WORLD GLUCOMA DAY AWARENESS DAY
ERA COLLEGE OF NURSING , ERA
World Glaucoma Day is observed on March 12 every year
across the world.
This is an important day that seeks to raise awareness
about the group of eye diseases known as glaucoma.
The day is part of a week of raising awareness about this
disease and ensuring that it is caught early.
Early detection of glaucoma improves the chances of
stopping or at least slowing the disease down with
The blindness caused by glaucoma is irreversible, but if
caught early, the disease can be treated and people will
not have to endure the difficulties of blindness when it is
THEME OF THE YEAR 2023
The world is bright, save your sight
This year the theme for World Glaucoma
Week 2023 is “The world is bright, save
HISTORY OF GLUCOMA DAY OBSERVED
370 B.C.-Hippocrates Records Glaucoma
Hippocrates notes a type of blindness in the
elderly and calls it ‘glaykoseis,’ the earliest
record of glaucoma
1622-Richard Banister Identifies Cause
British surgeon Banister identifies the link
between eye pressure and glaucoma.
1862-The Disease is Named
Doctor Franciscus Donders identifies
intraocular pressure as causing the disease
and names it Glaukoma simplex.
1875-Medical Treatment for Glaucoma
Pilocarpine is discovered and used as part of
the treatment for glaucoma.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over 60 years
old. But blindness from glaucoma can often be prevented with early
People with glaucoma have optic nerve damage from fluid buildup in
their eye. Left untreated, this eye pressure can permanently affect
vision. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the
world. Treatments — including eyedrops, laser treatments and
surgeries — can slow down vision loss and save your sight.
MEANING OF GLUCOMA
Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease
caused by damage to the optic nerve, which leads to
visual field loss. One of the major risk factors is eye
pressure. An abnormality in the eye's drainage system
can cause fluid to build up, leading to excessive
pressure that causes damage to the optic nerve.
WHO IS AT RISK FOR GLAUCOMA?
Some people have a higher than normal risk of getting glaucoma. This includes
are over age 40
have family members with glaucoma
are of African, Hispanic, or Asian heritage
have high eye pressure
are farsighted or nearsighted
have had an eye injury
use long-term steroid medications
have corneas that are thin in the center
have thinning of the optic nerve
have diabetes, migraines, high blood pressure, poor blood circulation or other
health problems affecting the whole body
Talk with an ophthalmologist about your risk for getting glaucoma. People with
more than one of these risk factors have an even higher risk of glaucoma.
CAUSE OF GLUCOMA
Glaucoma can occur without any cause, but many factors can
The most important of these factors is intraocular eye pressure.
Your eyes produce a fluid called aqueous humor that nourishes
This liquid flows through your pupil to the front of your eye. In a
healthy eye, the fluid leaves through the drainage canals located
between your iris and cornea.
With glaucoma, the resistance increases in your drainage canals.
The fluid has nowhere to go, so it builds up in your eye.
This excess fluid puts pressure on your eye. Eventually, this
elevated eye pressure can damage your optic nerve and lead to
People with diabetes are twice as likely to get
glaucoma. Other risk factors include:
Family history of glaucoma.
Farsightedness or hyperopia (for closed-angle
High blood pressure (hypertension and very low
blood pressure (hypotension)
Long-term use of corticosteroids.
Nearsightedness or myopia (for open-angle
Previous eye injury or surgery.
TYPE OF GLUCOMA
There are two major types of glaucoma.
This is the most common type of glaucoma.
It happens gradually, where the eye does not
drain fluid as well as it should (like a clogged
drain). As a result, eye pressure builds and
starts to damage the optic nerve. This type of
glaucoma is painless and causes no vision
changes at first.
Angle-closure glaucoma (also called
“closed-angle glaucoma” or “narrow-angle
This type happens when someone’s iris is very
close to the drainage angle in their eye. The iris
can end up blocking the drainage angle. You
can think of it like a piece of paper sliding over a
sink drain. When the drainage angle gets
completely blocked, eye pressure rises very
quickly. This is called an acute attack. It is a
true eye emergency, and you should call your
ophthalmologist right away or you might go
Here are the signs of an acute angle-closure glaucoma
Your vision is suddenly blurry
You have severe eye pain
You have a headache
You feel sick to your stomach (nausea)
You throw up (vomit)
You see rainbow-colored rings or halos around lights
Many people with angle-closure glaucoma develop it
slowly. This is called chronic angle-closure glaucoma.
There are no symptoms at first, so they don’t know they
have it until the damage is severe or they have an attack.
Closed-angle glaucoma has more severe
symptoms that tend to come on suddenly.
With any type, you may experience:
Eye pain or pressure.
Rainbow-colored halos around lights.
Low vision, blurred vision, narrowed vision
(tunnel vision) or blind spots.
Nausea and vomiting.
