# Chapter 2 traffic studies

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### Chapter 2 traffic studies

• 1. Chapter-2 TRAFFIC STUDIES Prepared By: Ankit N Patel Traffic Engineering BITS Edu Campus 1
• 2. Traffic Studies . Traffic studies are carried out to analyze the traffic characteristics. These studies helps in deciding the geometric design features traffic control for safe and efficient traffic movement. •The various traffic survey studies generally carried out are:  Traffic volume study  Speed study  Spot speed study  Speed and delay study  Origin and destination study  Traffic flow characteristics  Traffic capacity study  Parking study  Accident studies BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 2
• 3. Traffic Volume Study  It is the number of vehicles crossing a section of road per unit time at any selected period.  It is used as a quantity measure of flow: the commonly units are vehicles/day or vehicles/hour Object and Uses of Traffic Volume Study:  It is generally accepted as a true measure of the relative importance of roads and in deciding the priority for improvement and expansion.  It is used in planning, traffic operation and control of existing facilities and also for planning the new facilities.  It is used in the analysis of traffic patterns and trends.  Useful in structural design of pavement  Pedestrian traffic volume study is used for planning side walk, cross walks, subway and pedestrian signals. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 3
• 4. Scopes of Volume Study SCOPES Design Planning Improvement Dynamic Traffic Management Estimating Highway Use Computing Accident Rates Traffic Stream 4BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 5. Main Methods of Counting • 1. Direct Method • 2. Indirect Method Manual Counting Method • 1. Contact System • 2. Contact-less System Automatic Counting Method 5 BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 6. Manual Method counts are typically used to gather data for determination of vehicle classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements, or vehicle occupancy. Most applications of manual counts require small samples of data at any given location. Manual counts are sometimes used when the effort and expense of automated equipment are not justified. Manual counts are necessary when automatic equipment is not available. Manual counts are typically used for periods of less than a day. Normal intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes. Traffic counts during a Monday morning rush hour and a Friday evening rush hour may show exceptionally high volumes and are not normally used in analysis; therefore, counts are usually conducted on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 6
• 7. Manual counts • A manual classified count (MCC) involves counting all the vehicles passing a selected location on a road for a pre-determined period of time. • The count is conducted by persons standing at the roadside and recording passing vehicles on a form, hence the term “manual traffic count”. This distinguishes it from counts by machines that can record passing vehicles automatically, which are know as “automatic traffic counts”. • The count records individual vehicles by categories (i.e. a truck or car) and the direction they are travelling in. This is the reason it is called a ‘classified count’. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 7
• 8.  Employs a field team to count and classify traffic volume. Procedure  No. of observers required depends upon no. of Lanes and type of information required.  More desirable to record traffic in each direction of travel by posting separate observers for each direction.  For all-day counts ,work in three shifts can be arranged.  Data is recorded by Five- dash system. (IIII) 8 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 9. Equipments for manual counts • Watch • clip board • Pencil, rubber, shapner • Data sheet BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 9
• 10. Manual Count Recording Methods • Tally Sheets BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 10
• 11. Tally Sheets • Recording data onto tally sheets is the simplest means of conducting manual counts. The data can be recorded with a tick mark on a pre-prepared field form. A watch or stopwatch is necessary to measure the desired count interval. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 11
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• 13. Survey Procedure 13BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 14. Vehicle Type Tally Car CNG Bus Motorcycles NMT BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 14
• 15.  Details such as vehicle classification and no. of occupants can be obtained.  Records Turning movement data of vehicles at intersections.  Analyzing traffic characteristics in unusual conditions such as adverse weather conditions, traffic breakdowns, temporary closure of any lane of highway etc.  Comparatively cheaper method of counting.  Data accumulated by manual methods are easy to analyze. 15 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 16.  Not practicable to have manual count for 24 hrs of the day and throughout the year.  Counts of remote areas is possible by automatic devices. 16 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 17. Automatic Counting Method 17BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 18. Automatic Counting Methods  An automatic survey involves placing a tube or loop across a road which is connected to a box containing the means for storing the information.  In this method, vehicles are counted automatically without any human involvement.  There are two techniques of automatic counting:  a) Contact system based on pneumatic, mechanical, magnetic or b)Contactless system based on electrical/optical, ultrasound/infrared radar, micro wave, CCTV/video image processing method etc. 18BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 19. Automatic Method  The automatic count method provides a means for gathering large amounts of traffic data. Automatic counts are usually taken in 1- hour intervals for each 24-hour period.  The counts may extend for a week, month, or year. When the counts are recorded for each 24-hour time period, the peak flow period can be identified.  Automatic counts are recorded using one of three methods: portable counters, permanent counters, and videotape BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 19
