Just one bite of a mosquito can take us closer to death. Don't let that happen to anyone. Happy World Malaria Day. The only way to celebrate the occasion of World Malaria Day is by joining hands against this disease.
List of vector borne diseases
• Dengue fever
• Japanese encephalitis
• Yellow fever
Theme of the year 2022
• World Malaria Day 2022 will be marked under
the theme “Harness innovation to reduce the
malaria disease burden and save lives.”
• Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite.
The parasite is spread to humans through
the bites of infected mosquitoes. People
who have malaria usually feel very sick
with a high fever and shaking chills. While
the disease is uncommon in temperate
climates, malaria is still common in
tropical and subtropical countries.
types of malaria organism
• Five species of Plasmodium (single-celled
parasites) can infect humans and cause
• Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum)
• Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae)
• Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax)
• Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale)
• Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi)
How is malaria transmitted?
• Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an
infective female Anopheles mosquito.
Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and
they must have been infected through a previous blood
meal taken from an infected person.
Is malaria a contagious disease?
• No. Malaria is not spread from person to person like a cold
or the flu, and it cannot be sexually transmitted. You cannot
get malaria from casual contact with malaria-infected
people, such as sitting next to someone who has malaria.
What are the signs and symptoms of
• Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness,
including shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and
tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also
occur. Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow
coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red
blood cells. If not promptly treated, the infection can
become severe and may cause kidney failure, seizures,
mental confusion, coma, and death.
• symptoms begin 10 days to 4 weeks after
infection, although a person may feel ill as
early as 7 days or as late as 1 year later.
• insect repellent, long sleeves, long pants, sleeping in a
mosquito-free setting or using an insecticide-treated
• You and your family can most effectively prevent
malaria by taking all three of these important
• Taking antimalarial medication to kill the parasites and
prevent becoming ill
• Keeping mosquitoes from biting you, especially at night
• Sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets, using
insect repellent, and wearing long-sleeved clothing if
out of doors at night.
• Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an
infection with roundworms of
the Filarioidea type. These are spread by
blood-feeding insects such as black
flies and mosquitoes. They belong to the
group of diseases called helminthiases.
TYPE OF FILARIASIS
• Eight known filarial worms have humans as a definitive host. These
are divided into three groups according to the part of the body they
• Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the worms Wuchereria
bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These worms occupy
the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes; in chronic cases,
these worms lead to the syndrome of elephantiasis.
• Subcutaneous filariasis is caused by Loa loa (the eye
worm), Mansonella streptocerca, and Onchocerca volvulus. These
worms occupy the layer just under the skin. L. loa causes Loa
loa filariasis, while O. volvulus causes river blindness.
• Serous cavity filariasis is caused by the worms Mansonella
perstans and Mansonella ozzardi, which occupy the serous cavity of
the abdomen. Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm, rarely infects
Signs and symptoms
• The most spectacular symptom of lymphatic
filariasis is elephantiasis –
edema with thickening of the skin and
underlying tissues—which was the first
disease discovered to be transmitted by
mosquito bites. Elephantiasis results when
the parasites lodge in the lymphatic system
• The subcutaneous worms present with rashes,
urticarial papules, and arthritis, as well as
hyper- and hypopigmentation macules.
• Onchocerca volvulus manifests itself in the
eyes, causing "river blindness"
(onchocerciasis), one of the leading causes of
blindness in the world.
• Serous cavity filariasis presents with
symptoms similar to subcutaneous filariasis, in
addition to abdominal pain, because these
worms are also deep-tissue dwellers
• Human filarial nematode worms have complicated life cycles, which
primarily consists of five stages. After the male and female worms
mate, the female gives birth to live microfilariae by the thousands.
• The microfilariae are taken up by the vector insect (intermediate
host) during a blood meal. In the intermediate host, the
microfilariae molt and develop into third-stage (infective) larvae.
