World malaria Day ppt.pptx

1 de Apr de 2023

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World malaria Day ppt.pptx

  2. List of vector borne diseases • Malaria • Filaria • Dengue fever • Japanese encephalitis • Chikungunya • Yellow fever
  3. Theme of the year 2022 • World Malaria Day 2022 will be marked under the theme “Harness innovation to reduce the malaria disease burden and save lives.”
  4. Introduction • Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries.
  5. types of malaria organism • Five species of Plasmodium (single-celled parasites) can infect humans and cause illness: • Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum) • Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae) • Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax) • Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale) • Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi)
  6. How is malaria transmitted? • Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken from an infected person.
  7. Is malaria a contagious disease? • No. Malaria is not spread from person to person like a cold or the flu, and it cannot be sexually transmitted. You cannot get malaria from casual contact with malaria-infected people, such as sitting next to someone who has malaria.
  8. What are the signs and symptoms of malaria? • Symptoms of malaria include fever and flu-like illness, including shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red blood cells. If not promptly treated, the infection can become severe and may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death.
  9. Incubation period • symptoms begin 10 days to 4 weeks after infection, although a person may feel ill as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year later.
  10. Treatment of malaria
  11. Malaria treatment
  12. Malaria prophylaxis
  13. Prevention and control
  17. Preventive measures • insect repellent, long sleeves, long pants, sleeping in a mosquito-free setting or using an insecticide-treated bednet). • You and your family can most effectively prevent malaria by taking all three of these important measures: • Taking antimalarial medication to kill the parasites and prevent becoming ill • Keeping mosquitoes from biting you, especially at night • Sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets, using insect repellent, and wearing long-sleeved clothing if out of doors at night.
  18. Chemoprophylaxis • you may need to visit your health-care provider 4-6 weeks before travel.
  19. Filaria • Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.[1] These are spread by blood-feeding insects such as black flies and mosquitoes. They belong to the group of diseases called helminthiases.
  20. TYPE OF FILARIASIS • Eight known filarial worms have humans as a definitive host. These are divided into three groups according to the part of the body they affect: • Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. These worms occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes; in chronic cases, these worms lead to the syndrome of elephantiasis. • Subcutaneous filariasis is caused by Loa loa (the eye worm), Mansonella streptocerca, and Onchocerca volvulus. These worms occupy the layer just under the skin. L. loa causes Loa loa filariasis, while O. volvulus causes river blindness. • Serous cavity filariasis is caused by the worms Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi, which occupy the serous cavity of the abdomen. Dirofilaria immitis, the dog heartworm, rarely infects humans.
  21. Symptoms of filaria
  22. Signs and symptoms • The most spectacular symptom of lymphatic filariasis is elephantiasis – edema with thickening of the skin and underlying tissues—which was the first disease discovered to be transmitted by mosquito bites.[3] Elephantiasis results when the parasites lodge in the lymphatic system
  23. • The subcutaneous worms present with rashes, urticarial papules, and arthritis, as well as hyper- and hypopigmentation macules. • Onchocerca volvulus manifests itself in the eyes, causing "river blindness" (onchocerciasis), one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. • Serous cavity filariasis presents with symptoms similar to subcutaneous filariasis, in addition to abdominal pain, because these worms are also deep-tissue dwellers
  24. Cause • Human filarial nematode worms have complicated life cycles, which primarily consists of five stages. After the male and female worms mate, the female gives birth to live microfilariae by the thousands. • The microfilariae are taken up by the vector insect (intermediate host) during a blood meal. In the intermediate host, the microfilariae molt and develop into third-stage (infective) larvae. • Upon taking another blood meal, the vector insect, such as Culex pipiens, injects the infectious larvae into the dermis layer of the skin. After about one year, the larvae molt through two more stages, maturing into the adult worms
  26. DIAGNOSIS Filariasis is usually diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin and thick blood film smears, using the "gold standard" known as the finger prick test. The finger prick test draws blood from the capillaries of the finger tip; larger veins can be used for blood extraction, but strict windows of the time of day must be observed.
  27. Treatment • The recommended treatment for people outside the United States is albendazole combined with ivermectin. • A combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole is also effective. • Filarial Diseases • IND protocol from CDC available for treatment of certain filarial diseases, including lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori • Day 1: 50 mg PO PC • Day 2: 50 mg PO TID • Day 3: 100 mg PO TID • Day 4-14: 6 mg/kg/day PO divided TID • Side effects of the drugs include nausea, vomiting, and headaches.[
  28. • Loa Loa • Day 1: 50 mg PO PC • Day 2: 50 mg PO TID • Day 3: 100 mg PO TID • Day 4-21: 9 mg/kg/day PO divided TID • M. Streptocerca • 6 mg/kg PO qDay x14 days
  29. PREVENTIVE MEASURE • individual, proper hygiene is also required • Integrated vector control (IVC) measures to reduce the mosquito population, including indoor residual spraying, use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), and environmental management such as drainage and filling of breeding sites for the mosquitoes. • Community-directed mass drug administration (MDA). The WHO recommends a two-drug regimen of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine (or ivermectin in areas where onchocerciasis is also endemic), which is administered to the entire at-risk population once every year for four to six years. These drugs are prescribed by staff at health centres. • Personal protective clothing to reduce exposure of skin to mosquito bites, and use of ITNs. • Rapid case detection and referral to prevent cases from spreading. • Education in the community about the causes and modes of transmission of lymphatic filariasis, and ways to protect themselves from mosquito bites. Encouraging acceptance of the mass drug administration programme is an important health education message that you can deliver if your community is affected.
  30. Infographic
  31. Dengue Fever
  32. Risk factors
  33. Etiology
  34. Classification and characteristic
  35. Sign and symptoms
  36. Sign and symptoms
  37. Dengue shock syndrome
  38. Control measures
  39. Japanese encephalitis • Japanese encephalitis is a virus spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes. It's more common in rural and agricultural areas. • Most cases are mild. Rarely, it causes serious brain swelling with a sudden headache, high fever and disorientation. • Treatment involves supportive care. A vaccine is available.