• 20. Automatic Method Portable Counters Portable counting is a form of manual observation. Portable counters serve the same purpose as manual counts but with automatic counting equipment. The period of data collection using this method is usually longer than when using manual counts. The portable counter method is mainly used for 24-hour counts. Pneumatic road tubes are used to conduct this method of automatic counts Specific information pertaining to pneumatic road tubes can be found in the users’ manual. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 20
• 21. Automatic Method Permanent Counters Permanent counters are used when long-term counts are to be conducted. The counts could be performed every day for a year or more. The data collected may be used to monitor and evaluate traffic volumes and trends over a long period of time. Videotape or Videography Observers can record count data by videotaping traffic. Traffic volumes can be counted by viewing videotapes recorded with a camera at a collection site. A digital clock in the video image can prove useful in noting time intervals. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 21
• 22. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 22
• 23. Pneumatic road tube Pneumatic road tube sensors send a burst of air pressure along a rubber tube when a vehicle's tires pass over the tube. Figure : Pneumatic Road Tube 23 BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 24. Pneumatic Tubes BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 24
• 25. Bending plate A weight pad attached to a metal plate embedded in the road to measure axel weight and speed. It is an expensive device and requires alteration to the road bed. Figure : Bending Plate 25BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel
• 26. Equipments Used For Automatic Counting Method: 1.Pnematic Tubes 2. Weigh-In-Motion Sensor Types BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 26
• 27. 3. Vehicles counting by video camera (a) 3. Vehicles counting by video camera (b) BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 27
• 28. 4. Traffic counters BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 28
• 29. 7. Bending plate and pneumatic road tube 8. Automatic traffic recorders BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 29
• 30. Factors affecting vehicle counting: Weather conditions. Purpose of the traffic counting. Method of traffic counting. Location of the counting sites. Traffic flow level. Road type. Traffic composition. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 30
• 31.  Traffic Flow Maps:  Show volume along various routes by using bands proportional to traffic volume carried.  Thickness of lines represent traffic volume.  Intersection Flow Diagrams  Give direction and volume of traffic through an intersection.  Trend charts  Shows the hourly , daily or monthly changes in volume through an area.  Useful for planning future expansion, design and regulation. 31 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 32.  Annual Average Daily Traffic(AADT)  The total yearly volume divided by number of days in the year.  Average Daily Traffic(ADT)  The total volume during a given time period, in whole days greater than one day and less than one year, divided by number of days in that time period. 32 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 33. Passenger Car Unit The different vehicle classes have a wide range of statics characteristics and dynamic characteristics, apart from these the driver behavior of the different vehicle classes is also found to vary considerable. Therefore mixed traffic flow characteristics are very much complex when compare to homogeneous traffic and it is difficult to estimate the traffic volume, capacity of roadway under the mixed traffic flow, unless the different vehicle classes are converted to one common standard vehicle unit. •Therefore it is a common practice to consider the passenger car as the standard vehicle unit to convert the other vehicle classes and this unit is called passenger car unit PCU. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 33
• 34. Passenger Car unit (PCU) :- It is a common practice to consider the passenger car as the standard vehicle unit to convert the other vehicle classes and this unit is called Passenger car unit or PCU. Thus in mixed traffic flow, the traffic volume & capacity are generally expressed as PCU per hour or PCU/lane/hour & the traffic density as PCU per kilometer length of lane. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 34
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• 36. Factor affecting Passenger Car Unit  Vehicle characteristics  Speed distribution of the mixed traffic stream, volume to capacity ratio.  Roadway characteristics.  Regulation and control of traffic.  Environmental and climatic conditions. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 36
• 38.  Spot Speed  Instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specified location.  Average Speed  Average of the spot speeds of all vehicles passing a given point on the highway.  Running Speed  Average speed maintained by a vehicle over a given course while the vehicle is in motion.  Running speed= Length of course / Running time = Length of course /( Journey time- Delays) 38 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 39.  Journey speed  Also known as overall travel speed  It is the effective speed between two points. It is the distance between two points divided by the total time taken by the vehicle to complete the journey ,including all delays.  Journey speed = Distance/ Total journey Time (including Delays). 39 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 40. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 40
• 41. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 41
• 42. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 42
