1. Top Programming Language of 2020
2nd Year, 2nd Semester
Dept. of CSE
CCN University of Science & Technology
Dept. of CSE
CCN University of Science & Technology
2. What is a programming language
What is the use of it
We know that a Computer is a machine. It can not work on it’s won. So
we give it some instructions to do work for us. A programming language
is a set of commands and instructions and other syntax a computer can
By using programming language we can create a program (which is set
of instruction ) and it can be used in a computer do complex calculation
and work .
3. Types of Programming Language
There are basically two types of computer programming languages
1. Low level language
2. High level language
Low Level Languages
The programming languages that are very close to machine code (0s
and 1s) are called low-level programming languages. The program
instructions written in these languages are in binary form.
The examples of low-level languages are:
1. Machine language
2. Assembly language
4. High Level Languages
The programming languages that are close to human languages (example like English
languages) are called the high-level languages. The high level languages are similar to
English language. The program instructions are written using English words, for example
print, input etc. But each high level language has its own rule and grammar for writing
program instructions. These rules are called syntax of the language.
The top high-level languages are:
5. Advantages of High Level Languages
There are several advantages of high level programming languages. The most important
Easy to learn - the high level languages are very easy to learn than low level languages. The
statements written for the program are similar to English-like statements.
Easy to understand - the program written in high level language by one programmer can easily
be understood by another because the program instructions are similar to the English language.
Easy to write program - in high level language, a new program can easily be written in a very
short time. The larger and complicated software can be developed in few days or months.
Easy to detect and remove errors - the errors in a program can be easily detected and
removed. mostly the errors are occurred during the compilation of new program.
Built-in library functions - Each high level language provides a large number of built-in
functions or procedures that can be used to perform specific task during designing of new
programs. In this way, a large amount of time of programmer is saved.
Machine Independence - program written in high level language is machine independent. It
means that a program written in one type of computer can be executed on another type of
7. Java : Java is one of the world's most important, widely used
computer programming language. Unlike some other computer
programming languages . Java was originally developed by James
Gosling with his colleagues at Sun Microsystems during the early
1990s. Java is very similar to C++.
Java has become the backbone of millions of applications across
multiple platforms including Windows, Macintosh and UNIX-based
desktops, Android-based mobiles, embedded systems and enterprise
solutions. Java is the choice of many software developers for writing
applications involving scientific calculations and mathematical
operations. Today, Java is still the first and best choice in developing
8. Advantage of Java
Java is straightforward to use, write, compile, debug, and learn than alternative programming languages. Java is less
complicated than C++; as a result, Java uses automatic memory allocation and garbage collection.
It permits you to form standard programs and reusable code.
Java code runs on any machine that doesn’t need any special software to be installed, but the JVM needs to be present on the
4. Distributed computing:
Distributed computing involves several computers on a network working together. It helps in developing applications on networks
that can contribute to both data and application functionality.
Java has no explicit pointer. Apart from this, it has a security manager that defines the access of classes.
6. Memory allocation
In Java, memory is divided into two parts one is heap and another is stack. Whenever we declare a variable JVM gives memory
from either stack or heap space. It helps to keep the information and restore it easily.
It has the potential for a program to perform many tasks at the same time.
9. Disadvantage of Java
Java is memory-consuming and significantly slower than natively compiled languages
such as C or C++.
2. Look and Feel
The default look of GUI applications written in Java using the Swing toolkit is very different
from native applications.
3. Single-Paradigm Language
Static imports were added in Java 5.0. The procedural paradigm is better accommodated
than in earlier versions of Java.
4. Memory Management
In Java, Memory is managed through garbage collection, whenever the garbage collector
runs, it affects the performance of the application. This is because all other threads in the
have to be stopped to allow the garbage collector thread to work.
10. Python: Python is a high-level, object-oriented, interpreted,
and interactive scripting language. python was created
by Guido van Rossum who is a Dutch programmer and first
released in 1991.
Python can be used to develop different applications like web
applications, graphic user interface based applications, software
development application, scientific and numeric applications,
network programming, Games and 3D applications and other
business applications. It makes an interactive interface and easy
development of applications. Python is also used because of its
providing continuous support to several programming paradigms.
As it supports object-oriented programming and structured
11. Advantages of Python:
1) Python downloads with an extensive library. These contain code for various purposes like regular expressions,
documentation-generation, unit-testing, web browsers, threading, databases, CGI, email, image manipulation, and
more. So, we don’t have to write the complete code for that manually.
2) Python can be extended to other languages. We can write some of our code in languages like Java, C++ or C.
This comes in handy, especially in projects.
4) The language’s simplicity and extensive libraries render programmers more productive than languages like Java
and C++ do.
5)This language supports both the procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms. While functions help us
with code reusability, classes and objects let us model the real world.
6) Python is freely available. But not only can you download python for free, but you can also download its source
code, make changes to it, and even distribute it.
7) IN python, we need to code only once, and we can run it anywhere. This is called Write Once Run Anywhere
8) Python is an interpreted language, since statements are executed one by one, debugging is easier than in
Disadvantages of Python:
1)Python is not suitable for Enterprise Software Development
2) It serves as an excellent server-side language, Python is much rarely seen on the client-side. Besides that, it is
rarely ever used to implement smartphone-based applications.
3)Python code is executed line by line. But since Python is interpreted, it often results in slow execution.
4)The Python language is dynamically typed so it has many design restrictions that are reported by some Python
5)As compared to the popular technologies like JDBC and ODBC, the Python’s database access layer is found to
be bit underdeveloped and primitive.
during his time at Netscape Communications. It was inspired by
possibly because of the excitement being generated by Java.
the name LiveScript.
lightweight and most commonly used as a part of web pages,
whose implementations allow client-side script to interact with the
user and make dynamic pages. It is an interpreted programming
language with object-oriented capabilities.
1. Less server interaction − You can validate user input before sending the page off to the server.
This saves server traffic, which means less load on your server.
2. Immediate feedback to the visitors − They don't have to wait for a page reload to see if they
have forgotten to enter something.
3. Increased interactivity − You can create interfaces that react when the user hovers over them
with a mouse or activates them via the keyboard.
and sliders to give a Rich Interface to your site visitors.
interactivity into otherwise static HTML pages.
14. C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an
extension of the C language; he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C that also
provided high-level features for program organization. C++ is a case-sensitive, general-purpose,
object-oriented programming language.
Use of C++:
For Develop Graphical related application like computer and mobile games.
To evaluate any kind of mathematical equation use C++ language.
C++ Language are also used for design OS. Like window XP.
Google also use C++ for Indexing.
Few parts of apple OS X are written in C++ programming language.
Internet browser Firefox are written in C++ programming language
All major applications of adobe systems are developed in C++ programming language. Like Photoshop,
Image ready, Illustrator and Adobe Premier.
Some of the Google applications are also written in C++, including Google file system and Google
C++ are used for design database like MySQL.
15. Advantages of C++
1. Object oriented
2. Portable language (writing a program irrespective of operating system as well as Hardware)
3. Low-level language like Assembly language on Machine language called portable.
4. It is useful for the low-level programming language and very efficient for general purpose.
5. C++ provide performance and memory efficiency.
6. It provides a high-level abstraction.
7. C++ is compatible with C.
8. C++ used reusability of code.
9. C++ used inheritance, polymorphism.
Disadvantages of C++
1. It has no security
2. Complex in a very large high-level program.
3. Used for platform specific application commonly.
4. For a particular operating system or platform, the library set has usually chosen that locks.
5. When C++ used for web applications complex and difficult to debug.
6. C++ can't support garbage collection.
7. C++ is not secure because it has a pointer, friend function, and global variable.
8. No support for threads built in.
16. C# is pronounced as "C-Sharp". It is an object-oriented programming
language provided by Microsoft that runs on Net Framework. Anders
Hejlsberg is known as the founder of C# language. It is based on C++ and
Java, but it has many additional extensions used to perform component
oriented programming approach. C# has evolved much since their first
release in the year 2002. It was introduced with .NET Framework 1.0 and the
current version of C# is 5.0.
