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List of medical emergencies 4.4.22 lecture.pptx

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List of medical emergencies 4.4.22 lecture.pptx

  1. 1. LIST OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES Dr. Anjalatchi Muthukumaran MD(AM), Ph.D (N) MBA (HA), MA (Soc) Vice Principal Cum Nursing Superintendent Era College Of Nursing , ELMCH,EU
  2. 2. List of medical emergencies • Breathing problems • Choking • Allergic reactions
  3. 3. General principles • General Principles Emergency first aid is immediate first aid with the aim of saving the patient’s life. • The victim’s breathing and blood circulation are secured with emergency first aid. • Emergency first aid must be given without delay, because the first few minutes are crucial for the patient’s survival
  4. 4. Criteria to check the medical emergencies • 1. Assessment of the situation-What has happened Safety hazards at the scene (electrocution, fire, gases) • 2. Protect yourself from danger and save the patient-Use protective clothing or other safety equipment Eliminate safety hazards (e.g., switch off electric current, air the room)
  5. 5. • 3.Assess the condition of the patient-check the consciousness, verbal response, body movements etc • Patient is breathing-Make sure that respiratory tract stays open • Patient is not breathing- • Open respiratory tract • • remove any foreign objects • • tilt head backwards Start cardiac massage • • press 30 times Start mouth-to-mouth respiration • • blow twice, check that the patient’s chest rises • • if the chest does not rise, check the position of the head Check the pulse or signs of circulation; if there are none, continue resuscitation • • rhythm of resuscitation: press 30 times, blow twice
  6. 6. 4. Patient is bleeding • Stop bleeding • raise the limb • press the wound with hands using dressings • if necessary, bind the wound with a pressure bandage
  7. 7. 5.Patient is in shock • Determine the cause of shock • bleeding • allergy
  8. 8. 6.Shock caused by bleeding • Place the patient on his/her back, • levate lower limbs • Start intravenous infusion
  9. 9. 7.Allergic shock • Administer adrenaline (1 mg/ml) 0.5–1.0 ml
  10. 10. First aider quick response
  11. 11. First Things First • Always perform first aid in the following order • 1. Restore Breathing: A person becomes brain dead in 6 minutes if breathing is not restored • 2. Stop Severe Bleeding: Without blood, oxygen cannot get to the vital organs of a person’s body
  12. 12. • 3. Treat Shock: A victims mind and body must work together in order to be healthy. Never overlook shock situations, be they mental or physical • 4. Call advanced medical help immediately: Always realize that you are providing a stop-gap function to an injured person. Always obtain trained medical assistance as soon as possible. It also is good first aid practice to have even minor wounds checked when expert medical assistance is available
  13. 13. Positioning of Casualty • Casualty Positioning-Once you've treated the injury or illness you are not quite out of the woods until further help arrives • In that time, correct positioning of the casualty can aid recovery in the same way that poor positioning can very easily aggravate the injury or exacerbate the condition. Here are a few positions to consider.
  14. 14. Look, listen, feel
  15. 15. Other position
  16. 16. Log Roll Position /techniques
  17. 17. Assess the breathing problems
  18. 18. Check the airways
  19. 19. Check the breathing
  20. 20. Check the pulse recognize and feel to count
  21. 21. Compression of heart
  22. 22. Resuscitation process
  23. 23. Quick response of first Aider
  24. 24. Complications of CPR • Fractures of ribs or the sternum from chest compression. • Gastric insufflations from excessive artificial respiration.
  25. 25. Choking • Choking occurs when a foreign object lodges in the throat or windpipe, blocking the flow of air. • In adults, a piece of food often is the culprit. Young children often swallow small objects. Because choking cuts off oxygen to the brain, give first aid as quickly as possible.
  26. 26. Sign and symptoms • The universal sign for choking is hands clutched to the throat. If the person doesn't give the signal, look for these indications: • Inability to talk • Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing • Squeaky sounds when trying to breathe • Cough, which may either be weak or forceful • Skin, lips and nails turning blue or dusky • Skin that is flushed, then turns pale or bluish in color • Loss of consciousness
  27. 27. First Aid Treatment • If the person is able to cough forcefully, the person should keep coughing. • If the person is choking and can't talk, cry or laugh forcefully, the American Red Cross recommends a "five- and-five" approach to delivering first aid: • Give 5 back blows. Stand to the side and just behind a choking adult. For a child, kneel down behind. Place one arm across the person's chest for support. Bend the person over at the waist so that the upper body is parallel with the ground. Deliver five separate back blows between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. • Give 5 abdominal thrusts. Perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). • Alternate between 5 blows and 5 thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.
  28. 28. Choking problems reliving techniques
  29. 29. abdominal thrusts techniques • To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) on someone else: • Stand behind the person. Place one foot slightly in front of the other for balance. Wrap your arms around the waist. Tip the person forward slightly. If a child is choking, kneel down behind the child. • Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person's navel. • Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick, upward thrust — as if trying to lift the person up. • Perform between six and 10 abdominal thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.
  30. 30. Handout
  31. 31. Allergic reaction • A life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. • In people who have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). • In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction or anaphylaxis may occur without an apparent trigger.
  32. 32. Reasons for develop allergic Some common anaphylaxis triggers include: • Medications/injection/drug/gases etc • Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish • Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants
  33. 33. Allergic reactions symptoms and sign • Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) • Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include: • difficult or noisy breathing • swelling of the tongue • swelling or tightness in the throat • wheeze or persistent cough • difficulty talking or hoarse voice • persistent dizziness or collapse • pale and floppy (young children) • abdominal pain, vomiting – these are signs of anaphylaxis for insect allergy. • Signs of mild to moderate allergic reaction include: • swelling of the lips, face and eyes • hives or welts • tingling mouth • abdominal pain, vomiting – these are signs of anaphylaxis for insect allergy.
  34. 34. Signs
  35. 35. Flow chart for allergic reaction
  36. 36. Emergency first aid for severe allergic reactions • A severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) is life- threatening and requires urgent action. • Lay the person flat – do not allow them to stand or walk. • Give adrenaline injector (such as EpiPen® or Anapen®). • Phone an ambulance – call for (108 ). • Phone family or emergency contact.(if victim response) • Further adrenaline may be given if there is no response after 5 minutes. • Transfer person to hospital for at least 4 hours of observation.
  37. 37. Inj.adrenaline inject techniques
  38. 38. Continued • If in doubt, give adrenaline injector. • Commence CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) at any time if person is unresponsive and not breathing normally.
  39. 39. First aid for anaphylaxis • If a person’s symptoms and signs suggest anaphylaxis you should follow their Anaphylaxis Action Plan or take the following steps:Lay victim flat, do not stand or walk, if breathing is difficult, allow to sit • Prevent further exposure to the triggering agent if possible • Administer adrenaline through auto-injector: • Child less than 5 years – 0.15 mg intramuscular injection. • Older than 5 years – 0.3mg intramuscular injection • Call an ambulance • Administer oxygen and / or asthma medication for respiratory symptoms • Further adrenaline should be given if no response after 5 minutes • If breathing stops follow resuscitation and life support procedures.
  40. 40. Thank you for patience listening