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  1. 1. Introduction to literature and combined arts<br />1<br />Medium and Elements of poetry<br />2<br />Uses of poetry<br />poetry<br />3<br />5<br />Short story<br />4<br />Overview<br />
  2. 2. literature<br />Is the art written works, and is not bound to published sources(although, under circumstances unpublished sources can be exempt).<br />2<br />
  3. 3. 3 main ingredients of literature<br />1.Poetry<br /> composition which is written in verse<br />3<br />
  4. 4. TREESby: Joyce Kilmer<br />I THINK that I shall never see<br />A poem lovely as a tree.<br />A tree whose hungry mouth is prest<br />Against the earth's sweet flowing breast;<br /> A tree that looks at God all day,<br />And lifts her leafy arms to pray;<br /> A tree that may in Summer wear<br />A nest of robins in her hair;<br /> Upon whose bosom snow has lain;<br />Who intimately lives with rain. <br />Poems are made by fools like me,<br />But only God can make a tree.<br />4<br />Example of poetry<br />
  5. 5. continuation<br />2.Prose<br /> is a kind of literature which does not adhere to any particular structure except for grammar.<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Example of a prose<br />Psalm 93<br /> The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with majesty;the Lord is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.The floods have lifted up, Oh Lord, the floods have lifted up their voice; the floods lift up their waves.The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea.Thy testimonies are very sure: holiness becomeththine house, O Lord, forever.<br />6<br />
  7. 7. continuation<br />3.Play<br /> consists of dialogues between the characters<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Examples of play<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Facts about literature<br />"The Mouse Trap," by Agatha Christie is the longest running play in history.<br />9<br />
  10. 10. continuation<br />All of the roles in Shakespeare's plays were originally acted by men and boys. In England at that time, it wasn't proper for females to appear on stage.<br />10<br />
  11. 11. continuation<br />All the proceeds earned from James M. Barrie's book "Peter Pan" were bequeathed to the Great Ormond Street Hospital for the Sick Children in London.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. continuation<br />Barbara Cartland<br />is the world's top-<br />selling author with <br />over 500 million<br />copies sold.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. continuation<br />Cinderella's slippers were originally made out of fur. The story was changed in the 1600s by a translator. It was the left shoe that Aschenputtel (Cinderella) lost at the stairway, when the prince tried to follow her.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. continuation<br />Frank Baum named "Oz" after a file cabinet in his office. One cabinet was labeled "A to N," and the second was labeled "O to Z."<br />Ghosts appear in 4 Shakespearian plays; Julius Caesar, Richard III, Hamlet and Macbeth.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. continuation<br />John Milton used<br /> 8,000 different <br /> words in his <br /> poem, "Paradise Lost."<br />15<br />
  16. 16. continuation<br />The Three Musketeers names are Porthos, Athos, and Aramis (D'Artagnan joins them later.)<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Medium of literature<br />Print. There is more literature printed on paper than made available in any other way. As a "for instance" here, the amount of e-books sold represented far less than 1% of the total book sales for the recent year. This has more to do with the way the book market works - the manner in which publishers and retailers do business.The number of electronic books is growing, and there is a lot of stuff (or at least excerpts) you can access online. When will another media surpass print for the dissemination of literature? It's anyone's guess.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Elements of literature<br />18<br />
  19. 19. character<br /> Character plays a pivotal role in a drama, novel, short story and all kinds of narratives.<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Types of character<br />Flat Characters<br /> Flat characters are minor characters in a work of fiction who do not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story<br />Static Characters<br /> When people say that a character is "static," they're referring to the fact that a character doesn't change. <br />Round Characters<br /> As a writer, your focus will be on developing your round characters. For readers, these are the characters you'll put the most effort into following and understanding.<br />20<br />
  21. 21. CONTINUATION<br />Dynamic Characters<br /> The opposite of static characters, dynamic characters will undergo some kind of change in the course of the story.<br />Stock Characters<br />  Stock characters draw from widely known cultural types for their characteristics and mannerisms, and are often used in parody. Every culture has its own set of stock characters. In Italian commedia dell'arte, for example, Scaramouche epitomized the unscrupulous and unreliable servant. In modern American culture, Thurber's Walter Mitty created the mold for the hen-pecked husband and dreamer.<br />21<br />
  22. 22. CONTINUATION<br />Protagonists<br /> he protagonist is the main character in a story, novel, drama, or other literary work, the character that the reader or audience empathizes with. <br />Antagonists<br />The antagonist in a work of fiction is the character who opposes the hero, orprotagonist. The antagonist, when there is one, provides the story's conflict.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. setting<br /> It refers to geographical location of the story, time period, daily lifestyle of the characters and climate of the story<br />23<br />
  24. 24. theme<br />contains the central idea of all literary forms such as a novel, drama and short story<br />24<br />