• 43. The methods available for measuring spot speed can be grouped as  Those observations that require time taken by a vehicle to cover a known distance.  It consist of  long base methods- vehicles are timed over a long distance.  Short base methods- vehicles are timed over a Short distance, say about 2m.  Radar Speedometer which automatically records instantaneous speed.  Photographic method. 43 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 44. I). Those observations that require time taken by a vehicle to cover a known distance.  Long base methods  Direct timing Procedure  Enoscope a)Direct timing Procedure Simplest method Two reference points are marked on the pavement at a suitable distance apart and an observer starts and stops stopwatch as a vehicle crosses these two marks. 44 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 45.  From known distance and time, speed can be calculated.  Disadvantage: errors due to parallax effect.  Observation by two observers one at each reference points  First observer standing at the point in which the vehicle pass first, signals and seconds observer starts the stop watch. The second observer stops the stop watch when he observes the same vehicle passing the reference point.  Disadvantage: reaction time of two observers. 45 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 46. b). Enoscope  Also known as mirror box  L-shaped box, open at both ends ,with a mirror set at 45 ˚ to the arms of the instrument. 46 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 47. 47 45˚ observer vehicle mirror It bends the line of sight of the observer perpendicular to the path of vehicle. BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 48. 48 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 49.  The instrument is placed directly opposite to the first reference point and the observer stations himself at the second reference point.  Stop watch is started as soon as the vehicle passes the first point and is stopped as soon as it passes the observer.  If two enoscope is used, the observer stations himself midway between two reference points.  Advantages:  Eliminates parallax error.  Equipment is of low cost, simple and can set up easily 49 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 50.  Works on the Doppler principle.  Speed of a moving body is proportional to change in frequency between the Radio wave transmitted to the moving body and the radio wave received back.  Instrument directly measures speed.  Instrument is setup near the edge of carriageway at a height of 1m.  The speed meter is so kept that the angle between direction of travel of vehicle and axis of transmission of radio wave is as low as possible, say within 20˚.  Speed of vehicles in both directions can be observed. 50 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 51.  Time-lapse camera photography can be used.  Photographs are taken at fixed intervals of time(say one second per frame) on a special camera.  By projecting the film on a screen, the passage of any vehicle can be traced with reference to time.  Images by video cameras can be also used. 51 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 52. Data collection formBITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 52
• 53.  Average speed of vehicles  From spot speed data, distribution tables are prepared by arranging the data in groups covering various speed ranges and number of vehicles in each range.  Arithmetic mean is the average speed.  Cumulative speed of vehicles  Graph is plotted with average values of each group on X- axis and cumulative % of vehicles travelling at different speeds. 53 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 54.  85th percentile speed: Speed at or below 85 % of vehicles are passing the point of highway.  Only 15 % of vehicles exceed the speed at that spot.  Drivers exceeding 85th percentile speed are considered to drive faster than the safe speed. Hence 85th percentile speed is adopted for Safe speed limit at that zone.  50th percentile speed: median speed.  15th percentile speed: represents the lower speed limit. 54 BITSEduCampusProf.AnkitPatel
• 55. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 55
• 56. Speed and Delay Study • Speed and delay studies give running speeds, overall speeds, fluctuations in speed and delay between two stations of a road spaced far apart. They also give the information such as amount, location, duration, frequency and causes of the delay in the traffic stream. Various methods to carry out speed and delay survey are: • Floating Car method • Licence Plate record method • By Interview • By Photography and videography BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 56
• 57. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 57
• 58. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 58
• 59. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 59
• 60. Speed and Delay Study BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 60
• 61. Methods of Speed and Delay Study License Plate Method: it synchronized stop watches or voice recording equipment are used. Observers are stationed at the entrance and exit of a test section where information of travel time is required. The timings and vehicle numbers are noted by the observers of the selected sample. From the office computations , travel time of each vehicle could be found. But the method does not give important detail such as causes of delays and the duration and number of delays within the test section. Interview Technique: The work can be completed in a short time by interviewing and collecting details from the road user spot. However the data collected may not provide with all the details correctly. Elevated observation and photographic technique: this are useful for studying short test section like intersection. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 61
• 63.  In a transportation study, it is often necessary to know the exact origin and destination of the trips. The information yielded by O-D survey includes land-use of the zones of origin and destination, household characteristics of the trip making family, time of the day when journeys are made, trip purpose and mode of travel. INTRODUCTION  Origin is defined as the place where the trip begins and destination is defined as the place where the trip ends.  Origin-Destination (OD) studies are an important tool for transportation Professionals. OD studies are conducted to understand the pattern of the movement of Persons and goods in a particular area of interest during a particular period of time (Wang, 1997).
