set up by
universities and scholarly or scientific organizations.
Here are a few basic guidelines to remember:
Don't rely exclusively on Net resources. Sometimes your assignment will be to do
research only on the Net, but usually your instructors will expect you to make use of both
Internet and Library resources. Cross-checking information from the Net against
information from the Library is a good way to make sure that the Net material is reliable
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Narrow your research topic before logging on. The Internet allows access to so much
information that you can easily be overwhelmed. Before you start your search, think
about what you're looking for, and if possible formulate some very specific questions to
direct and limit your search.
Know your subject directories and search engines. There are several high quality peer-
reviewed subject directories containing links selected by subject experts. INFOMINE and
Academic Info are good examples. These are excellent places to start your academic
research on the Internet. Google, Bing, Yahoo and other search engines differ
considerably in how they work, how much of the Net they search, and the kind of results
you can expect to get from them. Spending some time learning what each search engine
will do and how best to use it can help you avoid a lot of frustration and wasted time
later. Because each one will find different things for you, it's a good idea to always use
more than one search engine. For specialized search engines and directories you might
also like to try Beaucoup which includes 2,500 + search engines and directories or the
Search Engine Colossus International Directory of Search Engines that includes search
engines from 230+ countries around the world.
Keep a detailed record of sites you visit and the sites you use. Doing research on the
Net inevitably means visiting some sites that are useful and many that are not. Keeping
track is necessary so that you can revisit the useful ones later, and also put the required
references in your paper. Don't just rely on your browser's History function, because it
retains the Web addresses or URLs of all the sites you visit, good or bad, and if you're
using a computer at the University the memory in the History file will be erased at the
end of your session. It's better to write down or bookmark the sites you've found useful,
so that you'll have a permanent record.
Double-check all URLs that you put in your paper. It's easy to make mistakes with
complicated Internet addresses, and typos will make your references useless. To be safe,
type them into the Location box of your browser and check that they take you to the
The following points are guidelines for evaluating specific resources you find on the Net. If you
ask these questions when looking at a Web site, you can avoid many errors and problems.
o Who is the author?
o Is the author's name given?
o Are her qualifications specified?
o Is there a link to information about her and her position?
o Is there a way to contact her (an address or a "Mailto" link)?
o Have you heard of her elsewhere (in class, or cited in your course text or in
o Has the author written elsewhere on this topic?
o Who is the sponsor of the Web site?
o Is the author affiliated with a reputable institution or organization?
o Does the information reflect the views of the organization, or only of the author?
If the sponsoring institution or organization is not clearly identified on the site,
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check the URL. It may contain the name of a university (U of T Mississauga's
includes utoronto) or the extension .edu, which is used by many educational
institutions. Government sites are identified by the extension .gov. URLs
containing .org are trickier, and require research: these are sites sponsored by non-
profit organizations, some of which are reliable sources and some of which are
very biased. Sites with the .com extension should also be used with caution,
because they have commercial or corporate sponsors who probably want to sell
you something. The extension ~NAME often means a personal Web page with no
institutional backing; use such sites only if you have checked on the author's
credibility in print sources.
o What audience is the Web site designed for? You want information at the college
or research level. Don't use sites intended for elementary students or sites that are
too technical for your needs.
o Is the Web site current?
o Is the site dated?
o Is the date of the most recent update given? Generally speaking, Internet
resources should be up-to-date; after all, getting the most current information is
the main reason for using the Net for research in the first place.
o Are all the links up-to-date and working? Broken links may mean the site is out-
of-date; they're certainly a sign that it's not well-maintained.
o Is the material on the Web site reliable and accurate?
o Is the information factual, not opinion?
o Can you verify the information in print sources?
o Is the source of the information clearly stated, whether original research material
or secondary material borrowed from elsewhere?
o How valid is the research that is the source?
o Does the material as presented have substance and depth?
o Where arguments are given, are they based on strong evidence and good logic?
o Is the author's point of view impartial and objective?
o Is the author's language free of emotion and bias?
o Is the site free of errors in spelling or grammar and other signs of carelessness in
its presentation of the material?
o Are additional electronic and print sources provided to complement or support the
material on the Web site?
If you can answer all these questions positively when looking at a particular site, then you can be
pretty sure it's a good one; if it doesn't measure up one way or another, it's probably a site to
avoid. The key to the whole process is to think critically about what you find on the Net; if you
want to use it, you are responsible for ensuring that it is reliable and accurate.