  25. 25. structure<br />In dramas, there are plots and subplots. These also are divided into acts and scenes. Here the contrasting subplots give the main plot an additional perspective. Likewise, novels have different chapters and scenes. <br />25<br />
  26. 26. Point of view<br />Point of view is another element of the narrative, through which a writer tells the story.<br />26<br />
  27. 27. conflict<br />Be it a short story, drama or novel, conflict is the essential element of all these literary forms. A plot becomes interesting and intriguing when it has its share of inbuilt conflict and twists. Conflict can be internal conflict or external. It can take place between two men, between the character and his psychology, between the character and circumstances or between character and society. <br />27<br />
  28. 28. Use of language or diction<br />A playwright exhibits the thoughts of characters through dialogue. "Dialogue" has come from the Greek word "dialogosa" which means "conversation". Shakespeare used this to portray the thoughts, emotions and feelings of the character. This also provides clues to their background and personalities. Diction also helps in advancing the plot. Greek philosophers like Aristotle used dialogue as the best way to instruct their students. <br />28<br />
  29. 29. foreshadowing<br />applied as hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the story.<br />29<br />
  30. 30. USES OF LITERATURE<br />30<br />
  31. 31. 1ST USE<br />Literature was a repository of knowledge<br />31<br />
  32. 32. 2ND USE<br />Teaches us more about psychology than the psychologists can<br />32<br />
  33. 33. 3RD USE<br />It mobilizes all our faculties of knowledge at once: not just the ability to analyze the outer world but our introspection and intuition as well.<br />33<br />
  34. 34. 4TH USE<br />Literature is the great school of knowledge<br />34<br />
  35. 35. 5TH USE<br />Literature is exercising all our ways of knowing at once<br />35<br />
  36. 36. 6TH USE<br />It presents us with the concrete and particular manifestations of universal truth.<br />36<br />
  37. 37. 7TH USE<br />Makes sense out of data of human experience<br />37<br />
  38. 38. Short story<br />38<br />
  39. 39. What is a short story?<br />A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose, often in narrative format.<br />39<br />
  40. 40. 5 important element of a short story<br />
  41. 41. 41<br />
  42. 42. 1st element<br />A character is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a short story or other literary work.<br />42<br />
  43. 43. 2nd element<br />The setting of a short story is the time and place in which it happens. Authors often use descriptions of landscape, scenery, buildings, seasons or weather to provide a strong sense of setting.<br />43<br />
  44. 44. 3rd element<br /> plot is a series of events and character actions that relate to the central conflict.<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Structure of a plot story<br />45<br />
  46. 46. 4th element<br />The conflict is a struggle between two people or things in a short story. The main character is usually on one side of the central conflict.<br />46<br />
  47. 47. 5th element<br />The theme is the central idea or belief in a short story.<br />47<br />
  48. 48. Kinds of a short story<br />
  49. 49. Ancient tales<br />It is the power of the utilization of the ancient form of the tale in the modern short story. <br />Italian writer Giovanni Verga'sThe She-Wolf (1880), and Chinese writer YehShao-Chun's Mrs. Li's Hair are remarkable examples.<br />
  50. 50. Fantasy<br />Fantasy stories are nothing but the fair combination of the old tales tradition and the supernatural details. <br />
  51. 51. Humor<br />These types of stories are meant for producing surprise and delight. You will see that the most famous humorous tales and fables were written by the Americans. <br />
  52. 52. Satire<br />The main purpose of satire is to attack the evils of society. There are writers who wrote stories of sober satire. <br />
  53. 53. Education Story<br />Such stories revolve around the education of the main character.<br />
  54. 54. History<br />History types deal with a life story or historical event. Welty's A Still Moment (a 1943 story about naturalist John James Audubon) is fine example of story dealing with history event.<br />
  55. 55. Local Color<br />These types of stories deal with the customs and traditions of rural and small-town life. <br />
  56. 56. Poetry<br />
  57. 57. Poetry<br />a making: a forming, creating, or the art of poetry, or a poem) is a form of literaryart in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning.<br />
  58. 58. 55 Types of Poetry<br />
  59. 59. ABC<br />Acrostic<br />Ballad<br />Ballade<br />Blank verse<br />Bio<br />Burlesque<br />Canzone<br />Carpe diem<br />Cinquain<br />Classicism<br />Concrete<br />Couplet<br />Dramatic monologue<br />
  60. 60. <ul><li>Elegy
  61. 61. Epic
  62. 62. Epigram
  63. 63. Epitaph
  64. 64. Epithalamium
  65. 65. Free verse
  66. 66. Found
  67. 67. Ghazal
  68. 68. Haiku
  69. 69. Horatian ode
  70. 70. Iambic pentameter
  71. 71. Idyll
  72. 72. Irregular ode
  73. 73. Italian sonnet</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Lay
  74. 74. Limerick
  75. 75. List
  76. 76. Lyric
  77. 77. Memoriam
  78. 78. stanza
  79. 79. Name
  80. 80. Narrative
  81. 81. Ode
  82. 82. Pastoral
  83. 83. Petrarchan
  84. 84. Pindaric ode
  85. 85. Quatrain
  86. 86. Rhyme
  87. 87. Rhyme royal</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Romanticism
  88. 88. Rondeau
  89. 89. Senryu
  90. 90. Sestina
  91. 91. Shakespearean
  92. 92. Shape
  93. 93. Sonnet
  94. 94. Sound
  95. 95. Tanka
  96. 96. TerzaRima
  97. 97. Verse
  98. 98. Villanelle
  99. 99. Visual</li></li></ul><li>The endthank youprepared by group 3<br />63<br />
  100. 100. workshop<br />Role playing<br />64<br />Role playing<br />