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Learning Citizenship for the 21st Century European Schoolnet eTwinning Conference Lisbon 14 - 16 March 2013Professor R. H. Fryer CBEChair, Campaign for Learning UKBoard Member NIACE UKBoard Member & Chief Learning Advisor Arch Agilisysprofbobfryer@live.co.uk
Agenda Why the current interest in citizenship & lifelong learning? An era of profound change – ‘risk society’ Origins & forms of citizenship European ambitions for citizenship education Social cohesion & diversity Policy & focus A ‘competence-based’ approach Informality , experience & participation Critical pedagogy Citizenship & ‘capability’ Citizenship & the purposes of learning
Why the current interest in citizenship? Retreat from conventional, electoral politics Youth alienation Break up/disappearance of ‘traditional’ communities Social fragmentation Decline of trades unions Rise of individualism, individuation & ‘identity’ politics’ Migration, ethnicity & social integration Globalisation & its discontents New forms of and locales of ‘exclusion’ – e.g. ‘digital’ Change, ambiguity, instability & risk ‘New’ social movements
An era of profound & widespreadeconomic, social & cultural change Global & national financial crises, ‘credit crunch’ & recession Long-run changes in social, political & cultural institutions (Family, Politics, Consumption etc) Restructuring of work, employment & industry Shifts in personal & group identities & aspirations A growing tendency for ‘choice’ An information & knowledge revolution Continuing technological innovation Greater localism within globalisation Social fragmentation & division New forms & expressions of citizenship
‘Turbo Capitalism’:an Age of Uncertainty & Insecurity? “No jobs are guaranteed, no positions are foolproof, no skills are of lasting utility, experience and know-how turn into liability as soon as they become assets, seductive careers all too often prove to be suicide tracks. In their present rendering, human rights do not entail the acquisition of a right to a job, however well performed , or - more generally - the right to care and consideration for the sake of past merits. Livelihood, social position, acknowledgement of usefulness and the entitlement to self-dignity may all vanish together, overnight and without notice.”Zygmunt Bauman, Postmodernity & its Discontents, page 22
Some origins & key forms of citizenship Four key ‘moments’ The ancients: Greece & Rome American & French revolutions T H Marshall: citizenship & social class Late 20th/early 21st century Two or three variants? The liberal model Marshall’s major revision The critique of liberalism Civic Republicanism Communitarianism See for example, Fryer, 2010, Promises of Freedom
Education for citizenship: European ambitions“Promoting equity, socialcohesion and active citizenshipthrough school education is… oneof the main objectives of thecurrent Strategic Framework forEuropean Cooperation inEducation and Training whichextends to 2020.”Source: Androulla Vassiliou (Commissioner responsible for Education, Culture,Multilingualism and Youth), Foreword toCitizenship Education in Europe, Education, Audiovisual and Culture ExecutiveAgency, (Eurydice) 2012.
An European conception of modern citizenship: the Eurydice Report“This report derives from an evolved conceptionof citizenship, acknowledging the fact that itgoes far beyond the simple legal relationshipbetween people and the state. This conceptionof citizenship, which extends to citizensparticipation in the political, social and civil lifeof society, is based on respect for a common setof values at the heart of democratic societies,and can be found in the definition of activecitizenship (Hoskins et al., 2006) promoted atEuropean level.” Source: Eurydice Report, 2012 p. 8
EU Youth StrategyThe EU Youth Strategy 2010-2018 declaredfostering active citizenship, social inclusion andsolidarity among all young people as one of itsmain objectives. The Strategy includes severallines of action related to developing citizenshipin both formal and non-formal educationalactivities, for example, ‘participation in civilsociety and in representative democracy’ and‘volunteering as a vehicle for social inclusionand citizenship’.Sources: Eurydice Report, 2012 p.7 & Council Resolution of 27 November 2009 on ‘arenewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field’ (2010-2018)
Policy and focus“Promoting the active participation of Europeancitizens in EU policymaking will also be one of theaims of the 2013 European Year of Citizens forEurope.”This will entail a focus on: Curriculum aims, approaches and organisation; Student and parent participation in schoolgovernance; School culture and student participation insociety Student assessment, school evaluation andeducation system performance; and Education, training and support for teachers and school headsSource: Eurydice Report , p. 8
Cohesion & diversity through values, knowledge & skillsEuropean countries need citizens to beengaged in social and political life not onlyto ensure that basic democratic valuesflourish but also to foster social cohesion ata time of increasing social and culturaldiversity. In order to increase engagement& participation, people must be equippedwith the right knowledge, skills andattitudes.Civic competences can enable individuals toparticipate fully in civic life but they mustbe based on sound knowledge of socialvalues and political concepts andstructures, as well as a commitment toactive democratic participation in society. Source: Eurydice Report, 2012, p. 8
A “competence- based” approach “This competence-based approach calls for new ways of organising teaching and learning in a number of subject areas including citizenship education. A greater focus on practical skills; a learning outcomes approach; and new methods of assessment supported by the continuing development of teachers‘ knowledge and skills, are all crucial to the successful implementation of key competences. Furthermore, the European framework also demands greater opportunities for students to actively participate in, for example, school-based activities with employers, youth groups, cultural activities and civil society organisations.”Sources: Eurydice Report, 2012 p. & EACEA/Eurydice, 2009. National testing of pupils in Europe 7
Key civic competencesThe civic competences needed are:A knowledge of basic democratic conceptsincluding an understanding of society andsocial and political movements;The European integration process and EUstructures; andMajor social developments, both past andpresent.Civic competences also require:Skills such as critical thinking andcommunication skills; Ability and willingness to participateconstructively in the public domain, including inthe decision-making process through voting.Finally, a sense of belonging to society atvarious levels, a respect for democratic valuesand diversity as well as support for sustainabledevelopment. Source: Eurydice Report, p. 8
