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  1. 1. Left Photo: Word War I Trench Courtesy of Mrs J Smillie Right: WW I Postcard of soldiers taking cover in shell holes Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  2. 2. Causes ofWorld WarI - M A N I A ilitarism lliances ationalism mperialism ssassination MANIA
  3. 3. Europe 1913 German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was statesman who might be described as a political and diplomatic genius. His efforts led to the declaration of the German Empire in 1870. Kaiser Willhelm II was militaristic and wanted to strengthen Germany’s armed forces. This along with foreign policy changes upset the balance of power.
  4. 4. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% Militarism 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s (British pounds).
  5. 5. Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip was a member of a Serbian terrorist organization known as “The Black Hand”. Many Serbs wanted wanted to bring Bosnia under Serb control. Princip’s assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered World War I. World War I and the ensuing Treaty of Versailles would create the conditions leading to World War II. World War II would in turn create the conditions leading to the Cold War. Perhaps the world be a very different place today if Princip had not carried out his assassination of the Archduke. Millions of people have died as a result of the 20th century events that followed Princip’s assassination of the Archduke. At very minimum, he triggered World War I. Many would argue that confrontation between the world’s great powers was inevitable. Yet, the Cold War did not lead to global warfare. Photos: Photographers Unknown Source: Yahoo Images Search
  6. 6. The Balkans 1914
  7. 7. 1914 European Alliances Note The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers to form the Triple Alliance with the signing of the August 1914 Turco- German Alliance. Turkey formally entered World War I on 28 October 1914 with the bombing of Russian Black Sea ports. The Triple Entente, or Allied Powers, declared war on the Ottoman Empire on November 4.
  8. 8. The Powers Prepare for War July 23 – August 3, 1914 June 28, 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand July 5-6, 1914 Germany supports Austria-Hungary July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 31, 1914 German forces begin to mobilize August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia & France With Russia mobilizing, Germany has no choice but to demand an immediate halt or to declare war before anyone else can. Russia refuses to stop it mobilization and within hours on August 1, 1914 Germany is at war with Russia. Kaiser Wilhelm II needs no excuse to declare war on France and does so two days later on August 3. This sets up the first stage of the "Schlieffen Plan".
  9. 9. The German Attack August 4, 1914 August 4, 1914 German forces invade neutral Belgium August 26-30, 1914 Battle of Tannenberg October-November, 1914 First Battle of Ypres December 25, 1914 Unofficial Christmas Truce on the Western Front The French thought that Germany's advance into Belgium was a diversion. Most of the French army moved northeast to attack Germany through the lost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. The first major battle on the Eastern front occurred when German forces surrounded and destroyed the Russian army at the Battle of Tannenberg. This August 1914 battle was Germany's greatest victory of the war.
  10. 10. First Battle of the Marne September 5 -10, 1914 German plans for the Western Front began to fall apart in September of 1914. As the German right flank drove deeper, it was separated from the rest of the invading German force. This made it vulnerable and forced the Germans pulled up twenty-five miles short of Paris. This was France’s chance to attack. What followed was the First Battle of the Marne where the German advance was stopped
  11. 11. Gallipoli Campaign The Gallipoli Campaign was an attempt to gain control of the Dardanelles and capture Constantinople. This would open a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea originated with Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty. After the failure (March 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks were ready and prevented the Allies from making any important gains. Churchill’s plan failed due to Allied bureaucratic incompetence. Allied cooperation was poor and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces. The result was a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month delay between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army plenty of time to reinforce its troops. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula was followed by months of costly fighting. Eventually, the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, 1916. The evacuation, unlike the attack, has been described by some as brilliantly executed.
  12. 12. Trench Warfare By the beginning of 1916 opposing armies remained deadlocked in a line of trenches which stretched 966 kilometres from the Belgian coast through France to the frontiers of Switzerland. After two years of war, the battle lines of the Western front had barely changed from the first days of stalemate (static warfare). This was trench warfare. The Eastern front was more fluid (moving) and was more similar to the battles of the 19th century.