• 64. O & D SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 64  THE ORIGIN AND DESTINATION STUDY IS CARRIED OUT MAINLY TO KNOW THE ORIGIN AND DESTINATION OF VARIOUS VEHICALS .  IN THIS STUDY THE DATA COLLECTED ARE, NUMBER OF VEHICLES, THEIR ORIGIN AND DESTINATION NUMBER OF PASSENGERS IN EACH VEHICLE,ROUTE ETC. BITS Edu Campus
• 65. USE FOR O & D SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 65  TO ESTABLISH PREFERENTIAL ROUTES FOR VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF VEHICLES  TO LOCATION OF NEW PROPOSED ROADS  TO LOCATION OF PARKING PALACES  TO LOCATE EXPRESSWAY  TO REGULATE MOVEMENT OF HEAVY VEHICLES  TO LOCATE NEW BRIDGE AS PER TRAFFIC DEMANDS BITS Edu Campus
• 66. METHOD OF O & D SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 66  ROAD SIDE INTERVIEW SURVEYS  HOME-INTERVIEW SURVEYS  TELEPHONE SURVEYS  TAXI SURVEYS  POST CARD QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS  REGISTRATION NUMBER SURVEY  TAG SURVEY  PUBLIC TRANSPORT SURVEY  COMMERCIAL VEHICAL SURVEY BITS Edu Campus
• 67. ROAD SIDE INTERVIEW SURVEY  IN THIS METHOD INTERVIEW STATIONS ARE PREVIOUSLY DECISED ON THE ROADWAY.  THE VEHICLES ARE STOPPED AT THE INTERVIEW STATIONS BY A GROUP OF PERSONS AND THE ANSWERS TO PRESCRIBED QUESTIONNAIRE ARE COLLECETED ON THE SPOT. Prof. Ankit Patel 67 BITS Edu Campus
• 68. INFORMATION COLLECTED • PLACE AND TIME OF ORIGIN • PLACE AND TIME OF DESTINATION • ROUTE • PURPOSE OF THE TRIP • TYPES OF VEHICLES • NUMBER OF PASSENGERS IN EACH VEHICLE Prof. Ankit Patel 68 BITS Edu Campus
• 69. ROAD SIDE INTERVIEW SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 69 BITS Edu Campus
• 70. Survey Questionnaire: Location: Date: STANDARD FORMAT Origin-Destination Survey Questions Please take a moment to answer a few questions about your trip. Your responses will help determine the need for improvements in this area. ·Where did your trip begin? City/Town _____________________________ State ______ Zip _______ ·What type of place is your trip start point? ❒ Primary Residence ❒ Workplace ❒ Store ❒ School (I am a student) ❒ Recreation Area ❒Other _________________________________
• 71. ·Where did your trip end? City/Town _____________________________ State ______ Zip __________ ·What type of place is your trip end point? ❒ Primary Residence ❒ Workplace ❒ Store ❒ School (I am a student) ❒ Recreation Area ❒ Other _________________________________ ·What was the purpose of your trip? ❒ Work Commute ❒ Business Related ❒ Shopping ❒ School (attend class) ❒Recreation ❒Other ___________________ ·How many people were in the vehicle, including the driver? ❒ 1 ❒ 2 ❒ 3 ❒ 4 ❒ 5 or More
• 72. ·What type of vehicle were you in? ❒ Passenger vehicle (car, motorcycle, SUV, pick-up truck, minivan) ❒ Commercial vehicle ❒Other ____________________________ ·Do you regularly use this route? ❒ Yes ❒ No ·Please add any comments on transportation you May have. Comments ____________________________ Thank you very much for your cooperation!
