2. What is Big Data
How 3vs define Big data
Hadoop and its ecosystem
Map reduce and Yarn
Career in Big Data and Hadoop
3. o Order Details for a store
o All orders across 100s of stores
o A person’s stock portfolio
o All stock transactions for Stock Exchange
Its data that is created very fast and is too big to
be processed on a single machine .These data
come from various sources in various formats.
What is BIG DATA ???
5. 1. Volume
It is the size of the data which determines the value and
potential of the data under consideration. The name ‘Big
Data’ itself contains a term which is related to size and
hence the characteristic.
6. 2. Variety
Data today comes in all types of formats. Structured, numeric data in
traditional databases. Unstructured text documents, email, stock ticker data
and financial transactions and semi-structured data too.
7. 3. Velocity
speed of generation of data or how fast the data is generated
and processed to meet the demands and the challenges which
lie ahead in the path of growth and development.
Veracity ( came much later after 3Vs but entered as next big wave of innovation )
The quality of the data being captured can vary greatly. Accuracy of
analysis depends on the veracity of the source data.
9. What is HADOOP ???
“Hadoop” was name of a yellow toy elephant owned by the son of one of its inventors.
Hadoop is an open-source software framework for storing and processing
big data in a distributed fashion on large clusters of commodity hardware.
Essentially, it accomplishes two tasks : : massive data storage and faster
processing.•Open-source software. Open source software differs from commercial software due to the broad
and open network of developers that create and manage the programs.
•Framework. In this case, it means everything you need to develop and run your software applications
is provided – programs, tool sets, connections, etc.
•Distributed. Data is divided and stored across multiple computers, and computations can be run in
parallel across multiple connected machines.
•Massive storage. The Hadoop framework can store huge amounts of data by breaking the data into
blocks and storing it on clusters of lower-cost commodity hardware.
•Faster processing. How? Hadoop processes large amounts of data in parallel across clusters of tightly
connected low-cost computers for quick results.
10. Low cost. The open-source framework is free and uses commodity hardware to store large
quantities of data.
Computing power. Its distributed computing model can quickly process very large volumes
Scalability. You can easily grow your system simply by adding more nodes with little administration .
Storage flexibility. Unlike traditional relational databases, you don’t have to pre-process
data before storing it. You can store as much data as you want .
Inherent data protection. Data and application processing are protected against hardware failure.
self-healing capabilities. If a node goes down, jobs are automatically redirected to other nodes to
make sure the distributed computing does not fail and automatically stores multiple copies of all data.
11. What’s in Hadoop ???
HDFS – the Java-based distributed file system that can store all kinds of data
without prior organization.
MapReduce – a software programming model for processing large sets of
data in parallel.
YARN – a resource management framework for scheduling and handling
resource requests from distributed applications.
12. Hadoop Ecosystem
Basically ,HDFS and MapReduce are the two core components of the Hadoop Ecosystem
and are at the heart of the Hadoop framework.
But Some of the other Apache Projects which are built around the Hadoop Framework
are part of the Hadoop Ecosystem.
13. HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System)
o HDFS enables Hadoop to store huge files. It’s a scalable file system
that distributes and stores data across all machines in a Hadoop cluster.
Scale-Out Architecture - Add servers to increase capacity
High Availability - Serve mission-critical workflows and applications
Fault Tolerance - Automatically and seamlessly recover from failures
Load Balancing - Place data intelligently for maximum efficiency and utilization
Tunable Replication - Multiple copies of each file provide data protection and
14. Namenode and datanode
150MB Text File
When file(say 150MB Text file) is uploaded on HDFS then each block is
stored as a node in the Hadoop cluster.
NameNode- It Runs on a master node that tracks and
directs the storage of the cluster. Also we know that
the nodes or blocks which make up the original 150
MB file and that is handled by a separate machine is
the Namenode. Information stored here is called as
DataNode- There is a piece of software running on each of
these nodes of the cluster called Datanode which
runs on slave nodes which make up the majority of the
machines of a cluster. The name node places the data
into these data nodes.
15. HOW HDFS WORKS ???
Which of these are a problem if it occurs ?
oNetwork failure Between the nodes
oDisk failure on Datanode
oNot all Datanodes are used
oBlock sizes if differ of Datanodes
oDisk failure of Namenode
We may lose some data nodes and hence will be losing some amount of data say
64MB out 150MB text file
We may also have some hardware problem in namenode and may lose it too.
16. HOW HDFS WORKS continued….???
o Replication Factor ( RF ) -The number of copies of a file is called the
replication factor of that file. This information is stored by the Namenode.
Solution to problem occurred...(Datanode lost)
Hadoop replicates each file 3 times as it stores in
HDFS. ( RF = 3 )
17. HOW HDFS WORKS continued….???
NFS (Network File System) - Now , meta data
is stored not only on someone’s hard drive but
also on NFS . It is a method of mounting a
remote disk that way if namenode and
metadata are lost still we have a copy of
metadata elsewhere on the network.
Even more efficient, now a days , two
Namenodes have been configured.
Namenode(Active) - works in normal
Namenode(StandBy) - works if active
Solution to problem occurred…( NAMEnode lost )
• Earlier for a long time when Namenode (and metadata stored inside) was lost then the entire cluster
was inaccessible but now we have 2 techniques by which we can maintain our data .
MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing
and generating large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster.
Scale-out Architecture - Add servers to increase processing power
Security & Authentication - Works with HDFS security to make sure that only approved users can
operate against the data in the system
Resource Manager - Employs data locality and server resources to determine optimal computing
Optimized Scheduling - Completes jobs according to prioritization
Flexibility - Procedures can be written in virtually any programming language
Resiliency & High Availability - Multiple job and task trackers ensure that jobs fail independently
and restart automatically
19. Why MapReduce ???
To process data serially i.e. from top to bottom could take some long time
Historically we may probably use an associative array and Hash Tables but
these may lead us to some serious problem .
As the hash sizes grow, heap pressure becomes more of an issue
Say we are using 1TB of data ,then what issues may occur ????
o It won’t work.
o We may run out of memory.
o Data processing may take long time.
20. how MapReduce works ???
MapReduce divides workloads up into multiple tasks that can be executed in parallel.
Solution to problem
Mapreduce applications typically implement the Mapper and Reducer interfaces to provide
the map and reduce methods. These form the core of the job.
21. Mappers and Reducers
Mappers are the individual tasks that transform input records into intermediate records.
These are just small programs that deal with a relatively small amount of data and work in parallel.
The output obtained are called as intermediate records.
Mapper maps input key/value pairs to a set of intermediate key/value pairs .
Once mapping Done then a phase of mapreduce called shuffle and sort takes place on intermediate data.
Shuffle is the movement of intermediate records from mappers to reducers.
Sort is the fact that reducers will organize these records in the sorted order.
Reducer reduces a set of intermediate values which share a key to a smaller set of values.
It works on one set of records at a time. It gets the key and the list of all values and then it writes the final
22. Yarn ( part of mapreduce )
YARN is the architectural centre of Hadoop that allows multiple data processing engines such as
interactive SQL, real-time streaming, data science and batch processing to handle data stored in
a single platform, unlocking an entirely new approach to analytics.