2. Content of the chapter
• Vision and mission statement
• Aim and objectives
• Current trends and issue in nursing administration
• Theories and model
• Application to nursing services and education
3. Learning objectives
• To define nursing management
• To list out types of nursing management
• To discuss the principles of nursing management
• To describe the techniques used for nursing
• To state the vision and mission
• To explain the philosophy of nursing management
• To enlist the aim and objectives of nursing management
• To describe the current trends and issues in nursing
• To explain the theories and model used nursing
4. Introduction to Nursing Management
• Definition “Management is the art of getting
things done through and with people” --- Mary
Parker “Management is defined as the process
by which a co-operative group directs action
towards common goals” --- Joseph Massie
5. Definition of Administration
• Definition "Administration is the organization &
direction of human and material resources to
achieve desired ends". --- Pfiffner and Presthus.
6. Definition of Nursing Management
• Definition -Nursing management is defined as
process of planning, organizing, activating and
controlling the managerial function of nursing in
order to determine and accomplish the
objectives of nursing care.
7. Concept of management
• The word management interpreted by
• A discipline
• A body of individual
• A process
• A profession
• A human resources
• A financial resources
8. NATURE OF ADMINISTRATION
• 1. It is universal
• 2. It is holistic
• 3. It is intangible
• 4. It is continuous and ongoing process.
• 5. It is goal oriented
• 6. Its is social and human
• 7. It is dynamic
• 8. It is creative or innovative
9. Type of nursing management
• In order to accomplish this, 5 leadership styles
can be noted and emulated among successful
nurse leaders. These are:
10. Transformational Leadership
• Transformational leaders use a collaborative leadership
style that leverages a shared vision, encouragement and
inspiration to facilitate change.
• These leaders are often described as extroverted, open to
new experiences, charismatic, secure in their sense of
self, creative and future oriented in vision.
• A transformational leader encourages innovation, and is
tolerant of error.
• In healthcare, transformational leaders are most
successful in situations where the system is in need of
larger changes or overall improvements that can be
directed, encouraged and overseen by a unifying, guiding
11. Democratic Leadership
• A democratic leader engages in a shared leadership style
in which they use participation of members of the group
to guide decision-making and management.
• Sometimes, this is called participative leadership.
Democratic leaders are often characterized as mutually
respectful, collaborative, encouraging, empowering and
supportive of innovation but only tolerant of error.
• In healthcare, democratic leaders may be best suited for
situations where new relationships are being built
between leadership and a group.
• For instance, in healthcare, when a system or process
improvement is imperative, a democratic leader may
step in to direct a group of assigned nurses to identify
changes to a policy or guideline.
12. Laissez-faire Leadership
• A laissez-faire leadership style is a facilitative one in
which a leader makes few decisions. Instead, this style of
leader facilitates the group to drive decision-making and
develop solutions to work-related problems with a
“hands-off” approach. This is the opposite of autocratic
• Characteristics of laissez-faire leaders are often reported
as “hands off,“ trusting, encouraging and tolerant of
innovation as well as error.
• These leaders must be critical when necessary, but they
allow and encourage the group to make decisions and
develop solutions to work related problems, reserving
the ability to step in and take over for those times when
13. Autocratic Leadership
• Autocratic leadership is a unilateral style in which
the leader delegates to others with rules and orders.
• These leaders are intolerant of innovation and error
and are the opposite of laissez-faire leaders.
• Autocratic leaders are generally characterized as
self-reliant, highly structured, rapid decision-
makers, authoritative and ultimately “the boss.”
• This leadership style may be useful in healthcare
during emergency situations, traumas, or disaster
management when clear, definitive, rapid decisions
and directions benefit all involved.
14. Servant Leadership
• Finally, servant leadership is defined as a supportive
style in which the leader provides team members with
skills, tools and relationships they need to perform to the
best of their ability.
• Servant leaders are often noted to share power, listen
actively, conceptualize problems, empathize with others
and prioritize others over themselves.
• They are often noted to encourage and support others
through actions and service to meet their needs to do the
• Servant leaders continually evaluate the needs of the
team in order to provide resources and facilitate work.
15. Level of Nursing Management
Level Scope of Responsibility Examples
Top Level Managers
1. Generally make decisions with
the help of ►few guidelines or
2. Coordinates internal and external
CEO, President, V-President, Chief
Middle Level Managers
1. They conduct day-day operations
with some involvement, long
term planning and policy making.
Head Nurse, Department Head, Unit
First Level Managers
1. Concerned with specific unit
2. Deals with immediate day-day
Charge Nurse, Team Leader, Primary
Nurse, Staff Nurse
19. PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION
• 1. Division of work
• 2. Authority, responsibility and accountability
• 3. Discipline
• 4. Unity of Command
• 5. Unity of direction
• 6. Subordination of individual interest
• 7. Remuneration of personnel
• 8. Centralization
• 9. Scalar chain of command
• 10. Order
• 11. Equity
• 12. Stability of tenure of personnel
• 13. Initiative
• 14. Esprit de corps
22. Terms used in nursing management
• ADMINISTRATION:- Administration is the activities
of group co-operating to accomplish common goal. In
other words, it is the organization of use man and
materials to accomplish the purpose and administration
is an essential factor is an development of any service.
• TRENDS:- It denote general direction and tendencies
specially of events of opinion.
• NURSING TRENDS:- Refers to direction towards
which the different nursing event have moved or are
moving as well as the opinion in and around nursing that
are found in and about nursing profession.
• ISSUES:- A point or matter of discussion, debate or
dispute or a matter of public concern
23. THERE ARE DIFFERENT CHANGES IN PROFESSION
• Social Change:-
• a) Nursing profession severs to meet the need to the society
particularly the need related to health and well being.