5.6. CRITICAL ISSUES IN INTERNET USAGE:
The Internet has changed our world. It can enrich our lives by providing entertainment,
information, social networking, gaming, and connections to people all over the world. However,
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for some, Internet use can grow into a problem. People may find themselves online-shopping,
gaming, social networking, site surfing, blogging, stock trading, gambling, having cybersex,
viewing pornography-to an extent that it interferes with their ability to keep up with school,
relationships, and work, and/or has a negative effect on their mood. College students in particular
may develop overuse of the Internet. Increased accessibility, a culture that supports computer
and Internet use, and lots of unstructured time can lead to problematic Internet use in some
Consequences of problematic Internet use
College students may experience the following as a result of problematic Internet use:
Fatigue and sleep difficulties
Withdrawal from other forms of social activities such as hanging out with friends, or
participating in study groups, physical activity, and/or campus organizations
Over justifying their Internet use and rationalizing the importance of the Internet
There are no hard-and-fast rules for telling us when someone is spending too much time online.
As a general rule, if time spent online interferes with the quality of your life-- financially,
socially, medically, and/or emotionally--then you may want to consider getting help.
Do you have a problem?
You may have problematic internet use if you:
Stay online longer than intended
Frequently lose track of time when you are on the Internet
Cover up how much time you are spending online
Try to "cut down" but fail
Fantasize or spend time thinking about being online even when you are not
Lose sleep because you are using or thinking about using the Internet
Become irritable if others interrupt you while you are online
Use the Internet to escape or not think about other problems in your life
Suffer in your academic or job performance because of your Internet use
Experience physical problems due to your use of the Internet
Hear concerns from others about your Internet use
Neglect other responsibilities to be online
Spend time engaged in illegal activities on the Internet
Develop goals for going online. You can avoid site surfing and losing track of time by
setting a specific goal for each on-line session. For instance, if you need to do web
research for a class, set the goal of going directly to the academic site so that you can
accomplish your research first.
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Increase your awareness about your time online. On the Internet, you can easily lose
track of timeÉ until several hours have passed! To stay aware of your Internet use and
Create a log of how much time you are spending on gaming, email, social
networking, newsgroups, the Web, and other Internet applications.
Decide how long you plan to be online each session and set a timer when you go
Schedule your time online like you would for other daily activities such as
studying, eating, study groups, or class.
Computer software products are also available to help limit internet sessions.
Consider limiting access to the Internet.
Study in a place without access to the Internet
Turn off automatic alerts (i.e., that you've received a new message or that new
posts have been made to a favorite site or newsgroup), as these can pull your
attention away from what you are doing.
Set your home page to something academic instead of a site that is distracting to
Check out your thoughts and beliefs about the Internet. Your thoughts and beliefs
about the importance of the Internet can contribute to your online use patterns. You may
rationalize your use by saying, "I have to check my email, I may have a new message."
Challenge this thought. Then you can evaluate whether or not you really need to check
your email again, especially if checking your email might lead you away from focusing
on the material for a test the next day.
Evaluate your own triggers. Are there times or situations that make you more likely to
have problematic Internet use? Is it when you are feeling bored, lonely, depressed, or
anxious? Consider what the Internet might be replacing in your life. Problematic Internet
use may occur when people are trying to escape something in their world, and the
feelings of confidence, relief, or excitement that come from going online may reinforce
use of the Internet to escape. Figuring out when you are triggered, and what feelings
arise, can help you make changes such as picking an alternative activity.
Consider alternatives. When you are trying to change a behavior, you need to have
alternatives when you feel like engaging in that behavior again. For example, instead of
going online, you can hang out with or call friends, engage in physical activity, join a
student organization or enjoy a hobby.
How to help someone with problematic Internet use
Talk privately with that person about the negative impact of his/her Internet use,
including any negative effect on your relationship.
Listen nonjudgmentally and with an open mind. Problematic Internet use can cause a
person to feel ashamed, and it may be difficult for him/her to discuss this problem.
Discuss options and ask how you can be helpful.
Provide information about helpful resources
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It is a characteristic of a document or record created by the entity represented as its creator, and
preserved in its original form without any falsification or tampering. A genuine signature is
usually the best proof of authenticity.
It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents,
verifying the validity of a website with a digital certificate/
User authentication occurs within most human-to-computer interactions other than guest
accounts, automatically logged-in account and Kiosk computer systems. Generally, an userhas to
enter or choose an ID and provide their password to begin using a system. User authentication
authorizes human to machine interactions in operating systems and applications as well as both
wired and wireless networks to enable access to networked and inter- connected systems,
applications and resources.
The internet is the largest and most versatile source of information in the world today. Internet
addiction is described as an impulse control disorder, which does not include the use of
intoxication, drugs or so,. Some internet users may develop an emotional attachment to online
friends and activities they create on their computer screens. The internet users may enjoy the
aspects of the internet that allow them to meet, socialize and exchange ideas through the use of
chat rooms, social networking websites or “virtual communities”.
Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD), is now more commonly called Problematic Internet Use
(PIU), Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), internet over use, problematic internet use, pathological
computer use – refers to excessive computer use which interferes with daily life.
Some of the warning signs of internet addiction are:
Losing track of time online.
Having trouble completind tasks at work and at home.
Isolation from friends and family.
Feeling guilty or defensive about your internet use.
Feeling sense of euphoria while involved in internet activities.
To overcome from the internet addiction, the use of internet has to modified step-by-step:
The control over the time on usuage of internet.
Set goals – one could reward oneself with certain amount of online time once the
homework or assignment is done, overuse has to be restricted.
Replace the internet with healthy reading or sport activities.
Therapy can give a tremendous boost to controlling the internet addiction. Cognitive –
behaviourial therapy provides step by step ways to stop compulsive internet behaviours and
change your perceptions regarding internet, smartphones and computer use. Therapy can help to
learn healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotions, such as stress, anxiety or
Plagiarism on the internet, generally referred to as “ content scrapping” is simply coping
and pasting the content from a source without proper citation.
According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means
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to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
to use (another's production) without crediting the source
to commit literary theft
to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source
In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and
lying about it afterward.
According to U.S. law, the answer is yes. The expression of original ideas is considered
intellectual property and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions. Almost all
forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some way
(such as a book or a computer file).
All of the following are considered plagiarism:
turning in someone else's work as your own
copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your
work, whether you give credit or not (see our section on "fair use" rules)
Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that
certain material has been borrowed and providing your audience with the information necessary
to find that source is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. See our section on citation for more
information on how to cite sources properly.
Images, videos, and music
Using an image, video or piece of music in a work you have produced without receiving proper
permission or providing appropriate citation is plagiarism. The following activities are very
common in today‟s society. Despite their popularity, they still count as plagiarism.
Copying media (especially images) from other websites to paste them into your own
papers or websites.
Making a video using footage from others‟ videos or using copyrighted music as part of
Performing another person‟s copyrighted music (i.e., playing a cover).
Composing a piece of music that borrows heavily from another composition.
Certainly, these media pose situations in which it can be challenging to determine whether or not
the copyrights of a work are being violated. For example:
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A photograph or scan of a copyrighted image (for example: using a photograph of a book
cover to represent that book on one‟s website)
Recording audio or video in which copyrighted music or video is playing in the
Re-creating a visual work in the same medium. (for example: shooting a photograph that
uses the same composition and subject matter as someone else‟s photograph)
Re-creating a visual work in a different medium (for example: making a painting that
closely resembles another person‟s photograph).
Re-mixing or altering copyrighted images, video or audio, even if done so in an original
5.10. ETHICS AND LEGAL STANDARDS:
Technology when used constrained ethically and legally would remain safe to both the users and
to the society. What is needed and the needs to be with civic sense , morality, and be of public
and social responsibilities. The ethical and legal standards of internet usage are to be discussed:
Ethics is a set of moral principles that govern an individual or a group on what is an acceptable
behavior while using an internet. One of the common issues of internet ethics is violation of copy
Duplicating copy righted content without the author‟s approval, accessing of personal
information of others are some of the examples that violate the ethical principles.
Internet ethics means acceptable behavior of using internet. One should be honest, respect the
rights and property of others on internet.
One has to accept that internet is not a value- free zone. It means www is a place where values
are considered in the broader sense so we must take care while shaping content and services, and
we should recognize that internet is not apart from universal society but it is aprimary component
SENSITIVITY TO NATIONAL AND LOCAL CULTURES:
It belongs to all and there is no barrier of national and local cultures. It cannot be subjected to
one set of values like the local TV channels ot the local newspaper, we have to accommodate
multiplicity of usage.