Towards a ‘citizenship curriculum’Four core, intertwined capabilities•Digital capability•Health capability•Financial capability•Civic capabilityAnd should be combined together with employability (able toobtain, perform effectively in, develop & apply skills in, ejoyand progress in work) & ‘wider cultural development’The fostering of these capabilities should constitute a“minimum local offer which guarantees access to learning inrelation to them”.Source: Learning Through Life, (Report of independent Inquiry into the Future oflifelong learning), NIACE, 2009
Informal and experiential learning“Students learn about citizenship not only in theclassroom but also through informal learning.Citizenship education is therefore more effective ifit is supported by a school environment wherestudents are given the opportunity to experiencethe values and principles of the democratic processin action. All countries have introduced some formof regulation to promote student participation inschool governance, whether in the form of classrepresentatives, student councils or studentrepresentation on school governing bodies.Source: Eurydice Report, p. 13
Learning Citizenship by Participation in the CommunityMost European countries support educationalinstitutions in providing their pupils & studentswith opportunities to learn citizenship skillsoutside school through a variety of programmes& projects. Working with the local community,discovering and experiencing democraticparticipation in society & addressing topicalissues such as environmental protection, &cooperation between generations & nations areexamples of activities supported by nationalpublicly-financed programmes. Finally, there arepolitical structures, mostly at secondary level,intended to provide students with a forum fordiscussion & to allow them to voice theiropinions on matters affecting them. Source: EurydiceReport, p. 14
What kind of ‘participation’ in what forms of democracy’? ‘Thick’ or ‘thin’ democracy? Taking part counts Multi-dimensional & multiple forms of engagement Deliberation, discourse, & action Agency, empowerment & ‘voice’ Critical awareness Emancipation, liberation & autonomy Beware of unsavoury manifestations of community or ‘us’
Critical pedagogy - becoming ‘noisy & fractious’Critical pedagogy aims:“… to enable learners to go beyond thinking in order to enable them as citizens to act as engaged agents in their various worlds, giving voice to their hopes and ambitions for change and improvement”. (Giroux 2007: 1-5)It is about fostering “a language of critique and possibility”. (Giroux 2005: 211) in which the aim must be “to provide students with the knowledge and skills they need to learn how to deliberate, make judgements and exercise choice”. (Giroux: 2007: 1)It promises to engender what Barber (1998) regards as the true mark of an activist democracy - a “noisy and fractious citizenry”.
Citizenship, capability & learningFor democracy to thrive, Nussbaum suggests developing ten capabilities that determine ‘what people actually are and what they are able to be’, namely: Life – able to live a full human life of normal length; Bodily health – able to enjoy bodily health, including adequate nourishment and capacity for reproduction; Bodily integrity – able to move freely and safely from place to place; Sense, imagination and thought – able to make full use of the senses to experience, think, reason, imagine and create; Emotion – able to experience attachment to people, things and experiences and to express feelings of love, longing, grieving and justifiable anger; Practical reasoning – able to conceive of the good life and to engage in critical reflection; Affiliation – able to live with others in mutual respect, understanding the position of and worth of ‘others’, and establishing the basis of self-respect and non- discrimination; Other species – having respect for animals and plants; Play – ability to laugh and enjoy recreational and playful activity; and Environmental control – able to engage with the processes and choices that affect our political and material lives, including rights of political participation, property holding and employment.
An emergent model of learningDomain Traditional EmergentStudy Education LearningLocale School/other Everywhere – work, institution home etcTime Childhood/early Lifelong & life-wide adulthoodStyle Teacher centred Learner-drivenDelivery Face-to-face Distance & ‘e’Target Group Universal to max Specific & mass school age -eliteFocus Theory/abstract PracticeDiscipline Single Multi-disciplinaryMode Learning by rote ReflectiveForm Instructional ConstructivistPurpose Qualification Action/ applicationSource: Jarvis 2001 & Fryer 2010
Teacher education & training for pupils’ citizenship education“… More efforts are needed to strengthen teacherscompetences in teaching citizenship. Opportunities to betrained as a specialist teacher of citizenship educationare still not common; they are available only in Austriaand the UK(England) either through CPD or throughinitial teacher education programmes. The qualificationsrequired to teach citizenship education are mainlygeneralist at primary level, while at secondary level thearea of citizenship education is generally integratedwithin initial teacher education courses for specialistsin history, geography, philosophy, ethics/religion, socialsciences or economics.Source: Eurydice Report, p. 15
Citizenship & the core purposes of learningAccording to the celebrated Jacques Delors Commission on Lifelong Learning, The Treasure Within1) Learning to Know (learning to learn, general knowledge & understanding)2) Learning to Do (skills, competence, practical ability in a variety of settings)3) Learning to Live Together (tolerance, mutual understanding, interdependence)4) Learning to Be (personal autonomy & responsibility, memory, aesthetics, ethics, communication & physical capacity)* Recent scholarship suggests adding:Learning to Sustain
Raymond Williams’ three vital functions of learning in periods of rapid & widespread social change1. For Making Sense of Change - Information, ideas, knowledge, concepts, understandings, insights, theories, a critical & challenging mind2. For Adapting to Change - Maximising benefits & minimising costs, making the most of change, capturing & applying knowledge3. For Shaping Change - As authors of change rather than its Victims, navigating risk & uncertainty, at the heart of citizenship for the 20th century & the democratic project