  40. Key facts • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. • JEV is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries of Asia with an estimated 68 000 clinical cases every year. • Although symptomatic Japanese encephalitis (JE) is rare, the case-fatality rate among those with encephalitis can be as high as 30%. Permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30%–50% of those with encephalitis. • 24 countries in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions have endemic JEV transmission, exposing more than 3 billion people to risks of infection. • There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving severe clinical signs and supporting the patient to overcome the infection. • Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JE. WHO recommends that JE vaccination be integrated into national immunization schedules in all areas where JE disease is recognized as a public health issue.
  41. History of JE • The first case of Japanese encephalitis viral disease (JE) was documented in 1871 in Japan. • The annual incidence of clinical disease varies both across and within endemic countries, ranging from <1 to >10 per 100 000 population or higher during outbreaks. A literature review estimates nearly 68 000 clinical cases of JE globally each year, with approximately 13 600 to 20 400 deaths. JE primarily affects children. Most adults in endemic countries have natural immunity after childhood infection, but individuals of any age may be affected.
  42. Transmission • JEV is transmitted to humans through bites from infected mosquitoes of the Culex species (mainly Culex tritaeniorhynchus). Humans, once infected, do not develop sufficient viraemia to infect feeding mosquitoes. The virus exists in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes, pigs and/or water birds (enzootic cycle). The disease is predominantly found in rural and periurban settings, where humans live in closer proximity to these vertebrate hosts.
  43. Incubation period • The incubation period is between 4-14 days.
  44. Sign and symptoms • In children, gastrointestinal pain and vomiting may be the dominant initial symptoms. Severe disease is characterized by rapid onset of high fever, headache, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, seizures, spastic paralysis and ultimately death. The case-fatality rate can be as high as 30% among those with disease symptoms
  45. Diagnosis • A laboratory test is required in order to confirm JEV infection and to rule out other causes of encephalitis. WHO recommends testing for JEV-specific IgM antibody in a single sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum, using an IgM-capture ELISA. Testing of CSF sample is preferred to reduce false- positivity rates from previous infection or vaccination
  46. Treatment • There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE. Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient.
  47. Prevention and control • Vaccines:There are 4 main types of JE vaccines currently in use: inactivated mouse brain- derived vaccines, inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and live recombinant (chimeric) vaccines.
  48. • To reduce the risk for JE, all travellers to Japanese encephalitis-endemic areas should take precautions to avoid mosquito bites. • Personal preventive measures include the use of mosquito repellents, long-sleeved clothes, coils and vaporizers. • Travellers spending extensive time in JE endemic areas are recommended to get vaccinated before travel.
  49. Chikungunya • Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. • It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. • The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia).
  50. Fact about • The disease mostly occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. However a major outbreak in 2015 affected several countries of the Region of the Americas, and sporadic outbreaks are seen elsewhere. • The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue and Zika, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where they are common. • Severe cases and deaths from chikungunya are very rare and are almost always related to other existing health problems.
  51. transmission • Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).
  52. Sign and symptoms • A CHIKV infection causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, joint swelling, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. • Joint pain associated with chikungunya is often debilitating, and can vary in duration
  53. Disease characteristics (signs and symptoms) • After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness usually occurs 4-8 days later (but can range from 2-12 days). • Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever, frequently accompanied by joint pain. The joint pain is often very debilitating; it usually lasts for a few days, but may be prolonged for weeks, months or even years. • Hence, the virus can cause acute, subacute or chronic disease. Other common signs and symptoms include muscle pain, joint swelling, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.
  54. Diagnostics • Several methods can be used for diagnosis of chikungunya virus infection. • Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies. • IgM antibody levels are highest 3 to 5 weeks after the onset of illness and persist for about 2 months. • first week of illness should be tested by both serological and virological methods (particularly reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR)). Various RT–PCR methods are available but with variable sensitivity. Some are suited to clinical diagnostics. RT–PCR products from clinical samples may also be used for genotyping of the virus, allowing comparisons with virus samples from various geographical sources.
  55. Treatment • There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for chikungunya. • The clinical management targets primarily to relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretics, optimal analgesics, drinking plenty of fluids and general rest. • suspected chikungunya patients should avoid using aspirin or Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  56. Prevention and control • The proximity of mosquito vector breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya as well as for other diseases that Aedes mosquito species transmit. • At present, the main method to control or prevent the transmission of chikungunya virus is to combat the mosquito vectors. • Prevention and control relies heavily on reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled container habitats that support breeding of the mosquitoes. • This requires mobilization of affected and at-risk communities, to empty and clean containers that contain water on a weekly basis to inhibit mosquito breeding and the subsequent production of adults. Sustained community efforts to reduce mosquito breeding can be an effective tool to reduce vector populations.
  57. • For protection during outbreaks of chikungunya, clothing which minimizes skin exposure to the day-biting vectors is advised. • Repellents can be applied to exposed skin or to clothing in strict accordance with product label instructions. • Repellents should contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]- aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridin (1- piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1- methylpropylester).
  58. Control measures • For those who sleep during the daytime, particularly young children, or sick or older people, insecticide-treated mosquito nets afford good protection, because the mosquitoes that transmit chikungunya feed primarily during the day. Basic precautions should be taken by people travelling to risk areas and these include use of repellents, wearing long sleeves and pants and ensuring rooms are fitted with screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering.