• What is a Disaster?
A disaster is a natural or man-made hazard resulting in
an event of substantial event causing physical damage
loss of life, or drastic change in the environment. It is
phenomenon that can cause damage to life and
property and destroy the economic, social and cultural
life of people
3. As mentioned above there are two types of disaster:-
Man-made disaster- Some of them are industrial accidents ,
rail, road and air accidents, terrorist attack, war etc.
Natural disaster – Some of them are floods, landslides,
earthquake, volcanic eruption, droughts, etc.
One of the deadliest natural disaster is Tsunami.
4. What is Tsunami?
• A tsunami is a series of gigantic water waves caused
by the displacement of a large volume of a body of
water generally an ocean or large lake. Earthquake ,
underwater explosions, landslides, glacier calving,
meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or
below water all have the potential to generate a
5. Tsunami don’t resemble normal sea waves, because
their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as
a breaking wave , a tsunami may instead initially
resemble a rapidly rising tide and are often referred to
as tidal waves. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of
waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours,
arriving in a so called “wave train”. Wave heights of tens
of metres can be generated by large events. Although
the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal area, their
destructive power can be enormous and they can affect
entire ocean basins.
6. Facts about Tsunami
• Tsunami waves can reach heights of over 100 feet.
• About 80% of tsunamis happen within the Pacific ocean.
• The first wave of tsunami is usually not the strongest , successive
wave get bigger and stronger.
• In 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami was caused by an earthquake
with the energy of 23,000 atomic bombs. After the earthquake,
killer waves radiating from the epicentre slammed into the
coastline of 11 countries. The final death toll was 283,000.
• Tsunamis can travel up to the speed of 500- 800 kilometres per
7. • Tsunami can poison mainland with a lot of salt,
causing people to die out of hunger and disease after
the tsunami is gone.
• The costliest tsunami occurred in U.S. and Canada in
1964. Damage was as huge as $106 million.
• Tsunami is a term, which literally means a harbour wave.
A term specific to Japan.
• Tsunamis can travel across oceans as they retain their
energy with limited energy loss.
• A mega tsunami has very huge waves and has occurred
in Alaska in 1958. Surprisingly only two people died.
8. Warning signs of Tsunami
• An earthquake is a natural tsunami warning. If you feel a strong
quake, don’t stay close to the shore.
• An approaching tsunami is sometimes preceded by a rise or fall in
water level. If you see the ocean receding unusually rapidly that is
a good sign that a tsunami may be on its way.
9. • Experts believe that a receding ocean may give people as
much as 5 minutes warning to evacuate the area .
• A tsunami search maybe small at one point on the shore larger
than other. a short distance away Don't assume that because
there is a minimal sign of a tsunami in one place it will belike
that everywhere else.
• Tsunamis can travel up river and streams that lead to the
oceans as you would stay away from the beach and ocean if
there is a tsunami.
10. Tsunami in Japan
• Japan was hit by a 9 magnitude earthquake on march 11 2011
that triggered a deadly 23 feet tsunami in the country's north the
giant waves deluged cities and rural areas like sweeping away
cars, homes. Buildings, trains and boat, leaving a path of death
and devastation in its way. Video footage showed cars racing
away from surging waves.
11. • The Earthquake – the largest in Japan history struck about 230
miles northeast of Tokyo the pacific tsunami warning centre
issued warnings for Russia, Taiwan, Hawaii, Indonesia, the
Marshall Islands, Papua new guinea , Australia and the west
coasts of the US, Mexico, central America and south America.
According to the official toll the disasters let 15,839dead, 5950
injured and 3642 missing.
12. Safer Construction Practices
• Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks be avoided
• Buildings should be built at 250m away from the sea coast
• Build proper drainage systems in all flood or tsunami prone area.
• Construct the whole village or settlement on a raised platform
higher that the known high flood level.
13. • A high wall can be created along the coast.
• Flood gates or channels are created to direct the water to some
more places other than destroying property and lives these
channels also absorb part of the water or the lesser waves.
• A tree cover can also be made along the coast to serve the
purpose of wall
14. Survival Skills
• If you are in school and you hear there in a tsunami warning, you
should follow the advice of teachers and other school personnel.
• Stay away from rivers and streams that lead to the ocean as you
would stay away from the beach and ocean if there is a tsunami
• Tsunamis generated in district locations will generally give people
enough time to move to higher ground
• Staying away from all low lying coastal areas is the safest technique.
• If you hear or feel a strong earthquake don’t wait for an official
tsunami warning tell your family and friends to join you in leaving for
15. Alternate Communication Skills
• Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) is the prime network
responsible for transmitting and receiving voice tax and data. All
government and private offices, police stations, hospitals fire stations
and many homes are serviced by the PSTN line.
• A matter Radio operation does not use ground based infrastructure.
Moreover these have limited power needs which can be easily met by
batteries. So they are a good communication method.
16. • Satellite based communication systems are designed for users on
the earth that have some equipment in space called a satellite.
• Geo stationary orbit satellites are stationed above the earth. The
images of weather forecast and disaster observations that we see in
our television are made with the help of images from weather
17. Sharing Responsibility
• National level
The response from the Central government is based on keeping in
view the gravity of the disaster the scale of the relief operations and
the requirement of the control assistance for augmenting financial
resources and logistics support at the disposal of the state
• State level
The responsibility to cope up with natural disasters is essentially of the
state government. The chief minister or the chief secretary of the
state heads a state level committees which is in overall charge of the
chief of the relief operations of the state and the relief commissioner
who is in charge of the relief and rehabilitation measures in the wake
of natural disasters .
18. • District level
The district administration in the focal point for implementation of
all government plans and activities. A disaster management
committee has been set up at the district level headed by the
While no country in world is entirely safe lack of capacity to limit the
impact of hazards remains a major burden for developing countries,
An estimated 97% of natural disaster related deaths each year
occur in developing countries although smaller in absolute figure,
the percentage of economic loss in relation to the GNP (Gross
National Product) I n developing countries far exceeds the one in
Hence the need for safer construction practices is rising day by day
and thus increasing our need to be alert and responsible to
minimize and possibly evade the impact that these disasters have
on our lives to made our county reach greater heights .