• b) The changes in society will influence to bring about changes in
• I)At present , efforts are made by govt. of india to deliver the health
care to the community especially in rural area.
• II) Overall improvement in the education of people with ever
growing awareness about health and health need.
• c)Now women are more educated and take up jobs out of home to
sever and earn.
• d)Advancement of technology- eg:- Automatization,
• e)After independence, government began to make serious efforts to
meet health need of nation by implementing recommendation of
24. Changes in other profession :-
• a) Medical profession is fastly changing profession and the era of
specialization and super specialization has come.
• b) Morden health care facility like ICU, ICCU, Renal unit , organ
transplant unit etc.
• c) Biomedical science have for advanced resulting in newer
diagnostic equipment such as scanner, new drugs, monitoring
system in field of health care all over the world.
CHANGES IN NURSING PROFESSION IT SELF IN THE
• a)Trends to take up education leading to bachelor degree in nursing,
master degree as well as doctoral degree.
• b)Trends related to tuition fee e.g.- paid stipends, free hiring,
accomodation, food and uniform but service is expected from the
nurse. c)Trends related to changes in working condition for nurse
25. • a)Fast growing trends to post basic degree
• b)INC promote sharing of ideas and common
interest between member of national
• c)Exchange of professional literature like
international review, professional journals,
•Changing Demographics and Increasing Diversity.
•The Technological Explosion.
•Globalization of the World's Economy and Society.
•The Era of the Educated Consumer, Alternative
Therapies and Genomics.
•Quality assurance in nursing care.
•Decentralised approach to care management.
• VI)Evidence based practice:-
For this nurses should have
scientific bend of mind and
dynamic approach to patient
• VII)Nurse patient ratio:-
Adherence to nurse patient ratio
is necessary for providing
• VIII)Conduct of nursing
research:- Having knowledge is
essential for the nursing
profession. This is possible only
through research and
dissemination of research
• IX)Nursing audits:- Audit is
required to keep the activities on
the right track. It build
knowledge for the profession.
• X)Higher education for senior
position in nursing :- Nursing
leader can guide and monitor
the nursing team effectively.
• XI)Independent nurse
30. ISSUES IN NURSING:-
• I)Renewal of nursing
• II)Diploma V/S Degree in
nursing for registration to
• III)Specialization in clinical
• IV)Nursing care standards:-
32. ISSUES IN NURSING EDUCATION
• Nursing training school multiplied .
• Lack of independent building for school and
• Lack of independent principal for school and
• Inadequate hostel facility for student .
• Shortage of qualified teacher in nursing.
• Inadequate library facilities. Less supply of
• Less promotional apportunities for teachers of
both school and college.
• Very less or no stipend for nursing student.
34. Example of nursing theories and
• Application of Nursing Theories
• Application Goal Attainment Theory
• Application Orem's Self-care Deficit Theory
• Application of Suchman’s Stages of Illness Model
• Application of Betty Neuman's Systems Model in Nursing Care
• Application of Roy's Adaptation Model in Nursing Process
• Application of Peplau's Interpersonal theory in Nursing Process
• Application of Health Belief Model in Nursing Practice
• Attachment Theory : John Bowlby
• Attribution Theory
• Betty Neuman’s system model
• Behaviorist Theory
• Biopsychosocial Model
• Care, Cure and Core: The Three C’s of Lydia Hall
• Comfort Theory by Katharine Kolcaba
• Decision Making Models
• Development of Nursing Theories
• Ernestine Wiedenbach's "The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing"
• Epistemology of Nursing
• Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
• From Novice to Expert: Patricia Benner
• Faye Glenn Abdellah's Theory
• Functional Health Patterns by Majory Gorden
• Health Promotion Model
• Health Belief Model
• Helping and Human Relationships Theory :
Robert R. Carkhuff
• Human Becoming Theory : Rosemarie Rizzo Parse
• Human-To-Human Relationship Model by Joyce
• Grounded Theory in Nursing Research
• Gate Control Theory of Pain
• Germ Theory of Disease
• Hans Selye's Stress Theory
• Harry Stalk Sullivan's Interpersonal Theory
• Introduction to Nursing Theories
• Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory
• Jean Watson's theory
• Johnson’s behavior system model
• Kurt Lewin's Change Theory
• Laws (Principles) of Learning
• Learned Helplessness Model
• Levin's Four Conservation Principles
• Life Perspective Rhythm Model by Joyce Fitzpatrick
• Martha Roger’s Science of unitary human beings
• Maslow's Theory of Needs
• Modeling and Role Modeling Theory by Erickson, Tomlin & Swain
• McGill Model of Nursing by F. Moyra Allen
• Models of Prevention
• Models of Nursing Care Delivery
• Newman's Health As Expanding Consciousness
• Nursing Theorists
• Nursing Theories: An Overview
• Nursing Theories and Research
• Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory
• Orlando's Nursing Process
• Object Relations Theory
• Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model
• Psychoanalytic Theory
• Roy's Adaptation Model
• Roper–Logan–Tierney Model of Nursing
• Systems Theory in Nursing
• Stress-Diathesis Model
• Stuart Stress Adaptation Model
• Self-efficacy Theory
• Statistical Theory
• Statistical Theory
• Theories Based on Interactive Process
• Theories of Florence Nightingale
• Theories Applied in Psychiatric Nursing
• Theories used in Community Health Nursing
• Theories of Intelligence
• Theories of Learning
• Theory of Mind
• Theory of Interpersonal Relations:: Peplau
• Theory of Goal Attainment: Imogene King
• Theory of Chronic Sorrow
• Theory of Cognitive Dissonance by Leon Festinger
• Theory of Moral Development
• Theory of Evolution
• Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing
• Trajectory Model by Corbin & Strauss
• Transcultural Nursing
• Understanding the works of Nursing Theorists