  13. 13. Second Battle of Ypres April 22-May 31, 1915 The Second Battle of Ypres involved four battles around Ypres. The first of these four battles began on 22 April 1915 as a surprise offensive by the German 4th Army on the Allied front line. This attack saw the first use of a new German weapon on the Western Front: poisonous gas. A breeze moving towards French troops carried the deadly gas. It had a devastating effect on the French and the German infantry made a significant advance into Allied territory. During the next four weeks the Allied Forces of Belgium, France and Britain fought to hold off the successful German advance and to regain the ground that had been lost north of Ypres. The fourth battle ended on 25 May 1915.
  14. 14. The Battle of Verdun February 21. 1916 – July 1916 The Allies had planned to launch a joint French and British assault in the region of the Somme. The target date was the middle of 1916. However, in February the Allied plan was upset when the Germans began an assault on the fortress-ringed city of Verdun. The belief was that Verdun was essential to the French that France would fight to the death. On February 21, the German artillery barrage began and, for the next several months both sides unleashed soldiers and shells at each By Christmas, when the battle finally ended, 800,000 men had lost their lives. One hundred and twenty-five miles northwest of Verdun, the British and French armies joined at the Somme river. A French-British offensive was planned here for 1916 to relieve pressure on the French at Verdun.
  15. 15. The Battle of the Somme July 1,1916 –November 1916 The Allies had planned to launch a joint French and British assault in the region of the Somme. The target date was the middle of 1916. However, in February the Allied plan was upset when the Germans began an assault on the fortress-ringed city of Verdun. The belief was that Verdun was essential to the French that France would fight to the death. On February 21, the German artillery barrage began and, for the next several months both sides unleashed soldiers and shells at each By Christmas, when the battle finally ended, 800,000 men had lost their lives. During this horrendous fighting, the French sent frantic appeals to Sir Douglas Haig, the new British commander, to hasten the Somme offensive and to take the pressure off Verdun.
  16. 16. 1918: The End Nears Left: Over four months in 1918 the German army launched five major assaults at different parts of he allied line. Initially the plan worked. But for every allied trench captured, there was always another for the Germans to take. Soon the elite German storm troopers were a depleted force. As desperation set in, the Germans resorted to the tactic of mass assault. Large numbers of casualties resulted. The Hindenburg Line- the last and strongest of the German army's defence - consisted of three well-defended trench systems established in 1917. Throughout September 1918, Australian forces had helped the British army to secure positions from which an attack on the Hindenburg Line could be launched. On 18 September 1918, an attack was launched on the first part of the Hindenburg Line.Troops, supported by huge artillery barrages, attacked the heavily fortified German defences and machine-gun posts. Using only eight tanks (as well as dummy tanks) to distract the Germans 4,300 prisoners were taken. On 29 September, the line was finally broken.. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses. Eventually, the Allies broke through the third and final stage of the Hindenburg Line, and the Germans were forced to fall back.
  17. 17. Timeline 1918 1918-1919 Influenza pandemic kills more people than the war did. January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace. March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches. April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near Amiens. May 23 German shells land on Paris. July 16-17 Former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, children, and members of his entourage are murdered by the Bolsheviks August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back. September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line. October 28 Germany's sailors mutiny at port when asked to sail out to fight again. November 9 Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates. November 10 A German republic is founded. November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice. Photo: Courtesy WW I Hospital- Queen’s University Archives
  18. 18. The Destruction Left: These are typical battlefield scenes. Right: This photograph is a before and after look at Menin Road, located at Ypres. The top picture was taken in 1914, and the bottom was taken in 1918 after the "Battle of Ypres". Photos: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  19. 19. Canada’s Contribution The Home Front Left: Recruitment Poster-Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation Right: Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden and some of his Cabinet Ministers at Valcartier training camp in Quebec. Photos: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives Your Chums are Fighting Source: National Archives of Canada/First World War collection/C-029484/Accession 1983-28-896
