2. The concept of gender in feminist writings and other sociological
discourses became popular in the early 1970 .
3. The concept of gender was first developed by Iill Matthews in 1984 in her
study of the construction of femininity.
According to Mathews, the concept of gender gives recognition to the fact that
every known society distinguishes between women and men.
Therefore the term / concept of gender is a systematic way of understanding
men and women socially and the patterning of relationships between them.
Gender refers to the attitudes, feelings and behaviors that a given culture
associates with a person's biological sex.
The concept of gender helps to study the differences in behaviour between
men and women and to analyse the basis of these differences as basically
biological or as social constructions by the society.
4. Understanding Gender....
• It refers to the social attributes, roles
and responsibilities, associated with
being male & female and the
relationships between women & men
(girls & boys).
• “the gender question is not just about
women but about both women and
men and how they interact”
(the gender question, Human Development
5. • Gender :
In simple terms, gender is a analytical category that
is socially constructed to differentiate the
biological difference between men and women.
The term gender is also used to describe the
differences in behaviour between men and
women which are described as „masculine‟ and
Feminist writings focus on this aspect and claim
that these differences are not biological but are
social constructions of patriarchal society.
In a very broad way, „sex‟ refers to the biological and
physiological differences between male and female sex.
The term sex is a physical differentiation between the
biological male and the biological female. Thus, when an
infant is born, the infant comes to be labeled “boy” or
“girl” depending on their sex. The genital differences
between male and female is the basis of such
There is a biological difference between the sexes and most
people are born as one sex or another.
However, it has been argued that having been born into one
sex or another, individuals are then socialized according
to specific gender expectations and roles.
Biological males learn to take on masculine roles. They are
socialized to think and act in masculine ways. Biological
females learn to take on feminine roles
7. Gender Vs. Sex
Sex identifies biological differences between
men and women. E.g. Women can give birth
and men provide sperm. Sex is universal
(every nation, throughout history)
Gender identifies social relations between men
and women. Gender is socially constructed.
But gender roles are dynamic and change over
8. Gender and Sex…..
• Throughout history/
• Not changeable
• Socially constructed
• Different in different
societies and time
9. Gender identity refers to “one’s sense of oneself as
male, female, or transgender” (American
Psychological Association, 2006). When one’s
gender identity and biological sex are not
congruent, the individual may identify as
transsexual or as another transgender category.
Sexual orientation refers to the sex of those to
whom one is sexually and romantically attracted.
Categories of sexual orientation typically have
included attraction to members of one’s own sex
(gay men or lesbians), attraction to members of
the other sex (heterosexuals), and attraction to
members of both sexes (bisexuals).
An adjective that is a umbrella term used to describe the
full range of people whose gender identity and/or
gender role do not conform to what is typically
associated with their sex assigned at birth.
The Union Cabinet approved the Transgender Persons
(Protection of Rights) Bill 2016 in Parliament.
This Bill is expected to bring social, educational and
economic empowerment to the transgender
To a community that has been ostracised and
discriminated against for so long, this Bill could mean a
chance to live a life of dignity and equality.
11. • provisions in the Bill:
• The Bill makes it illegal to force a transgender person to
leave residence or village, remove their clothes and parade
them naked, force them into begging or any kind of bonded
labour. These acts will be punishable with up to two years
of imprisonment, along with a fine and also asks for
amendments in the law to cover cases of sexual assault on
• The Bill also criminalises denying a transgender person
access to any public place and causing them any physical or
mental harm within and outside the home.
• It guarantees OBC status to all transgenders not born as SC
or ST, and entitles them to reservation under the respective
• The Bill identifies ‘Transgender’ as the third gender and
gives a transgender person the freedom to identify as
‘man’, ‘woman’ or ‘transgender’.
12. • It also ensures that transgender persons or transgender children
enjoy the right to equality, all human rights, right to life and dignity
and personal liberty as guaranteed by the Constitution of India.
• All government institution shall provide inclusive education and
shall not discriminate against any transgender student.
• The government shall also set up rehabilitation and welfare
programmes and information centres. for transgender persons and
provide necessary orientations.
• The Bill instructs law the police to provide every assistance under
the law to transgender person.
• The Bill instructs the government to support and facilitate
employment of transgender persons, especially for vocational
training and self-employment, provide loans, and to ensure that
there is no discrimination against transgender person at
• Under the provisions in this Bill, transgender persons shall also have
equal rights and access to a cultural life, leisure and recreational
13. • MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY : The sex / gender
differences raises the issues of male – female;
masculine and feminine, male associated with
masculinity and female with femininity. With each
constructions the biological differences between
men and women get translated into social terms
• Patters of differences by gender is seen when the
character is either masculine or feminine.
• For example, to be „strong‟ and „tough‟ is
masculine. Being „weak‟ and „soft‟ are associated
with feminine character. There are several other
traits that are categorized as masculine and
• We socially enter into our gendered categories of
masculine and feminine right from birth.
14. • PATRIARCHY :
Patriarchy is a often used term in everyday conversation. In casual
conversation, whether in English or any other language the term
implies “male domination”, “male prejudice (against women)”.
Simply, the term means “the absolute rule of the father or the eldest
male member over his family”. Patriarchy is thus the rule of the
father over all women in the family and also over younger socially
and economically subordinate males.
Literally, patriarchy means rule by the male head of a social unit (like
family, tribe). The patriarch is typically a societal elder who has
legitimate power over others in the social unit.
Patriarchy has been viewed as more than just the subordination of
women. It has been pointed out that not all men are powerful in a
patriarchal system. For example younger men in the family have
less authority and power than older men.
15. Different areas of women‟s lives are said to be under patriarchal control.
Women’s productive or labour power : Men control women‟s productivity
both within the household and outside, in paid work.
The work done by housewives is not considered as work at all and
housewives become dependent on their husbands.
Men also control women‟s labour outside the home. They are usually
working in jobs with low wages; or work within the home in what is called
home based production, which is itself an exploitative system. They
benefit economically from the subordination of women. This is the
material or economic basis of patriarchy.
Women’s Reproduction : Men also control women‟s reproductive power. In
many societies women have no control over then reproduction capacities.
They cannot decide how many children they want, whether to use
contraceptives, or a decision to terminate pregnancy.
In addition men control social institutions like religion and politics which are
male dominated. Control is institutionalized by laying down rules
regarding women‟s reproduction capacity. . Patriarchy idealises
motherhood and thereby forces women to be mothers
16. Control over Women’s Sexuality : Women are obliged to provide
sexual services to their husbands according to their needs and
desires. Moral and legal regulations exist to restrict the expression
of women‟s sexuality outside marriage in every society, while male
promiscuity is often condoned. Rape and threat of rape is another
way in which women‟s sexuality is controlled through notions of
„shame‟ and „honour‟, family honour.
Lastly, women‟s sexuality is controlled through their dress, behaviour
and mobility which are carefully monitored by the family and
through social, cultural and religions codes of behaviour.
• Property and other Economic Resources : most property and other
productive resources are controlled by men and are passed on from
father to son. Even in societies where women have legal rights to
inherit property, customary practices, social sanctions and
emotional pressures that prevents them from acquiring control
• According to UN statistics, “Women do more than 60% of the hours
of work done in the world, but they get 10% of the world‟s income
and own 1% of the world‟s property”. We have seen how men
control different areas of women‟s lives through the patriarchal
order of the society.
17. Cisgender: An adjective used to describe a
person whose gender identity and gender
expression align with sex assigned at birth
18. Gender Stereotypes
• Gender stereotypes are simplistic generalizations
about the gender attributes, differences, and roles of
individuals and/or groups.
• Stereotypes can be positive or negative, but they rarely
communicate accurate information about others. Many
people recognize the dangers of gender stereotyping,
yet continue to make these types of generalizations.
• In gender stereotyping, people make inaccurate,
overly simplistic generalizations of others based upon
their gender. These assumptions are untrue because
they do not take into account that everyone is an
individual with unique thoughts, feelings and
19. Traditionally, the female stereotypic role is to
marry and have children. She is also to put her
family's welfare before her own; be loving,
compassionate, caring, nurturing, and
sympathetic; and find time to be sexy and feel
The male stereotypic role is to be the financial
provider. He is also to be assertive, competitive,
independent, courageous, and career‐focused;
hold his emotions in check; and always initiate
20. Gender Roles….
• Gender roles in a society are defined by the virtue of
being female or male. The role of a mother and
father, for example, incorporates the right and the
obligation to care for the children and to provide a
living for the family.
• This takes us to the issue of what society expects
women to do, and what they expect men to do.
• The problem is not with this division of labor per
se…..but with the values that are associated with type
• All productive work is of value, because it yields
money; and work which does not yield money, is of
lesser or no value.
21. Gender Roles….
• A role includes specific rights and obligations. It
has a certain social status and power associated
with it and a particular social situation.
• A person's role can change from time to time,
depending on social, economic and cultural
changes in the community.
• The roles men and women play in a society are
influenced by the cultural norms of that
particular society, their social status in that
society, by other people's expectations and the
image an individual wishes to develop for
22. • Gender Roles
Roles in the society are gendered in nature.
Patriarchy determines the role of men and
women. It is the mode of patriarchal ideology
which prescribes specific role to men and women
and they have to confirm those roles. Violation of
gender roles become a taboo in the society.
Gender role is a set of social norms dictating the
types of behavior which are generally acceptable
,appropriate or desirable for people based on
23. Gender Roles
Productive roles : Activities carried out by men and women in order to produce goods
and services, for sale, exchange, or to meet the subsistence needs of the family.
Reproductive roles: Activities needed to ensure the reproduction of society's labor
force. This includes child bearing, rearing, and care for family members such as
children, elderly and workers. These tasks are done mostly by women.
Community Managing role: Activities undertaken primarily by women at the
community level, to ensure the provision and maintenance of scarce resources of
collective consumption such as water, health care and education. This is voluntary
unpaid work undertaken in ‘free’ time.
Community politics role Activities undertaken primarily by men at the community
level, organizing at the formal political level, often within the framework of
national politics. This work is usually undertaken by men and may be paid directly
or result in increased power and status.
Triple role: The term refers to the fact that women tend to work longer and more
than men as they are usually involved in three different gender roles —
reproductive, productive and community work.
24. Gender Equality vs. Gender Equity
• Gender equality is based on the idea of equality of
• Gender equity denotes equivalence of life
outcomes of women and men
• Gender equity recognizes women and men have
different needs, preferences and interests and
may require different treatment of men and
25. Gender Equity….
The process of being fair to men and women-
such as equitable allocation of resources &
opportunities. Equity can be seen to be the
means & Gender equality as the end.
“Equity contributes to equality”
Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women
and men, according to their respective needs. This
may include equal treatment or treatment that is
different but which is considered equivalent in terms
of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities.
26. Gender Equality…
Gender equality means that women and men
enjoy the same status. Gender equality also
entails women and men having equal conditions
for realizing their full human rights and
potentials while contributing to national,
political, social and cultural development and to
benefit from the results. Gender equality is,
therefore, the equal valuing by society of both
the similarities and differences between women
and men, and the varying roles that they play’.
27. Gender equality, equality between men and women,
entails the concept that all human beings, both men
and women, are free to develop their personal
abilities and make choices without the limitations set
by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices.
Gender equality means that the different behaviour,
aspirations and needs of women and men are
considered, valued and favoured equally.
It does not mean that women and men have to become
the same, but that their rights, responsibilities and
opportunities will not depend on whether they are
born male or female.
28. Importance of Gender Equality…
• As a human right
• Gender inequality causes poverty
• Gender inequality is impediment to
• With gender equality, economic growth
is more effective
29. Gender in classroom
Teaching and learning;
• Number of girls and boys in the classroom
• Teachers’ attitude/behavior towards students
• Students’ attitude towards each other
• Level of confidence of both genders in classrooms
• Monitors/class representative
• Seating arrangement
• Subject-wise preferences
30. Women Empowerment
• Empowerment of women concerns women gaining
power and control over their lives.
• It involves awareness raising, building self confidence,
increased access and control over resources and
transforming structures and institutions which
reinforce gender discrimination and inequality
• Empowerment cannot be achieved in vacuum; men
must be brought along in the process of change.
• It doesn’t refer to power over, rather it is power to,
power with and power within.
• It is a bottom up approach instead of a top down
31. The UNESCO Agenda for Gender Equality
• Promote education for women's self-empowerment at all levels and in all
• Encourage the equal access to knowledge in all fields, notably within
science and technology;
• Support to women's human rights by implementing the Convention on the
Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
• Promote the attainment of gender parity, women's full citizenship and
equal participation in policy-making, and the elimination of stereotyped
roles and expectations;
• Encourage women's creativity and freedom of expression by supporting
their cultural activities, research, training, capacity-building, networking,
exchange of information and women's NGOs;
• Support a pluralistic and editorially independent media by favouring the
broad and active participation of women in decision-making and by
encouraging more diversified and non discriminatory images of women;
• Assist in building a culture of peace in the minds of women and men by
recognising women's capacity for leadership and non-violent conflict
32. Gender Mainstreaming
It is a strategy for making women’s as well as
men’s concerns and experiences an integral
dimension of the design, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of policies and
programmes in all political, economic and
social spheres so that women and men benefit
equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The
ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. UN-
ECOSOC Definition (1997)
33. Gender Analysis
• Gender analysis is descriptive and diagnostic tool for
development planners and crucial to gender
• GA is the first step towards gender sensitive planning.
• GA focuses on describing women’s and men’s roles and
their relative access to and control over resources.
Analysis aims to anticipate the impacts of projects on
both productive and reproductive roles.
• GA analysis entails, first and foremost collecting sex-
disaggregated data and gender sensitive information
about population concerned.
34. Gender-responsive budget
• GRB refers to the statement of actual government
expenditure and revenue on women and girls as
compared to men and boys.
• A gender budget is not a separate budget for women
• It provides a way to hold governments accountable for
their commitments to gender equality and women’s
• If budgets fail to be sensitive to the needs and
demands of the poor and of women, resources will not
be adequately directed to gender-sensitive
programmes and to the achievement of equality goals.
35. Gender Parity
A numerical concept concerned with the relative
equality in terms of numbers and proportions
of women, men, girls and boys. In education,
this means that the same number of boys and
girls receive educational services at different
levels and in diverse forms.
36. Gender Discrimination
• Discrimination on the basis of gender takes
many forms; including sexual harassment,
pregnancy discrimination, and unequal pay for
women who do the same job as men.
• Gender discrimination refers to situations in
which an employer treats an individual or
group of individual employees differently,
based on their gender, whether female or
• Discrimination based on gender or sex is a
common civil rights violation.
37. Gender oppression
• Gender oppression is defined as oppression
associated with the gender norms, relations
and stratification of a given society. Modern
norms of gender consist of mutually exclusive
categories of masculinity and femininity.
• Oppression is a negative outcome, which
people experience through the cruel exercise
of power in society or in a social group.
• Oppression suppresses the natural self-
expression and emotions of others
The basic idea of feminism interprets the subordination of
women by men. Feminism believes in the liberation of
women from such subordination. Feminism, in the earlier
stage, focused on the equality of women in the political and
• Feminism a doctrine that advocates equal rights for women
or the movement aimed at equal rights for women.
Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies
aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal
political, economic, and social rights for women. This
includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for
women in education and employment.
• The goals of feminism are to get women equal rights under
the law and equal stature in society. It is the movement
towards the social, political and economic equality of all
39. • Objectives of Feminism
• To identify the existing power relationships in specific
spheres- family, economy, political,
• To identify different forms of discrimination against
• To analyze the origin of subordinate status of women.
and find out the causes of subordination status of
• To examine women’s social roles and subjection of
women in society.
• To understand the nature of gender inequality.
• To protect women and girls from domestic violence,
sexual harassment, and sexual assault.
• To focus on Women’s rights-law, wage property, voting
and reproductive rights.
• To examine social construction of sex and gender
40. • GENDER ROLES IN SOCIETY
• GENDER ROLES IN SOCIETY: family, caste, class, religion, culture, the media
and the popular culture, law and the state. A gender role is the behaviour
expected of a female or a male in a particular culture, the attitudes and
activities that a society expects of each sex.
• The child’s first influence in regards to gender roles is the family. From
birth to five years of age, most children are almost constantly surrounded
• A child’s first exposure to gender differences is learned through interaction
with his or her parents.
• Most parents dress their infants in gender-specific clothing and give them
toys according to gender stereotypes.
• Gender stereotypes are especially evident in the distribution of gender
specific toys to children.
41. • Early in life children observe the interactions
between the family and form conclusions
pertaining to gender roles.
• Early childhood factors within the home are
significant in the gender acquisition process.
• In general, parents tend to encourage their
children to participate in gender specific
activities. Although parents are the greatest
influence within the family in teaching gender
roles, older siblings also play a part in the
socialization process. Consequently, older siblings
are a means by which gender role stereotypes
continue to perpetuate in society.
