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EKMA4111: Modul 7

Modul 7: Keputusan Bauran Pemasaran
EKMA 4111 Pengantar Bisnis
Universitas Terbuka Korea

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EKMA4111: Modul 7

  1. 1. Marketing Mix Anggriawan Sugianto EKMA 4111 Pengantar Bisnis
  2. 2. Outline 1.  Product 2.  Price 3.  Place (Distribution) 4.  Promotion 22013.10.06 EKMA 4111 Segmentation Targeting Positioning Product Price Place Promotion
  3. 3. Don't find customer for your products. Find products for your customers. – Seth Godin
  4. 4. Product EKMA4111 Pengantar Bisnis
  5. 5. Product Level 55 4 3 2 1 1.  Core benefit 2.  Basic product 3.  Expected product 4.  Augmented product 5.  Potential product 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 5
  6. 6. Product Classification Consumer product 1.  Convenience product •  Milk, bread, sugar 2.  Shopping product •  Clothing, electronics 3.  Specialty product •  Antiques, jewelry 4.  Unsought product •  Snowshoes, fire extinguisher Industrial product 1.  Expense items •  Coffee bean, vegetable oil 2.  Capital items •  Computer, building 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 6
  7. 7. Product Mix 1.  Width •  Jumlah lini produk 2.  Length •  Jumlah produk 3.  Depth •  Variasi dalam 1 lini produk 4.  Consistency •  Hubungan antar lini produk 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 7
  8. 8. Product Identification 1.  Branding •  Attribute, benefit, value, culture, personality, consumer perception •  National brand, licensed brand, private brand 2.  Packaging •  Package: Primary, Secondary, Shipping (Tertiary) •  Customer Experience + Promotion 3.  Labelling •  Identity, classification, information, promotion 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 8
  9. 9. New Product Development 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 9 Product ideas Screening Concept testing Business analysis Prototyping Product & market test Commercialization 1.  Product extension 2.  Product adaptation 3.  Reintroduction Alternatives:
  10. 10. Product Life Cycle ! 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 10 1 2 3 4
  11. 11. Strategy on PLC   Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Product Market development Meningkatkan pangsa pasar Menjaga pangsa pasar Efisiensi produksi Price Tinggi Menengah ≤ Harga pesaing Low margin Promotion Perkenalan produk Mass market, fitur, brand Brand, benefit, loyalitas Loyalitas Place Selected outlet Membangun jaringan outlet Memperbesar jaringan distribusi Seleksi jaringan distribusi 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 11
  12. 12. People don’t buy what they need. They buy what they want. Good marketers tell a story.
  13. 13. Price EKMA4111 Pengantar Bisnis
  14. 14. Pricing Factor 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 14 Faktor penentu harga Target keuntungan Volume penjualan Kompetisi Pangsa pasar Persepsi publik
  15. 15. ! Break Even Point Break-Even Analysis •  Total Cost (TC) = Fixed Cost (FC) + Variable Cost (VC) •  Total Revenue (TR) = Price x Volume-of-Sales •  BEP if Volume-of-Sales = Q 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 15
  16. 16. Pricing Strategy •  Cost-based Pricing •  Competitive Pricing •  Penetrating Pricing •  Demand-based Pricing •  Price Leadership •  Low Margin, High Volume •  Price Skimming •  Price Lining •  Psychological Pricing •  Discounting 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 16
  17. 17. Pricing Strategy Cost-based Pricing •  Penentuan harga berdasarkan biaya produksi (markup pricing) •  Average Cost (AC) = Average Fixed Cost (AFC) + Average Variable Cost (AVC) •  Sale Price per Unit = Average Cost (AC) + Profit Margin 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 17 !
  18. 18. Pricing Strategy Competitive Pricing •  Penentuan harga berdasarkan harga kompetitor •  Biasanya diterapkan oleh bisnis yang menjual barang/jasa yang sama •  Produk sudah memasuki masa Maturity atau Decline 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 18 !
  19. 19. Pricing Strategy Penetrating Pricing •  Produk ada di masa Introductory – biasanya dilakukan oleh non-premium •  Harga rendah untuk memaksimalkan Volume Penjualan •  Goal → Market Share + Economies of Scale 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 19 !
  20. 20. Pricing Strategy Demand-based Pricing (Price Discrimination) •  Penentuan harga berdasarkan jumlah permintaan •  Yield Management → penentuan harga berdasarkan perilaku konsumen •  Price Discrimination → harga yang berbeda untuk produk yang sama 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 20
  21. 21. Pricing Strategy Price Leadership •  Perusahaan yang dominan (market leader) bisa mengatur harga lebih leluasa •  Biasanya dilakukan pada industri yang sifatnya oligopoli 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 21
