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Health & Illness .pptx

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Health & Illness .pptx

  1. 1. 1. HEALTH & ILLNESS • Definition/ Concept of Health & Illness • Dimensions of Health • Models of Health & Illness • Health Illness Continuum Nirmala Roberts India
  2. 2. What we shall learn today… Definition & concept of Health Meaning of wellness, illness and disease Models of Health & Illness The Agent-Host-Environment model The Health-Illness continuum
  3. 3. Terminologies Well being Static & dynamic Environment – Internal & external Risk factor Agent-Host- Environment Premature Stimulus & response Perception Pathology Vital Genetic inheritance Continuum
  4. 4. What is Health? Individually defined by each person according to – How they feel Absence or presence of symptoms of illness Ability to carry out activities
  5. 5. Definitions of Health Health- A state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity - (WHO – 1948) A dynamic state, in which the individual adapts to changes in internal and external environments to maintain a state of well being - (Potter & Perry – 2014)
  6. 6. Health is a multidimensional concept Health Environment Social Emotional Physical Spiritual Intellectual Occupational
  7. 7. Health is multidimensional (The Wellness Wheel)
  8. 8. Definitions… Wellness - An active state, oriented toward maximizing the potential of the individual. A state of living a healthy lifestyle Illness - Response of a person to disease, which is based on the person’s perception ( a subjective feeling) ….SYMPTOM May or may not be related to disease Disease - A pathologic change in structure and/ or function of the body and miind…..SIGN
  9. 9. Health & Illness are.. Not static conditions Vital concepts Subject to continuous evaluation and change
  10. 10. MODELS OF HEALTH & ILLNESS
  11. 11. 1. The Agent-Host-Environment model The 3 interact in ways that create risk factors
  12. 12. When Agent, Host and Environment are in balance, HEALTH is maintained…else, disease occurs! At Equilibrium Agents Biological, Nutrient, Physical, Chemical, Mechanical Human Host Age, Sex, Race, Genetic factors, Personality Environment Physical, social, Economic, Biological LEVER
  13. 13. Agent, Host, Environment
  14. 14. 2. The Health-Illness Continuum Optimum wellness Death
  15. 15. The health illness continuum A graphic illustration of a well being concept proposed by John W Travis in 1972. It describes – Wellbeing is more than simply an absence of illness It incorporates the individuals mental and emotional health. No signs or symptoms of disease does not mean that person is well
  16. 16. Wellness model The Health-illness Continuum Health is a constantly changing state with high level wellness and death on opposite ends Growth Education Awareness Signs Symptoms Disability High level wellness Premature death Treatment model Neutral point
  17. 17. The Health-Illness Continuum Health and illness are viewed as opposite ends of a health continuum A person’s condition can move from a high level of health through good health…normal…poor …extremely poor health…to premature death People move back and forth within this continuum day by day Their placement on the continuum is affected by how they perceive themselves and how others see them in terms of health and illness
  18. 18. Movement to the right side arrows  > in level of health and wellbeing Achieved in three steps - Awareness Education Growth
  19. 19. Movement to the left side arrows  a progressively decreasing state of health. Achieved in three steps - Signs Symptoms Disability
  20. 20. Most important is the direction taken by the individual If towards high level of health, a person has genuinely optimistic or positive out look despite his/ her health status. If towards premature death, a person has a genuinely pessimistic or negative out look about his or her health status.
  21. 21. Treatment model Vs Wellness model Treatment model – The individual moves to right only to the neutral point Eg: A hypertensive client takes medications without making any other life style changes Wellness model – The individual moves right beyond the neutral point Eg :A hypertensive client takes medications. Also stops smoking, loses weight, starts exercise programme.
  22. 22. Health- illness continuum Health –A dynamic state that fluctuates as a person adapts to changes in the internal and external environments to maintain a state of well being Health and illness – Are relative concepts (not separate absolutes) Has two ends as a graduated scale Health- illness continuum - Is used to describe the cause of illness Helps identify risk factors that result from Agent-Host- Environment
  23. 23. Nurse’s responsibilities Determine level of health on the health-illness continuum Help identify the client’s position on the continuum Set a goal for optimal health Assist the clients to adopt measures to reach a well state of health
  24. 24. Questions….questions.. What is Health? Difference between Disease and Illness State the dimensions of Health Explain the Agent-Host-Environment model of health Explain the Health-illness continuum

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