42. • Gender and sex relations in society The only roles
related to sex are those associated with reproduction-
male and female contribute to the transfer of genetic
• Further, women give birth and breastfeed, activities
assigned to female on the basis of socially determined
characteristics, such as stereotypes, ideologies, values,
attitudes, beliefs, and practices are also defined.
• Gender relations are relations of dominance and
subordination with elements of co-operation, force and
violence sustaining them.
• Gender relations are socially constructed and hence,
variable in time and place and amenable to change.
Gender relations follow the rules of patriarchy- an
ideology and social system whereby men are
considered superior to women.
43. • This social system classifies women as a subordinate or
secondary position which moves their stake at next level.
Society directs behavior and helps shape individual’s lives.
• While some choose to believe they have chosen their
behaviours based on individual characteristics but behavior
is socialized rather than by natural occurrence.
• Individuals should recognize their group identity and
understand the male and female role expectations
maintained by society.
• Gender and Caste ‘Indian population follows a rigid caste
system which divides people into a hierarchy that governs
the distribution of power, status, and identity in society’.
• The caste system, is divided into four distinct classes
comprised of priests, warriors, artisans, and peasants.
• The Constitution of India requires the state to treat all
citizens equally, without regard to birth, gender or religious
belief. However, society does not function merely on the
basis of formal principles.
44. • Religion
• The main religions of the world all contain certain ideas about the
appropriate roles for men and women in society, and traditionally,
this has placed women in the home and men in the ‘outside’ world.
• Nevertheless, data shows that Muslims and Buddhists seem to have
less egalitarian gender role attitudes than Jews, Protestants and
Catholics even when other factors are controlled for.
• Islam in particular has been criticised for suppressing women, and
gender is probably the area where negative attitudes about Islam
are articulated most frequently in Western societies.
• Culture refers to the beliefs and practices of another society,
particularly where these are seen as closely linked with tradition or
• Culture is part of the fabric of every society, including our own. It
shapes the way things are done and our understanding of why this
should be so. Social media play a big role when it comes to
communication between genders.
45. • Sexuality
• Sexuality is a central aspect of being human
throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities
and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure,
intimacy and reproduction.
• Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts,
fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours,
practices, roles and relationships.
• While sexuality can include all of these dimensions,
not all of them are always experienced or expressed.
• Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological,
psychological, social, economic, political, cultural,
ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors.
46. • Sexual health
• Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental
and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not
merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity.
• The World Health Organization defines sexual health
as: "Sexual health is a state of physical, mental and
social well-being in relation to sexuality. It requires a
positive and respectful approach to sexuality and
sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having
pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of
coercion, discrimination and violence.“
• For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the
sexual rights of all persons must be respected,
protected and fulfilled.
47. • Sexual Rights
• Unlike the other three aspects of (Sexual and Reproductive
Health and Rights) SRHR, the struggle for sexual rights
include, and focus on, sexual pleasure and emotional sexual
expression. One platform for this struggle is the World
Association for Sexual health(WAS) Declaration of Sexual
• The Platform for Action from the 1995 Beijing Conference
on Women established that human rights include the right
of women freely and without coercion, violence or
discrimination, to have control over and make decisions
concerning their own sexuality, including their own sexual
and reproductive health. This paragraph has been
interpreted by some countries as the applicable definition
of women’s sexual rights.
• The UN Commission on Human Rights has established that
if women had more power, their ability to protect
themselves against violence would be strengthened.
48. • At the 14th World Congress of Sexology (Hong Kong, 1999),
the WAS adopted the Universal Declaration of Sexual
Rights, which includes 11 sexual rights:
• The right to sexual freedom.
• The right to sexual autonomy, sexual integrity, and safety of
the sexual body.
• The right to sexual privacy.
• The right to sexual equity.
• The right to sexual pleasure.
• The right to emotional sexual expression.
• The right to sexually associate freely.
• The right to make free and
responsible reproductive choices.
• The right to sexual information based upon scientific
• The right to comprehensive sexuality education.
• The right to sexual health care.
49. Reproductive rights
According to Paragraph 7.3 of the International
Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
Programme of Action, reproductive rights are based on
the right of couples and individuals to decide free from
discrimination, coercion and violence whether to have
children, how often and when to do so, having the
necessary information and means to make such
• It is also connected with their right to the highest
attainable standard of sexual and reproductive health.
• "Reproductive rights" are the rights of individuals to
decide whether to reproduce and have reproductive
health. This may include an individual's right to plan a
family, terminate a pregnancy, use contraceptives,
learn about sex education in public schools, and gain
access to reproductive health services.