• 73. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES  ADVANTAGES :  DATA IS COLLECTED QUICKLY IN SHORT DURATION  DISADVANTAGES:  THE VEHICLES ARE STOPPED FOR INTERVIEW AND THERE IS DELAY TO THE VEHICULAR MOVEMENT Prof. Ankit Patel 73 BITS Edu Campus
• 74. HOME-INTERVIEW SURVEY  IN THIS METHOD RANDOM SAMPLE OF 0.5 TO 10% OF THE POPULATION IS SELECTED AND THE RESIDENCE ARE VISITED BY THE TRAINED PERSON WHO COLLECT THE TRAVEL DATA FROM EACH MEMBOR OF THE HOUSEHOLD.  DETAILD INFORMATION REGARDIND THE TRIPS MADE BY THE MEMBERS IS OBTAINED ON THE SPOT.  THE DATA COLLECTED MAY BE USEFUL EITHER FOR PLANNING THE ROAD NETWORK AND OTHER ROADWAY FACILITIES. Prof. Ankit Patel 74 BITS Edu Campus
• 75. HOME INTERVIEW SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 75 BITS Edu Campus
• 76. DATA COLLECTION  NUMBER OF TRIP MADE  THEIR ORIGIN & DESTINATION  PURPASE OF TRIP  TRAVEL MODE  NUMBER OF RESIDENTS  AGE  VEHICLE OWNERSHIP  NUMBER OF DRIVERS  FAMILY INCOME Prof. Ankit Patel 76 BITS Edu Campus
• 77. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES  ADVANTAGES:  THE PROBLEM OF STOPPING OF VEHICLES AND CONSEQUENT DIFFICULTIES ARE AVOIDED  THE PRESENT TRAVEL NEEDS ARE CLEARLY KNOWN AND THE ANALYSIS IS ALSO SIMPLE.  ADDITIONAL DATA INCLUDING SOCIO- ECONOMIC AND OTHER DETAILS MAY BE COLLECTED SO AS TO BE USEFUL FOR FORECASTING TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION GROWTH. Prof. Ankit Patel 77 BITS Edu Campus
• 78. TELEPHONE SURVEY  THIS METHOD INTERVIEW ARE CONDUCT WITH COMPUTER ASSISTED TELEPHONE INTERVIEW TECHNOLOGY.  A COMPLETE CATI SYSTEM MIGHT INCLUD AUTOMATIC DAILING OF NEXT HOUSEHOLD TO THE INTERVIEWER TO ASK THE NEST QUESTION AUTOMATIC SKIPPING AND BRANCHING WITHIN THE LIST OF QUESTIONS DEPENDING ON THE ANSER TO THE PREVIOUS QUESTION ,IMMEDIATE LOGIC CHECKS ON ANSWER PROVIDED. Prof. Ankit Patel 78 BITS Edu Campus
• 79. Prof. Ankit Patel 79 TELEPHONE SURVEY BITS Edu Campus
• 80.  ADVANTAGES:  SAVING THE TIME   DISADVANTAGES: INFORMATION RESPONCE NOT GOOD Prof. Ankit Patel 80 TELEPHONE SURVEY BITS Edu Campus
• 81. TAXI SURVEY  LARGE URBAN AREAS USUALLY HAVE A SIZEABLE AMOUNT OF TRAVEL BY TAXIS.  IN SUCH CASES, A SEPARATE TAXI SURVEY IS NECESSARY .  THE SURVEY CONSISTS OF ISSUING QUESTIONNAIRES OR LOG SHEETS TO THE TAXI DRIVERS AND REQUESTING THEM TO COMPLETE THE SAME. Prof. Ankit Patel 81 BITS Edu Campus
• 82. Prof. Ankit Patel 82 TAXI SURVEY BITS Edu Campus
• 83. POST CARD  IN THIS METHOD REPLY-PAID QUESTIONNAIRES ARE HANDED OVER TO EACH OF THE DRIVERS AT THE SURVEY POINTS AND REQUISTING THEM TO COMPLETE THE INFORMATION AND RETURN BY POST. Prof. Ankit Patel 83 BITS Edu Campus
• 84.  ADVANTAGES:  THIS METHOD ARE SIMPLER AND CHEAPER THAN MANY OTHERS.  DISADVANTAGES:  RESPONSE MAY NOT A GOOD Prof. Ankit Patel 84 POST CARD BITS Edu Campus
• 85. REGISTRATION NUMBER PLATE SURVEY  REGISTRATION NUMBER PLATE SURVEY CONSISTS OF NOTING THE REGISTRATION NUMBER OF VEHICLES ENTERING OR LEAVING AN AREA AT SURVEY POINTS LOCATED ON THE CORDON LINE.  BY MATCHING THE REGISTRATION NUMBER OF THE VEHICLES AT THE POINT OF ENTRY AND EXITFROM THE AREA , ONE IS ENABLED TO IDENTIFY TWO POINTS ON THE PATHS OF THE VEHICLES. Prof. Ankit Patel 85 BITS Edu Campus
• 86. REGISTRATION NUMBER PLATE SURVEY Prof. Ankit Patel 86 BITS Edu Campus
• 87. REGISTRATION NUMBER PLATE SURVEY  ADVANTAGES:  WORK DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH THE TRAFFIC IN ANY WAY.  DISADVANTAGES:  LARGE NUMBER OF OBSERVERS ARE NEEDED  ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS CAN BE COMPLICATED. Prof. Ankit Patel 87 BITS Edu Campus
• 88. TAG SURVEY  IN THIS METHOD AT EACH POINT WHERE THE ROADS CROSS THE CORDON LINE, VEHICLES ARE STOPPED AND A TAG IS AFFIXED ,USUALLY UNDER A WIND SCREEN WIPER.  THE TAGS FOR DIFFERENT SURVEYS STATIONS HAVE DIFFERENT SHAPES/COLOUR TO IDENTIFY THE SURVEY STATION.  THE VEEHICLES ARE STOPPED AGAIN AT THE EXIT POINTS WHERE THE TAGS ARE REMOVED.  THE TIME OF ENTERING AND LEAVING THE AREA MAY BE MARKED ON THE TAGS IN ORDER TO ENABLE THE JOURNEY TIME TO BE DETERMINED Prof. Ankit Patel 88 BITS Edu Campus
• 89.  ADVANTAGES:  THIS METHOD IS SIMPLE AND ERROR ARE NOT VERY LARGE.  DISADVANTAGES:  IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO HANDLE ALL THE VEHICLES, SAMPLING MAY BE RESTORED TO DONE. Prof. Ankit Patel 89 TAG SURVEY BITS Edu Campus
