Introduction of theorist
• Born :May 12, 1914, Dallas, Texas, USA
• Diploma : Knoxville General Hospital School of Nursing(1936)
• Graduation in Public Health Nursing : George Peabody
• MA :Teachers college, Columbia university, New York, 1945
• MPH :Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1952
• Doctorate in nursing :Johns Hopkins University,
• Position: Professor at Division of Nursing,
New York University and Consultant, Speaker
• Died : March 13 , 1994
Publications of Martha Rogers
• Theoretical basis of nursing (Rogers 1970)
• Nursing science and art :a prospective (Rogers
• Nursing :science of unitary, irreducible, human
beings (Rogers 1990)
• Vision of space based nursing (Rogers 1990)
Introduction of theory
• The belief of the coexistence of the human
and the environment has greatly influenced
the process of change toward better health.
• In short, a patient can’t be separated from his
or her environment when addressing health
• This view lead and opened Martha E. Rogers‘
theory, known as the “Science of Unitary
Human Beings,” which allowed nursing to be
considered one of the scientific disciplines
• Rogers repeatedly stated that she did not
create a "theory" but rather an abstract
system, a science, from which many theories
may be derived.
• The science of unitary human beings
comprises of five assumption, four major
concepts and three major principles
• Major concepts are : Energy field,
openness, pattern, and pan
• Major principles include resonancy ,
helicy and integrity. It is also known as
• Human being is considered as united
• A person and his environment are
continuously exchanging energy with
• The life process of human being
evolves irreversibly and unidirectional
i.e from birth to death
• Pattern identifies individuals and
reflects their innovative wholeness.
• Humans are the only organisms able
to think, imagine, have language and
• It is inevitable part of life. Human and
environment both have energy field which is
open i.e. energy can freely flow between
human and environment
• There is no boundary or barrier that can
inhibit the flow of energy between human and
environment which leads to the continuous
movement or matter of energy.
• Pattern is defined as the distinguishing
characteristic of an energy field perceived as a
• "pattern is an abstraction and it gives identity
to the field"
• Pan dimensionality is defined as "non linear
domain without spatial or temporal
• Human being are pan dimensional being and
have more than three dimension.
• Homeodynamics refers to the balance
between the dynamic life process and
• These principles help to view human as
unitary human being.
• Three principle of homeodynamics
• Wave patterns are continuously changing in
environmental and human energy fields.
• The nature of change is unpredictable,
continuous, and an innovative.
• Energy fields of humans and environment are
in a continuous mutual process.
1. Unitary Human Being (person)
• A unitary human being is open systems which
continuously interact with environment. A
person cannot be viewed as parts, it should be
considered as a whole.
• It includes the entire energy field other than a
• These energy fields are irreducible, not limited
by space and time, identified by its pattern
• Not clearly defined by Rogers. It is determined by
the interaction between energy fields i.e. human
• Bad interaction or misplacing of energy leads to
• Nursing exists to serve people.
• Nursing is both science and art.
• It is the direct and overriding responsibility to the
• Nursing action is always focused on unitary
human being and change the energy field
between human and environment.
• Nursing action include all non-invasive actions
such as guided imaginary, humor, therapeutic
touch, music etc. which are used to increase the
potential of human field.
• The more importance should be on the
management of pain, supportive therapy and
• Example in nursing care plan:
• Ritu 22 years old female was admitted in
psychiatric hospital with severe depression
secondary to diagnosis of ovarian malignancy.
She became tearfull while history taking. Ritu was
accompanied by her husband and 1 year old
child. Her husband appear anxious but
supportive. Ritu was diagnosed with ovarian
cancer 2 month ago and underwent surgery for
same. From past three week ritu started sitting
alone, decreased activity of daily living, repeated
crying spells, decreased talk, decreased sleep,
neglecting her child care, and also attempted
• Emphasis should be given on the
understanding of the patient and self, energy
field and environment.
• Example :
Training should lay more focus on teaching
non-invasive modalities such as therapeutic
touch, meditation, humor, regular in service
education programme etc.
• Rogerian theory has been used in many research
works and has always found testable and
applicable in research.
A study to assess the effectiveness of music
therapy on stress reduction among
postmenopausal women residing in Hudco
• A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Yoga
Therapy in Reducing Stress among Primary
Care Givers of Psychiatric Patients.
• Rogers’ concepts provide a worldview from
which nurses may derive theories and
hypotheses and propose relationships specific
to different situations.
• Rogers’ theory is not directly testable due to
lack of concrete hypotheses, but it is testable
• Overall this theory is considered as very complex
concept and quite difficult to understand.
• Rogers’ model does not define particular hypotheses or
theories for it is an abstract, unified, and highly derived
• Testing the concepts’ validity is questionable because
its concepts are not directly measurable.
• The theory was believed to be profound, and was too
ambitious because the concepts are extremely
• Rogers claimed that nursing exists to serve people;
however, nurses’ roles were not clearly defined.
Summary and Conclusion
• The Science of Unitary Human Beings is highly
generalizable as the concepts and ideas are not
confined with a specific nursing approach unlike the
usual way of other nurse theorists in defining the
major concepts of a theory.
• Rogers gave much emphasis on how a nurse should
view the patient. She developed principles which
emphasizes that a nurse should view the client as a
• Her statements, in general, made us believe that a
person and his or her environment are integral to each
other. That is, a patient can’t be separated from his or
her environment when addressing health and
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Elsevier publication, Nodia. Page no: 66-68.
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