50. • Reproductive rights may also include the right to
receive education about sexually transmitted
infections and other aspects of sexuality, and
protection from practices such as female genital
Women's reproductive rights may include some or all of
• the right to legal and safe abortion; the right to birth
• freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception;
• the right to access good-quality reproductive
• the right to education and access in order to make free
and informed reproductive choices
51. Sexual harassment.
Any form of coercion, bullying, advances and requests for sexual favours that
includes unwelcome or inappropriate promises of rewards in exchange for
sexual favours and verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. Sexual
harassment is a criminal offence in many modern jurisdictions. Enforcement
however is a major challenge.
Types of Sexual Harassment
• Generally speaking, there are two types of sexual harassment, “quid pro
quo” and hostile environment.
• Quid pro quo (meaning “this for that”) sexual harassment occurs when it
is stated or implied that an academic or employment decision about a
student or employee depends upon whether the student or employee
submits to conduct of a sexual nature.
• Hostile environment sexual harassment occurs when unwelcome conduct
of a sexual nature creates an intimidating, threatening or abusive working
or learning environment or is so severe, persistent or pervasive that it
affects a person’s ability to participate in or benefit from a program or
52. Child Abuse
“The physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or
exploitation, negligent treatment, or
maltreatment of a child under the age of 18
by a person who is responsible for the child’s
welfare under circumstances which indicate
that the child’s health or welfare is harmed or
threatened.”- Child Welfare Act.
53. • Types of Child Abuse
• Physical Abuse
• Physical abuse is any non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 by a
parent or caretaker. These injuries may include beatings, shaking, burns, human
bites, strangulation, or immersion in scalding water or others, with resulting
bruises and welts, fractures, scars, burns, internal injuries or any other injuries.
• Emotional abuse
• Emotional abuse includes the failure of a caregiver to provide an appropriate and
supportive environment, and includes acts that have an adverse effect on the
emotional health and development of a child. Such acts include restricting a child’s
movements, denigration, ridicule, threats and intimidation, discrimination,
rejection and other nonphysical forms of hostile treatment.
• Neglect refers to the failure of a parent to provide for the development of the child
– where the parent is in a position to do so – in one or more of the following areas:
health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter and safe living
• Neglect is thus distinguished from circumstances of poverty in that neglect can
occur only in cases where reasonable resources are available to the family or
• Child sexual abuse
• Child sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual
gratification of another person
54. • Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
• Factors that determine how a child is impacted by sexual abuse
usually fall into three categories.
• The child's previous experiences and history:
• Critical pre-abuse factors that increase the risk that a child will
develop serious problems include the child's prior psychological
concerns, especially a history of anxiety problems. If the child has
previously been sexually abused or experienced other trauma, the
risk is higher.
• Nature of the sexual abuse and the child's reactions:
• Abusive characteristics make a big difference in the impact on a
child, especially those involving force and violence. The most
impactful factor is if the child believed they were in extreme danger
and might be killed or hurt during the assault.
• Responses by others upon disclosure of abuse:
• The most important response is how caregivers react to the abuse
and that the response is not negative. Reactions that increase the
risk for negative outcomes include disbelief, blaming the child for
the victimization, or blaming the child for causing trouble to the
family or the offender.
55. Sexual Development and Behavior in Young Children
• Development of sexuality is an integral part of the development and
maturation of children. The development of child sexuality is influenced by
social and cultural aspects; the perception of developing child sexuality is
even more heavily influenced by cultural aspects.
Any given child’s sexual knowledge and behavior is strongly influenced by:
• The child’s age1-3 What the child observes (including the sexual behaviors
of family and friends) What the child is taught (including cultural and
religious beliefs concerning sexuality and physical boundaries)
• Very young and preschool-aged children (four or younger) are naturally
immodest, and may display open curiosity about other people’s bodies
and bodily functions, such as touching women’s breasts, or wanting to
watch when grownups go to the bathroom.
• Wanting to be naked (even if others are not) and showing or touching
private parts while in public are also common in young children. They are
curious about their own bodies and may quickly discover that touching
certain body parts feels nice. (For more on what children typically do at
this and other ages.