• 90. PUBLIC TRANSPORT SURVEYS  IN THIS METHOD INTERVIWER MAY ENTER THE VEHICLE AND CARRY OUT THE INTERVIEWS WHEN THE VEHICLES IS IN MOTION.  POST-CARD QUESTIONNAIRES ELIMINATE DELAYS, BUT ARE LIKELY TO EVOKE POOR RESPONSE OR CONTAIN AN ELEMENT OR BIAS.  THESE QUESTIONNAIRES MAY ALSO BE COLLECTED AT THE STATIONS INSIDE THE SURVEY AREA. Prof. Ankit Patel 90 BITS Edu Campus
• 91. PUBLIC TRANSPORT SURVEYS Prof. Ankit Patel 91 BITS Edu Campus
• 92. COMMERCIAL VEHICAL SURVEYS  COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SURVEYS ARE CONDUCTED TO OBTAIN INFORMATION ON JOURNEYS MADE BY ALL COMMERCIAL VEHICLES BASED WITHIN THE STUDY AREA.  THE ADDRESSES OF THE VEHICLES OPERATORS ARE OBTAINED AND THEY ARE CONTACTED .  FORM ARE ISSUED TO DRIVERS WITH A REQUEST THAT THEY RECORD PARTICULARS OF ALL THE TRIPS THEY WOULD MAKE. Prof. Ankit Patel 92 BITS Edu Campus
• 93. COMMERCIAL VEHICAL SURVEYS Prof. Ankit Patel 93 BITS Edu Campus
• 95. Introduction One of the problems created by road traffic is parking. Not only do vehicles require street space to move about, but also do they require space to park where the occupants can be loaded and unloaded. The period over which a car is parked is very great compared with the time it is in motion. Every car owner would wish to park the car as closely as possible to his destination so as to minimize his walking. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 95
• 96. Introduction  Traveling vehicles at one time or another will need to park for short or long times.  Need for parking spaces is great in areas where land uses include (business, residential, or commercial).  In high density areas spaces are very expensive, thus the space provided for automobiles usually has to be divided between their movement and parking. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 96
• 97. Effect of parking  Congestion  Accidents  Obstruction to fire fighting operations  Effect on environment BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 97
• 98. 1. Congestion: Parking takes considerable street space leading to the lowering of the road capacity. Hence, speed will be reduced, journey time and delay will also subsequently increase. The operational cost of the vehicle increases leading to great economical loss to the community. 2. Accidents: Careless maneuvering of parking and unparking leads to accidents which are referred to as parking accidents. Common type of parking accidents occur while driving out a car from the parking area, careless opening of the doors of parked cars, and while bringing in the vehicle to the parking lot for parking. ILL EFFECT OF PARKING BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 98
• 99. 3. Environmental pollution: They also cause pollution to the environment because stop- ping and starting of vehicles while parking and unparking results in noise and fumes. They also affect the aesthetic beauty of the buildings because cars parked at every available space creates a feeling that building rises from a plinth of cars. 4. Obstruction to fire fighting operations: Parked vehicles may obstruct the movement of firefighting vehicles. Sometimes they block access to hydrants and access to buildings. ILL EFFECT OF PARKING BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 99
• 100. General Terms of Parking Facilities  Parking Accumulation :-The total number of vehicles parked in an area at a specified moment.  Parking volume:-The number of vehicles parked in a particular area over a given period of time. It is usually measured in vehicles per day. This does not account for repetition of vehicles. The actual volume of vehicles entered in the area is recorded.  Parking load:-Parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the number of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. It is expressed as vehicle hours.  Parking duration:-The length of time spent in a parking space.  Parking turn over:-It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in a duration to the number of parking bays available. This can be expressed as number of vehicles per bay per time duration. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 100
• 101. Parking system On street parking: On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. This classification is based on the angle in which the vehicles are parked with respect to the road alignment. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5× 2.5 meters and that for a truck is 3.75× 7.5 meters. 1. Parallel parking: The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or unparking the vehicle. Hence, it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 101