• Upon taking another blood meal, the vector insect, such as Culex
pipiens, injects the infectious larvae into the dermis layer of the
skin. After about one year, the larvae molt through two more
stages, maturing into the adult worms
Filariasis is usually diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin and
thick blood film smears, using the "gold standard" known as the finger prick test. The
finger prick test draws blood from the capillaries of the finger tip; larger veins can be
used for blood extraction, but strict windows of the time of day must be observed.
• The recommended treatment for people outside the United States
is albendazole combined with ivermectin.
• A combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole is also
• Filarial Diseases
• IND protocol from CDC available for treatment of certain filarial
diseases, including lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori
• Day 1: 50 mg PO PC
• Day 2: 50 mg PO TID
• Day 3: 100 mg PO TID
• Day 4-14: 6 mg/kg/day PO divided TID
• Side effects of the drugs include nausea, vomiting, and headaches.[
• Loa Loa
• Day 1: 50 mg PO PC
• Day 2: 50 mg PO TID
• Day 3: 100 mg PO TID
• Day 4-21: 9 mg/kg/day PO divided TID
• M. Streptocerca
• 6 mg/kg PO qDay x14 days
• individual, proper hygiene is also required
• Integrated vector control (IVC) measures to reduce the mosquito
population, including indoor residual spraying, use of insecticide treated
bed nets (ITNs), and environmental management such as drainage and
filling of breeding sites for the mosquitoes.
• Community-directed mass drug administration (MDA). The WHO
recommends a two-drug regimen of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine
(or ivermectin in areas where onchocerciasis is also endemic), which is
administered to the entire at-risk population once every year for four to
six years. These drugs are prescribed by staff at health centres.
• Personal protective clothing to reduce exposure of skin to mosquito bites,
and use of ITNs.
• Rapid case detection and referral to prevent cases from spreading.
• Education in the community about the causes and modes of transmission
of lymphatic filariasis, and ways to protect themselves from mosquito
bites. Encouraging acceptance of the mass drug administration
programme is an important health education message that you can deliver
if your community is affected.
• Japanese encephalitis is a virus spread by the
bite of infected mosquitoes. It's more
common in rural and agricultural areas.
• Most cases are mild. Rarely, it causes serious
brain swelling with a sudden headache, high
fever and disorientation.
• Treatment involves supportive care. A vaccine
• Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever
and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
• JEV is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries of Asia with an
estimated 68 000 clinical cases every year.
• Although symptomatic Japanese encephalitis (JE) is rare, the case-fatality rate
among those with encephalitis can be as high as 30%. Permanent neurologic or
psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30%–50% of those with encephalitis.
• 24 countries in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have
endemic JEV transmission, exposing more than 3 billion people to risks of
• There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical
signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection.
• Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JE. WHO recommends that JE
vaccination be integrated into national immunization schedules in all areas
where JE disease is recognized as a public health issue.
History of JE
• The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE)
was documented in 1871 in Japan.
• The annual incidence of clinical disease varies both
across and within endemic countries, ranging from <1
to >10 per 100 000 population or higher during
outbreaks. A literature review estimates nearly 68 000
clinical cases of JE globally each year, with
approximately 13 600 to 20 400 deaths. JE primarily
affects children. Most adults in endemic countries have
natural immunity after childhood infection, but
individuals of any age may be affected.
• JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from
infected mosquitoes of the Culex species
(mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans, once
infected, do not develop sufficient viraemia to
infect feeding mosquitoes. The virus exists in a
transmission cycle between mosquitoes, pigs
and/or water birds (enzootic cycle). The disease is
predominantly found in rural and periurban
settings, where humans live in closer proximity to
these vertebrate hosts.
Sign and symptoms
• In children,
gastrointestinal pain and
vomiting may be the
symptoms. Severe disease
is characterized by rapid
onset of high fever,
headache, neck stiffness,
seizures, spastic paralysis
and ultimately death. The
case-fatality rate can be as
high as 30% among those
with disease symptoms
• A laboratory test is required in order to
confirm JEV infection and to rule out other
causes of encephalitis. WHO recommends
testing for JEV-specific IgM antibody in a
single sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or
serum, using an IgM-capture ELISA. Testing of
CSF sample is preferred to reduce false-
positivity rates from previous infection or
• There is no antiviral treatment for patients with
JE. Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms
and stabilize the patient.