Use of C#: C# is widely used for developing desktop applications,
web applications and web services.It is used in creating
applications of Microsoft at a large scale.
C# is also used in game development in popular gaming engine
17. Advantages of C#:
1. C# is very efficient in managing the system. All the garbage is
automatically collected in C#.
2. There is no problem of memory leak in C# because of its high memory
3. Cost of maintenance is less and is safer to run as compared to other
4. C# code is compiled to a intermediate language (Common (.Net)
Intermediate Language) which is a standard language, independently
irrespective of the target operating system and architecture.
Disadvantages of C#:
1. C# is less flexible as it depends a lot on.Net framework.
2. C# runs slowly and program needs to be compiled each time when any
changes are made.
PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is an open-source HTML-embedded server-side scripting
language which is used to develop dynamic and interactive web applications and also used
as a general-purpose programming language. It was originally created by Rasmus
Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group.
PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Uses of PHP :
1. PHP performs system functions, i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read,
write, and close them.
2. PHP can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save data to a file, through email you
can send data, return data to the user.
3. You add, delete, modify elements within your database through PHP.
4. Access cookies variables and set cookies.
5. Using PHP, you can restrict users to access some pages of your website.
6. It can encrypt data.
1. Open source: It is developed and maintained by a large group of developers. This will help in creating a support community and abundant extension
2. Speed: It is relatively fast, since it uses not much system resources.
3. Easy to use: It uses a C like syntax, so for those who are familiar with C, it’s very easy for them to pick up and easy to create website scripts.
4. Stable: Since it is maintained by many developers, bugs are rather found and fixed quickly, making it a stable software.
5. Powerful library support: You can easily find functional modules you need such a PDF, graph etc.
6. Built in database connection modules: You can connect to databases easily using PHP, since many websites are data/ content driven, so we will
use database frequently, this will largely reduce the development time of web apps.
1. Security: Since it is open sourced, all people can see the source code. If there are bugs in the source code, it can be used by people to explore the
weakness of it.
2. Not suitable of large applications: It will be difficult to use it for programming huge applications. Since the programming language is not highly
modular, huge applications created out of the programming language will be difficult to maintain.
3. Weak type: Implicit conversion may surprise unwary programmers and lead to unexpected bugs. Confusion between arrays and hash tables. This is
slow and could be faster. There are often a few ways to accomplish a task. It is not strongly typed. It is interpreted and uses curly braces.
4. Poor Error Handling Method: The framework has a bad error handling method. It is not a proper solution for the developers. Therefore, as a qualified
PHP developer, you will have to overcome it.
5. PHP is unable to handle large number of apps: The technology is helpless to support a bunch of apps. It is highly tough to manage because, it is not
competent modular. It already imitates the features of Java language.
It will not give the performance of, for example, “C” or “C++” languages. Because it is a scripting language and is interpreted it will be a bit slower than the
optimized “C++” programs
Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic
programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5
and Perl 6. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a
general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing
easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions.
Raku, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually
evolved into a separate language.
Perl is a general-purpose programming language originally developed
for text manipulation and now used for a wide range of tasks including
system administration, web development, network programming, GUI
development, and more.
1. Perl is compiled every time it is executed
2. This allows for easy modifications and portability
3. Unlike interpretive languages Perl must completely compile before any of it runs
4. This saves many headaches from partially changed text files
5. A few lines of Perl can do what it would take a complicated C language program to do.
6. Many built in functions that save time
1. Perl is compiled each time it is executed
2. Since any one can look at your script and change it there is the issue of security
3. Limited support for data hiding when dealing with classes.
4. There are no warnings when variables are coerced between types. Example:
5. Because of this finding logic errors can be hard
6. Perl offers a number of ways to do the same thing, some more efficient than others,
therefore a badly written Perl script can monopolize system resources.
We know that there are so many programming languages out there
but a few of them are gained popularity among the programmers
around the world. Because of there efficiency in real world and virtual
world .That doesn’t mean other languages aren’t valuable. Todays
fast changing world need fast ,efficient and dependable software for
working environment. That’s why we need the best programming
languages from the all languages.