56. • As children age and interact more with other children
(approximately ages 4–6), they become more aware of the
differences between boys and girls, and more social in their
exploration. In addition to exploring their own bodies through
touching or rubbing their private parts (masturbation), They may
also ask more questions about sexual matters, such as where babies
come from, and why boys and girls are physically different.
• Once children enter grade school (approximately ages 7–12), their
awareness of social rules increases and they become more modest
and want more privacy, particularly around adults. Although self
touch (masturbation) and sexual play continue, children at this age
are likely to hide these activities from adults. Curiosity about adult
sexual behavior increases—particularly as puberty approaches—
and children may begin to seek out sexual content in television,
movies, and printed material. Telling jokes and “dirty” stories is
common. Children approaching puberty are likely to start displaying
romantic and sexual interest in their peers.
• Some childhood sexual behaviors indicate more than harmless
curiosity, and are considered sexual behavior problems. Sexual
behavior problems may pose a risk to the safety and well-being of
the child and other children.
57. • Educating Children about Sexual Issues
• Just because a behavior is typical doesn’t mean the
behavior should be ignored. Often, when children
participate in sexual behavior it indicates that they need to
learn something. Teach what the child needs to know, given
• Although children usually respond well when parents take
the time to give them correct information and answer their
questions, it is important to provide information that is
appropriate to the child’s age and developmental level.
• Too often, children get the majority of their sexual
education from other children and from media sources
such as television shows, songs, movies, and video games.
Not only is this information often wrong, it may have very
little to do with sexual values that parents want to convey.
Controlling media exposure and providing appropriate
alternatives is an important part of teaching children about
58. ROLE OF EDUCATION IN PREVENTING SEXUAL ABUSE AND VIOLENCE
Teachers play an important role in curbing school violence as they are
second parents of the children. A number of steps need to be taken
by the teachers to eliminate this problem. Schools play a central
role in teaching young people what violence against women looks
like and how it can be prevented, as well as creating a safe, equal
and respectful workplace culture for school staff
• School communities, including principals, teachers, and parents can
help prevent violence by:
• Developing a school culture which promotes equality among staff
• Teaching students the skills to build respectful relationships, as well
as recognize and challenge gender stereotypes and violence
• Creating a safe, equal and inclusive school culture for staff and
• Demonstrating appropriate and respectful behavior to students.
59. • VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS AND WOMEN IN INDIA
• Acid Throwing
• Women belonging to any class, caste, creed or religion can be victims of this cruel form of violence
and disfigurement, a premeditated crime intended to kill or maim permanently and act as a lesson
to put a woman in her place.
• Child marriage
• Child marriage has been traditionally prevalent in India and continues to this day. Historically, child
brides would live with their parents until they reached puberty. According to UNICEF’s “State of the
World’s Children-2009” report, 47% of India's women aged 20–24 were married before the legal
age of 18, rising to 56% in rural areas. The report also showed that 40% of the world's child
marriages occur in India.
• Domestic violence
• The domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate
relationship, such as marriage, dating, family, or cohabitation. It is also known as domestic abuse,
spousal abuse, battering, family violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Domestic violence
occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across society, irrespective of
economic status or gender.
• In 1961, the Government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act, making dowry demands in
wedding arrangements illegal. However, many cases of dowry-related domestic violence, suicides
and murders have been reported. In 1985, the Dowry Prohibition (maintenance of lists of presents
to the bride and bridegroom) Rules were framed. According to these rules, a signed list should be
maintained of presents given at the time of the marriage to the bride and the bridegroom.
• Family planning
• The average woman living in a rural area in India has little or no control over becoming pregnant.
Women, particularly women in rural areas, do not have access to safe and self-controlled methods
• Rape in India has been described as one of India's most common crimes against women and by the
UN’s human-rights chief as a “national problem”
60. To prevent violence against women we need to promote gender
equality in public and private life, particularly through the
• Challenge accepting of violence against women.
• Promote women’s independence and decision-making in public life
• Challenge gender stereotypes and roles.
• Strengthen positive, equal and respectful relationships between
and among women and men, girls and boys.
• Challenging the normalisation of violence as an expression of
masculinity or male dominance.
• Preventing exposure to violence and supporting those affected to
reduce its consequences.
• Addressing social norms relating to alcohol particularly by
challenging drinking cultures that emphasize aggression or excuse
• Reducing backlash by developing positive ways to engage men and
boys in gender equality, building relationship skills and social
connection and challenging restrictive and rigid gender roles and
identities for both men and women.