WHILE USING e-mail AND CHATTING:
Internet must be used for communication with family and friends . Avoid chatting with strangers
and forwarding e-mails to the unknown.
PRETENDING TO BE SOMEONE ELSE:
We must not use internet to fool others by pretending to be someone else. Hiding our own
identity to fool others in the internet world is a crime and may also be a risk to others.
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AVOID BAD LANGUAGE:
We must not use abusive or bad language while using email , chatting, blogging and social
networking, we need to respect their views and should not criticize anyone on the internet.
HIDE PERSONAL INFORMATION:
We should not give personal details like home address, phone numbers, interests, passwords,
etc,. No photographs should be sent to strangers because it might be misused and shared without
Internet is used to listen and learn about music, watch videos, play games, but downloading
and sharing of the copy righted materials should not be encouraged. The awareness about the
importance of copyrights and issues of copyright is essential.
ETHICAL RULES FOR INTERNET USERS:
Donot use internet to harm other users.
Donot use internet to steal others‟ information.
Donot copy copyrighted software without the author‟s permission.
Always respect copyright laws and policies.
Respect the privacy of others, just as you expect the same from others.
Complain about illegal communication and activities, if found, to Internet Service
Providers and local law enforcement authorities.
Users are responsible for safe guarding their user id and passwords. They should
not write them on paper or anywhere else for remembrance.
Users should not intentionally use the computers to retrieve or modify the
information of others which may include password information, files, etc,.
Many areas in internet law remains unsettled which in some instances makes it difficult to
develop clear, unambiguous statements about what constitutes lawful behavior online. Some
digital-era copyright dilemmas are downright hilarious. Three characteristics of the internet,
challenge the ability of law makers and courts to apply matters of copyright and trademark, libel,
privacy, free speech and criminal activity to online activities:
Its lack of geographical/ physical/ geopolitical boundaries.
The ability to contributors to remain anonymous.
The IT law consists of the law which governs the digital dissemination of both digitalized
information and software itself and legal aspects of information technology more broadly.
Cyberlaw or internet law is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of the internet.
It is less a distinct field of law than intellectual property or contract law, as it is a domain
covering many areas of law and regulation.
There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put, in particular
there are rules on:
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Also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat
copy protection schemes.
There are also laws governing trade on the internet, taxation, consumer protection and
advertising. There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to
government information held on them by private bodies. Computerized voting technology, from
polling machines to internet and mobile phone voting, raise a host of legal issues. Some states
limit access to the internet, by law as well as by technical means.
1. Give the critical use of internet in literature review
2. compare the web usage purposes
3. what are the laws related to internet usage
4. Give the social, ethical and human issues in internet usage
5. How internet used in evaluation and using websites
6. Give the meaning for the authenticity
7. what are the important Authentic consequences in learning ICT
8. Why is authenticity important
9. How can one create authenticity through ICT
10. Describe the advantage of authentic learning
11. define addiction
12. what is E-mail spam
13. give the cyber wellness scheme
14. How to stop computer addiction
15. How to help children addicted to computer games
16. Give notes on anti plagiarism
17. How to solve anti plagiarism
18. Discuss the effects of plagiarism
19. How plagiarism affect ICT
5. Internet and Education,
5.1. Introduction to Internet and its applications
5.2. History of the internet-
5.3. Understanding WWW-
5.4. Web browsers –
5.5. Favorites and bookmarks –
5.6. Kinds of information available –
5.7. Parts of internet,
5.8. searching the net,
5.9. Researching on the net.
5.10. Critical Issues in Internet usage
1. Give the critical use of internet in literature review
2. compare the web usage purposes
3. what are the laws related to inernet usage
36. 36 | P a g e Chapter 5: Internet and its applications ver 1.0 last update May 3, 2016
4. Give the social,ethical and human issues in internet usage
5. How internet used in evaluation and using websites
1. Give the meaning for the authenticity
2. what are the important Authentic consequences in learning ICT
3. Why is authenticity important
4. How can one create authenticity through ICT
5. Describe the advantage of authentic learning
1. define addiction
2. what is E-mail spam
3. give the cyber wellness scheme
4. How to stop computer addiction
5. How to help children addicted to computer games
1. Give notes on anti plagiarism
2. How to solve anti plagiarism
3. Discuss the effects of plagiarism
4. How plagiarism affect Ict
5.14. Ethical and
5.15. Legal Standards