• 102. Parking system 2. 30◦ parking: In thirty degree parking, the vehicles are parked at 30◦ with respect to the road alignment. In this case, more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking. Delay caused to the traffic is also minimum in this type of parking. 3. 45◦ parking: As the angle of parking increases, more number of vehicles can be parked. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking, more number of vehicles can be accommodated in this type of parking. 4. 60◦ parking: The vehicles are parked at 60◦ to the direction of road. More number of vehicles can be accommodated in this parking type. 5. Right angle parking: In right angle parking or 90◦ parking, the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. Although it consumes maximum width kerb length required is very little. In this type of parking, the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road traffic particularly if the road width is less. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 102
• 103. On – street or Kerb Parking 1. Parallel Parking 2. 30 degree parking 3. 45 degree parking 4. 60 degree Parking 5. 90 degree Parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 103
• 104.  Parallel Parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 104
• 105.  30 degree parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 105
• 106.  45 degree parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 106
• 107.  60 degree Parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 107
• 108.  90 degree Parking BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 108
• 109. Parking system Off street parking In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the main stream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-street parking. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 109
• 110. Parking survey In-out survey In this survey, the occupancy count in the selected parking lot is taken at the beginning. Then the number of vehicles that enter the parking lot for a particular time interval is counted. The number of vehicles that leave the parking lot is also taken. The final occupancy in the parking lot is also taken. Here the labor required is very less. Only one person may be enough. But we wont get any data regarding the time duration for which a particular vehicle used that parking lot. Parking duration and turn over is not obtained. Hence we cannot estimate the parking fare from this survey. For quick survey purposes, a fixed period sampling can also be done. This is almost similar to in-out survey. All vehicles are counted at the beginning of the survey. Then after a fixed time interval that may vary between 15 minutes to i hour, the count is again taken. Here there are chances of missing the number of vehicles that were parked for a short duration. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 110
• 111. Parking survey License plate method of survey This results in the most accurate and realistic data. In this case of survey, every parking stall is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes or so and the license plate number is noted down. This will give the data regarding the duration for which a particular vehicle was using the parking bay. This will help in calculating the fare because fare is estimated based on the duration for which the vehicle was parked. If the time interval is shorter, then there are less chances of missing short-term parkers. But this method is very labor intensive. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 111
• 113. Parking survey BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 113
• 114. ACCIDENT STUDY Causes of road accidents 1. Road Users - Excessive speed and rash driving, violation of traffic rules, failure to per-ceive traffic situation or sign or signal in adequate time, carelessness, fatigue, alcohol, sleep etc. 2. Vehicle - Defects such as failure of brakes, steering system, tyre burst, lighting system . 3. Road Condition - Skidding road surface, pot holes, ruts. 4. Road design - Defective geometric design like inadequate sight distance, inadequate width of shoulders, improper curve design, improper traffic control devices and improper lighting. 5. Environmental factors -unfavorable weather conditions like mist, snow, smoke and heavy rainfall which restrict normal visibility and and makes driving unsafe. 6. Other causes -improper location of advertisement boards, gate of level crossing not closed when required etc.. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 114