The only sure way to diagnose glaucoma is with a complete eye
exam. A glaucoma screening that only checks eye pressure is not
enough to find glaucoma.
During a glaucoma exam, your ophthalmologist will:
measure your eye pressure
inspect your eye's drainage angle
examine your optic nerve for damage
test your peripheral (side) vision
take a picture or computer measurement of your optic nerve
measure the thickness of your cornea
It’s possible to have glaucoma and not know it. Regular eye
exams are important to catch glaucoma or other eye
problems. Eye exams can assess optic health and vision loss.
To check for glaucoma, an eye doctor may do one or more of
these painless tests:
Dilated eye exam to widen pupils and view your optic nerve
at the back of your eyes.
Gonioscopy to examine the angle where your iris and cornea
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) to look for changes
in your optic nerve that may indicate glaucoma.
Ocular pressure test (tonometry) to measure eye pressure.
Pachymetry to measure corneal thickness.
Slit-lamp exam to examine the inside of your eye with a
special microscope called a slit lamp.
Visual acuity test (eye charts) to check for vision loss.
Visual field test (perimetry) to check for changes in
peripheral vision (your ability to see things off to the side).
CAN GLAUCOMA BE STOPPED?
Glaucoma damage is permanent—it cannot
be reversed. But medicine and surgery help
to stop further damage.
To treat glaucoma, your ophthalmologist may
use one or more of the following treatments.
Glaucoma is usually controlled with eyedrop medicine. Used every day, these
eye drops lower eye pressure. Some do this by reducing the amount of aqueous
fluid the eye makes. Others reduce pressure by helping fluid flow better through
the drainage angle.
Glaucoma medications can help you keep your vision, but they may also
produce side effects. Some eye drops may cause:
a stinging or itching sensation
red eyes or red skin around the eyes
changes in your pulse and heartbeat
changes in your energy level
changes in breathing (especially if you have asthma or breathing problems)
changes in your eye color, the skin around your eyes or eyelid appearance
All medications can have side effects
SURGICAL TREATMENT -LASER SURGERY
There are two main types of laser surgery to treat
glaucoma. They help aqueous drain from the eye. These
procedures are usually done in the ophthalmologist’s
office or an outpatient surgery center.
Trabeculoplasty. This surgery is for people who have
open-angle glaucoma and can be used instead of or in
addition to medications. The eye surgeon uses a laser to
make the drainage angle work better. That way fluid flows
out properly and eye pressure is reduced.
Iridotomy. This is for people who have angle-closure
glaucoma. The ophthalmologist uses a laser to create a
tiny hole in the iris. This hole helps fluid flow to the
OPERATING ROOM SURGERY
Some glaucoma surgery is done in an operating room. It creates a
new drainage channel for the aqueous humor to leave the eye.
Trabeculectomy. This is where your eye surgeon creates a tiny flap
in the sclera. They will also create a bubble (like a pocket) in
the conjunctiva called a filtration bleb. It is usually hidden under the
upper eyelid and cannot be seen. Aqueous humor will be able to
drain out of the eye through the flap and into the bleb. In the bleb,
the fluid is absorbed by tissue around your eye, lowering eye
Glaucoma drainage devices. Your ophthalmologist
may implant a tiny drainage tube in your
eye. The glaucoma drainage implant sends the fluid
to a collection area (called a reservoir). Your eye
surgeon creates this reservoir beneath the
conjunctiva. The fluid is then absorbed into nearby
Cataract surgery. For some people with narrow
angles, removing the eye's natural lens can lower eye
pressure. With narrow angles, the iris and the cornea
are too close together. This can cover (block) the
eye’s drainage channel. Removing the eye's lens with
cataract surgery creates more space for fluid to leave
the eye. This can lower eye pressure.
Untreated glaucoma can lead to the faster
development of permanent vision loss or blindness.
Treatments can slow down additional vision loss, but
they can’t restore lost vision.
It’s important to see an eye doctor right away if you
have eye pain, severe headaches or vision problems.
An estimated 1 in 10 people with glaucoma develop
some degree of visual impairment. Blindness is less
common and affects 5% of people with glaucoma.
HOW CAN I PREVENT GLAUCOMA?
Early detection of glaucoma
through routine eye exams is the
best way to protect eye
health and prevent vision
loss. Glaucoma testing should
One to three years after age 35
for people at high risk.
Two to four years before age 40.
One to three years between
ages 40 and 54.
One to two years between ages
55 to 64.
Six months to 12 months after
Blindness is a rare complication for people with glaucoma, as
long as a provider detects it early. However, glaucoma is a
chronic and progressive condition that often causes some
degree of vision loss over time.
CAN GLAUCOMA BE CURED?
No, there’s no cure for glaucoma. However, you
can manage symptoms and stop the disease
from getting worse.
You should call your healthcare provider if you
Blurred or low vision.
Halos, eye floaters or flashers.
Sudden, severe eye pain or headaches.
Sensitivity to light.