  22. 22. Pricing Strategy Low Margin, High Volume •  Menjual barang dengan harga serendah-rendahnya untuk mendapatkan volumen penjualan setinggi-tingginya 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 22
  23. 23. Pricing Strategy Price Skimming •  Menetapkan harga tinggi untuk sementara, lalu menurunkannya seiring waktu •  Goal → Menutup sunk cost secepat mungkin, sebelum ada kompetisi •  Biasanya dilakukan oleh produk premium atau first-mover 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 23 ! Premium / First-Mover
  24. 24. Pricing Strategy Price Lining (product line pricing) •  Penetapan harga dengan menawarkan beberapa kategori produk 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 24
  25. 25. Pricing Strategy Psychological Pricing •  Konsumen tidak selalu berpikiran rasional ketika melakukan pembelian •  Odd-Even Pricing → $1.99 lebih dekat ke $1-an daripada $2 •  Decoy Pricing → konsumen berubah pikiran ketika ada pilihan yang asimestris 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 25 68% 32% 16% 84% 0%
  26. 26. Pricing Strategy Discounting (Sales Promotion) •  Pengurangan harga untuk menstimulasi penjualan dalam jangka pendek •  Risiko: penurunan brand image & baseline price dalam jangka panjang 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 26
  27. 27. No one ever succeeds without the help of others. – Jay Abraham
  28. 28. Place (Distribution) EKMA4111 Pengantar Bisnis
  29. 29. Distribution Factor 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 29 Faktor penentu distribusi Target pasar Sifat produk Biaya distribusi Jaringan penjualan In-house distribution Outsource distribution
  30. 30. Distribution Channel 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 30
  31. 31. Distribution Strategy 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 31 Intensive Distribution •  Kanal distribusi sebanyak mungkin •  Ex) Consumer goods Selective Distribution •  Wholesaler + beberapa retailer •  Ex) Alat-alat rumah tangga Exclusive Distribution •  Retailer tertentu di region tertentu •  Ex) Premium products Channel Leadership
  32. 32. Physical Distribution Mengapa perlu Inventory? •  Perbedaan pola produksi & pola konsumsi •  Pasar tersebar & permintaan besar •  Perbedaan waktu produksi & waktu konsumsi Dua macam Inventory: •  Gudang produksi •  Distribution center 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 32
  33. 33. Nothing influences people more than a recommendation from a trusted friend. – Mark Zuckerberg
  34. 34. Promotion EKMA4111 Pengantar Bisnis
  35. 35. Model of Communication 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 35
  36. 36. Promotion 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 36 Tujuan Promosi Product Positioning Value Added Sales Control Information
  37. 37. Promotion Strategy 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 37 Pull Strategy Menarik perhatian langsung kepada konsumen à Retailer akan meminta produk kepada penjual grosir Push Strategy Agresif memasarkan produk kepada wholesaler & retailer à Distributor membujuk konsumen untuk membeli produk
  38. 38. Promotion Mix Advertising Sales Promotion Public Relations Personal Selling Direct Marketing 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 38
  39. 39. ! Advertising Examples: •  Above-The-Line TV, Cinema, Radio, Print, Out-of-home (Billboard, Poster, Subway, ...) •  Below-The-Line Direct Mail, Flyer, Telemarketing, •  Internet Banner, Social Media, Search, Email Advantages: •  Public Presentation – informative & persuasive •  Pervasiveness – reinforcement & pencitraan •  Expressive •  Impersonality 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 39
  40. 40. Sales Promotion Examples: •  Consumer promotion •  Trade promotion •  Sales-force promotion Advantages: •  Communication •  Insentive •  Invitation 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 40
  41. 41. Public Relations Examples: •  Press release •  Product publicity •  Corporate communication •  Lobbying •  Counceling Advantages: •  Credibility •  Buyer off-guard •  Dramatization 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 41
  42. 42. Personal Selling Advantages: •  Personal interaction •  Relationship development •  Quick response 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 42
  43. 43. Direct Marketing Examples: •  Post mail •  Telemarketing •  SMS •  Email •  Mobile & Online ads Advantages: •  Non-public •  Customized •  Up-to-date •  Interactive 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 43
  44. 44. Customer Engagement 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 44
  45. 45. I M C Integrated Marketing Communications 2013.10.06 EKMA 4111 45
  46. 46. End of Module 7

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Modul 7: Keputusan Bauran Pemasaran EKMA 4111 Pengantar Bisnis Universitas Terbuka Korea

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