Prevention and control
• Vaccines:There are 4 main types of JE vaccines
currently in use: inactivated mouse brain-
derived vaccines, inactivated Vero cell-derived
vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and live
recombinant (chimeric) vaccines.
• To reduce the risk for JE, all travellers to
Japanese encephalitis-endemic areas should
take precautions to avoid mosquito bites.
• Personal preventive measures include the use
of mosquito repellents, long-sleeved clothes,
coils and vaporizers.
• Travellers spending extensive time in JE
endemic areas are recommended to get
vaccinated before travel.
• Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease
first described during an outbreak in southern
Tanzania in 1952.
• It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus
genus of the family Togaviridae.
• The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in
the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become
contorted”, and describes the stooped
appearance of sufferers with joint pain
• The disease mostly occurs in Africa, Asia and the
Indian subcontinent. However a major outbreak
in 2015 affected several countries of the Region
of the Americas, and sporadic outbreaks are
• The disease shares some clinical signs with
dengue and Zika, and can be misdiagnosed in
areas where they are common.
• Severe cases and deaths from chikungunya are
very rare and are almost always related to other
existing health problems.
Sign and symptoms
• A CHIKV infection causes fever and severe
joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle
pain, joint swelling, headache, nausea,
fatigue and rash.
• Joint pain associated with chikungunya is
often debilitating, and can vary in duration
Disease characteristics (signs and
• After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness
usually occurs 4-8 days later (but can range from 2-12
• Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of
fever, frequently accompanied by joint pain. The joint
pain is often very debilitating; it usually lasts for a few
days, but may be prolonged for weeks, months or even
• Hence, the virus can cause acute, subacute or chronic
disease. Other common signs and symptoms include
muscle pain, joint swelling, headache, nausea, fatigue
• Several methods can be used for diagnosis of chikungunya virus
• Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISA), may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya
• IgM antibody levels are highest 3 to 5 weeks after the onset of
illness and persist for about 2 months.
• first week of illness should be tested by both serological and
virological methods (particularly reverse transcriptase–polymerase
chain reaction (RT–PCR)). Various RT–PCR methods are available
but with variable sensitivity. Some are suited to clinical diagnostics.
RT–PCR products from clinical samples may also be used for
genotyping of the virus, allowing comparisons with virus samples
from various geographical sources.
• There is no specific antiviral drug treatment
• The clinical management targets primarily to
relieving the symptoms, including the joint
pain using anti-pyretics, optimal analgesics,
drinking plenty of fluids and general rest.
• suspected chikungunya patients should avoid
using aspirin or Non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Prevention and control
• The proximity of mosquito vector breeding sites to human
habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya as well as for
other diseases that Aedes mosquito species transmit.
• At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission
of chikungunya virus is to combat the mosquito vectors.
• Prevention and control relies heavily on reducing the number of
natural and artificial water-filled container habitats that support
breeding of the mosquitoes.
• This requires mobilization of affected and at-risk communities, to
empty and clean containers that contain water on a weekly basis to
inhibit mosquito breeding and the subsequent production of adults.
Sustained community efforts to reduce mosquito breeding can be
an effective tool to reduce vector populations.
• For protection during outbreaks of chikungunya,
clothing which minimizes skin exposure to the
day-biting vectors is advised.
• Repellents can be applied to exposed skin or to
clothing in strict accordance with product label
• Repellents should contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-
methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-
aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridin (1-
piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-
• For those who sleep during the daytime,
particularly young children, or sick or older
people, insecticide-treated mosquito nets afford
good protection, because the mosquitoes that
transmit chikungunya feed primarily during the
day. Basic precautions should be taken by people
travelling to risk areas and these include use of
repellents, wearing long sleeves and pants and
ensuring rooms are fitted with screens to prevent
mosquitoes from entering.