3. Content of the chapter
• Functions of administration
• Planning and control
• Coordination and delegation
• Decision making –decentralization basic goals of
• Concept of management
4. Nursing management
• Concept , type ,principles and techniques
• Vision and mission statements
• Philosophy , aims and objectives
• Current trends and issue in nursing
• Theories and models
• Application to nursing services and education
5. Learning objectives
• To discuss the functions of management
• To describe the planning and control in detail
• To explain the coordination and delegation
• To describe the decision making –
decentralization basis of goal of
• To discuss the concept of management
6. Basic Functions of Administration
• Basic Functions of Administration: Planning,
Organizing, Directing and Controlling
• After reading this chapter, you will be
7. FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION
• Management is creative problem solving.
• Management is a generic function that includes
similar basic tasks in every discipline and in
• Management and administration sometimes
appear to be synonymous, but they are not
• Management may be defined as the art of
securing maximum results with a minimum of
effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and
happiness for both employer and employee and
give the public the best possible service (John
9. FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
• Coordinating and Controlling
• Reporting and Recording
• Planning means to decide in advance what is to
• It charts a course of actions for the future.
• It is an intellectual process and it aims to achieve
a coordinated and consistent set of operations
aimed at desired objectives.
11. Essentials of good planning
• Yields reasonable organizational objectives and
develops alternative approaches to meet these
• Helps to eliminate or reduce the future uncertainty
• Helps to gain economical operations.
• Lays the foundation for organizing.
• Facilitates co-ordination.
• Helps to facilitate control.
• Dictates those activities to which employers are
• Once the objectives have been established
through planning, management concern must
turn to developing an organization that is
capable of carrying them out. The management
function of organizing can be defined as
,”relating people and things to each other in such
a way that they are all combined and interrelated
into a unit capable of being directed toward the
13. • Work activities required for the organizational
performance are separated through
▫ Horizontal differentiation (i.e.. Dividing the
organization into operational units for more
effective and efficient performance.)
▫ Vertical differentiation (i.e.. Establishes the
hierarchy and the number of levels in the
14. The formal organization depends on
two basic principles:
• a) Responsibility: responsibility n an
organization is divided among available personnel
by grouping the functions that are similar in
objectives and content. This should be done in a
manner that avoids overlaps and gaps as much as
possible. Responsibility may be continuing or it may
be terminated by the accomplishment of a single
• b) Authority: when responsibility is given to a
person, he must also be given the authority to make
commitments, use resources and take the actions
necessary to carry out his responsibilities.
• Staffing is the selection, training, motivating and
retaining of a personnel in the organization.
Before selection we have to make analysis of the
particular job, which is required in the
organization., then comes the selection of the
personnel. It involves manpower planning to
have the right person in the right place and
avoid “square peg in the round hole”.
16. Manpower planning involves the
• 1. Scrutiny of present personnel strength.
• 2. Anticipation of manpower needs.
• 3. Investigation of turnover of personnel.
• 4. Planning job requirements and job
• Directing means the issuance of orders,
assignments and instructions that permit the
subordinate to understand what is expected of
him, and the guidance and overseeing of the
subordinate so that he can contribute effectively
and efficiently to the attainment of
18. Directing includes the following
• Giving orders
• Making supervision
• Giving orders: the central task in directing is
giving orders. The order is the technical means
through which a subordinate understands what is to
be done. To facilitate this there are certain
characteristics of good orders which manager should
be aware of:
• The order should be clear, concise and consistent to give
sufficient information to ensure understanding
• Order should be based on obvious demands of a particular
situation, it seems logical to the subordinates and not just an
arbitrary whim of the manager.
• The tone of the order is very important. The manner in which
the manager delivers the order has a great deal to do with its
acceptance by the subordinate.
• Whenever possible, the reason for the order should be given.
A subordinate will accept an order more readily if he
understands the need for it.
• In some instances the manager uses delegation of authority
instead of issuance of orders for avoiding too many specific
• Supervision is the activity of the management
that is concerned with the training and
discipline of the work force. It includes follow up
to assure the prompt and proper execution of
• Supervision is the art of overseeing, watching
and directing with authority, the work and
behaviour of other.
• Leadership is the ability to inspire and influence others
to contribute to the attainment of the objectives.
Successful leadership is the result of interaction between
the leader and his subordinates in a particular
• There are number of styles of leadership that have been
identified such as autocratic, democratic participative
• The continuum of leadership styles, ranges from the
completely authoritarian situation with no subordinate
participation to a maximum degree of democratic
leadership, enabling the subordinate to participate in all
phases of the decision making process.
• Motivation refers to the way in which the needs
(urges, aspirations, desires) control, direct or
explain the behaviour of human beings. The
manager must motivate, or cause, the employee
to follow directives.
• Communication is the passing of information
and understanding from a sender to receiver.
• Communication is vital to the directing function
of the management, one way to visualise this
importance is to view the manager on one side of
a barrier and the work group on the other.
• Communication is the means the manager has of
reaching through the barrier to attain work
• It is the act of synchronising people and
activities so that they function smoothly in the
attainment of organization objectives.
Coordination is more important in the health
services organization, because functionally they
• Different kinds of organization require different
amount of coordination.
25. BASIC APPROACHES TO COORDINATION
• Corrective co ordinations are those coordinative
activities that rectify the present error or correct a
dysfunction in the organization.
• Preventive coordination comprises those
coordinative activities that are aimed at preventing the
occurrence of anticipated problems of coordination, or at
least minimizing the impact of these problems.
• Regulatory coordination comprises those
coordinative activities that are aimed at the maintenance
of existing structural and functional arrangements in the
• Promotive coordination has those coordinative
activities that are aimed at attempting to improve the
articulation of the parts of the organization, or to
improve the existing organizational arrangements
without regard for specific problems.
• Controlling can be defined as the regulation of
activities in accordance with the requirements of
• Steps of control:
▫ The control function, whether it is applied to cash,
medical care, employee morale or anything else,
involves four steps.
• 1. Establishments of standards.
• 2. Measuring performance
• 3. Comparing the actual results with the standards.
• 4. Correcting deviations from standards.
27. REPORTING AND RECORDING
• Reports are oral or written exchanges
of information shared between caregivers or
workers in a number of ways.
• A report summarizes the services of the person,
personnel and of the agency.
• sReports are written usually daily, weekly,
monthly or yearly.
28. Purposes of reporting
• To show the kind and amount of services
rendered over a specified period.
• To illustrate progress in reaching goals.
• As an aid in studying health conditions.
• As an aid in planning.
• To interpret services to the public and to the
other interested agencies.
• Records and reports must be functional,
accurate, complete, current organized and
• Budgeting, though primarily recognized as a
device for controlling, becomes a major part of
the planning process in any organization.
• It is expressed in financial terms and based on
expected income and expenditure.
• Budget is the heart of administrative
• It served as a powerful tool of coordination and
negatively an effective device of eliminating
duplicating and wastage.
30. Features of budget
• Should be flexible.
• Should be synthesis of past, present and future.
• Should be product of joint venture &
cooperation of executives/ department heads at
different levels of management.
• It should be in the form of statistical standard
laid down in specific numerical terms.
• It should have support of top management
throughout the period of its planning and
• Managers address complex issues by planning,
budgeting, and setting target goals. They meet
their goals by organizing, staffing, controlling
and problem solving. The nurse manager can
assist the staff to think strategically about what
it is doing and what it should be doing for its
clients , for example, in today’s world of cost
containment, examining what clients pay for the
care they receive from the health care
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