  20. 20. Canada’s Contribution Approximately 620,000 Canadians served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, including 425,000 who served overseas; more than 60,000 were killed and 172,000 wounded, an enormous number for a small nation. Canadian military cemeteries overseas, carefully maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, graphically convey the scale of this loss. Canada was still a colony in 1914, but battlefield successes stimulated a desire among Canadians for greater national autonomy and international recognition. In 1919, Canada signed the Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended the war, and joined the newly-created League of Nations as a member state in its own right. Canada had come of age. Photos and Text: Courtesy Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
  21. 21. Changing Technology This photo shows horses being loaded onto a transport ship to be sent overseas to join the war effort. Horses were still being used in great numbers during World War I. High ranking army officers commonly rode horses during World War I. Horses and mules were also used to carry heavy equipment to and from the front during the war. Unfortunately, many of these horses and mules died before they got to the front because of the harsh journey overseas. Horses and mules also died in WWI because of their inability to free themselves from the thick mud. Many others were wounded and killed during battle. There was a tremendous shortage of horses in Canada during the latter stages of WWI. Photo: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  22. 22. Changing Technology This photo shows some of the early experimental submarines that were developed during World War I. The submarine was part of the modern style of warfare that was introduced in World War I. The German navy had approximately 100 submarines in service during WWI. Initially the Germans used submarines to threaten the Allies' economic blockade. In 1917 the German Kaiser declared unrestricted U-boat warfare against the allies, including neutral ships in British waters. In response, the Allies established armed convoys to protect merchant ships and increased production of mines and depth charges. The sinking of neutral ships, like the Lusitania in 1915, polarized public opinion (against the Germans) about the war, and was a major factor in the decision of the United States to join the Allied caused. Photo: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  23. 23. Changing Technology Above is an official postcard issued during World War I. It depicts soldiers firing a heavy howitzer in France. The weaponry of the war is more advanced at this stage. Weapons like the heavy howitzer allowed armies to accurately bomb enemy trenches from great distances away. These long-range heavy artillery weapons led to new battle strategies. One strategy was to continuously bomb the enemy trench line, night and day, in hopes unnerving the enemy and to prevent troops from resting. An offensive usually followed, in hopes of catching a tired and shell-shocked enemy asleep or undermanned. The photo on the left is a picture of the H.M.S. "Olympic“. It was used to transport Canadian troops and equipment overseas during World War I. Prime Minister Borden pleaded with Great Britain to help Canada build a navy but Britain refused. During the early years of the war, Canadian troops trained while aboard these transport ships. Fitness exercises and shooting drills were done on the crowded decks of the ship. Some troops were tragically killed in accidents during this training. Others died on these ships because of the poor living conditions on these ships Photos: Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  24. 24. Changing Technology Tank warfare was first introduced by France and Britain in 1916. Its role in the war gradually increased as the war progressed. Early heavy tanks proved to be ineffective and were soon replaced by lighter versions that soon revolutionized the war. By 1917 the British and French were using 1500 tanks each. Tanks became a regular feature in all offensives and were credited with Allied successes after 1916. Photo:Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  25. 25. Changing Technology The first picture is of a German plane that was used during World War I. The plane was part of the modern style of warfare that evolved during World War I. Initially, the airplane was used primarily for reconnaissance purposes, to spy on the enemy. The airplane did develop into an offensive weapon by the end of World War I. The Second picture is a painting of a British airplane that is engaged in air combat. This airplane has a machine gun mounted on its top wing. In 1914 the Allies had 220 airplanes, the Central Powers 258. The Germans also used Zeppelins and by 1918 had over 100 of these airships capable of bombing missions. The German Folker aircraft was an early example of a successful fighter plane. At first pilots used rifles and pistols in air battles, although machine guns were soon introduced. By 1916 the Allied production of aircrafts equalled the Germans and air battles between "aces" like German Richthofen "The Red Baron" (80 victories) and Bishop the Canadian (72 victories) were becoming legendary. Photo:Courtesy Queen’s University Archives
  26. 26. Chemical Warfare The horror and disgust at the wartime use of poison gases was so great that its use was outlawed in 1925 - a ban that, at least in theory, is still in force today. Photos: Courtesy Unites States Air Force Air War College Table Source: First World War.com Country Casualties from Gas Death Austria- Hungary 100,000 3,000 British Empire 188,706 8,109 France 190,000 8,000 Germany 200,000 9,000 Italy 60,000 4,627 Russia 419,340 56,000 USA 72,807 1,462 Others 10,000 1,000