• 115. ACCIDENT STUDY Collision Diagrams Collision diagrams are used to display and identify similar accident patterns. They provide information on the type and number of accidents; including conditions such as time of day, day of week, climatic conditions, pavement conditions, and other information critical to determining the causes of safety problems. Accident reports should be organized by year of occurrence and accident type for the analysis period. Accidents that occurred after significant changes in highway or local land use should not be included. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 115
• 116. ACCIDENT STUDY A. Construction of Collision Diagram Sketch of the collision diagram for either an intersection or a roadway section using a standard form as shown on the following page. 1. The sketch need not be to scale. 2. Show the path of each vehicle involved in the accident with adequate room for information. 3. Place a north arrow for orientation and any other descriptive information: a) Location identification b) Period of analysis c) Label the roads BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 116
• 117. ACCIDENT STUDY 4. Sketch the path of each vehicle to show vehicle manoeuvre, type of collision and accident severity, and; a) Time of day b) Day of week c) Date d) Lighting condition e) Pavement condition f) Other important information, e.g., alcohol involvement B. Symbols Symbols representing the nature of operation, vehicle or object involved and severity of the accident are adopted. These are shown in the example collision diagram below. Symbols to represent types of collisions diagrams are also standardized. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 117
• 118. ACCIDENT STUDY BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 118
• 119. ACCIDENT STUDY Condition Diagrams: The purpose of the Condition Diagram is to show the intersection and the conditions within the surrounding area as it exists. The diagram should include the intersection alignment, items such as buildings, sidewalks, trees, lighting poles, water hydrants, stop signs, number of lanes, and lane use if required, associated with the streets forming the intersection. When applicable, the Condition Diagram shall show the length of all exclusive lanes. The Condition Diagram provides the engineer with details of field conditions and helps investigate the need for changes to existing traffic control devices. The diagram should also be part of an intersection crash analysis. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 119
• 120. ACCIDENT STUDY Preparing the Condition Diagram A. General Details 1. The engineer should enter the Location I.D. so that the intersection is thoroughly identified. 2. The name of the highway, highway number, and direction for both streets should be included. 3. County, City, Date, and Person(s) preparing the diagram. 4. Orient the intersection by indicating north on the north arrow. All items associated with the streets should be drawn using the symbols as outlined on the bottom of the form. BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 120
• 121. ACCIDENT STUDY B. Highway and intersection design features, including: a) Pavement edges, curbs, and shoulders (unpaved or paved) b) Widths of approaches c) Approach grades d) Channelization e) Parking conditions and restrictions f) Bus stops g) Safety lighting or continuous lighting h) Any other roadway features which may affect traffic operations BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 121
• 122. ACCIDENT STUDY C. Roadside development, including: a) Sight distance restrictions (trees, bushes, advertising and other signs, poles, fences, bridge, and guard rails) b) Off street parking c) Driveway locations d) Utility and other poles e) Adjacent land use f) Any other pertinent features D. Traffic control devices, such as: a) Signs b) Traffic signals (type, face locations, etc.) c) Distance to adjacent traffic signals within 1.61 km (one mile) (indicate if none) d) Pavement markings BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 122
• 123. ACCIDENT STUDY BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 123
• 124. PREVENTION OF ROAD ACCIDENT Strict punishment should be enforced by govt. if a person drives in over speed Tamper proof speed controllers should be installed in all vehicles. Two wheelers should not exceeded 50-70km/h. All the rules should be followed properly by the people.
• 125. THANK YOU BITS Edu Campus Prof. Ankit Patel 12 5