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Reading and Writing

  1. Showing unity in sentences
  2. Sarah is the president of the student Council and she belongs to section kindness.
  3. A. Sarah, who belongs to section Kindness, is the president of the Student Council.
  4. B. Sarah is the President of the Student council. She belongs to section Kindness.
  5. 1. Vary Sentence Beginnings a.Begin with a prepositional phrase. Example: Lolit went to the grocery after watching a movie .
  6. Varied Version After watching a movie, Lolit went to the grocery.
  7. b. Begin with a single-word modifier. Example: Leah Happily received her reward. Varied version: Happily, Leah received her reward.
  8. c. Begin with a dependent clause. Example: He cleaned the porch after the rain has stopped. Varied Version: After the rain has stopped, he clean the porch.
  9. d. Begin the sentence with a verbal phrase Example: Dorina suddenly remembered her mother’s advice as she was mulling over her problem. Varied Version: Mulling over her problem, Dorina suddenly remembered her mother’s advice.
  10. e. Begin with a transposed appositive. Example: “I walked with Heroes,” Gen. Carlos P. Romulo’s autobiography, talks about how he had served several presidents of the Philippines. Varied Version: Gen. Carlos P. Romulo’s autobiography, “I walked with Heroes,” talks about how he had served several presidents of the Philippines.
  11. 2. Vary the Lengths of the Sentences Remember to use a variety of short, long, and average sentences to keep your readers interested.
  12. 3. Do not overuse the words and and so. Use a variety of sentence structure. Example: We had to work on our project at school last Saturday morning, and I knew that it would be difficult to get up early on Saturday, so I went to my bed early, and still I overslept, so I could have stayed up late on Friday night.
  13. Varied Version: Because we had to work on our project at school last Saturday morning, I went to bed early on Friday night knowing that it would be difficult to get up early on Saturday. Nevertheless, I could have stayed up late on Friday, for I overslept the next morning.
  14. 4. Vary types of sentences. Using inverted sentences once in a while could add variety to a group of sentences in natural order. Example: All through the forest ran the small wild animals.
  15. 5. Use balanced sentences. Example: I like indoor activities; he likes outdoor fun. Learn to read, and read to learn.
  16. 6. Use elliptical sentences, especially when writing about dialogues. Example: Hurry up! Follow me! Where? Outside Why? Dina’s Coming.
  17. 7. Use the position of words in a sentence to gain emphasis and variety Example: The weather is certainly too hot for a hiking activity today. Varied version: Certainly, the weather is too hot for a hiking activity today
  18. 8. Use the principle of climax in a sentence. Example: The money that was collected helped pay for her rent, buy some groceries, and pay for her operation to restore her sight.
  19. Exercise A. Rewrite the following to attain unity. 1.The captain of our team is a Senior Student, and his name is Ramonchito. 2.He was leaving the classroom and he heard his name being called.
  20. 3. Mr. Delos Santos attended the national conference, and he is the principal of our school. 4. My brother attends college at the University of the East, and he is eighteen years old. 5. Last week, I read Julius Caesar again, and it was written by William Shakespeare
  21. B. Rewrite the following sentences to vary their beginning, according to the given directions in the parenthesis. 1.We heard a loud thunderclap during the show. (begin with a prepositional phrase) 2. The boy rushed excitedly to his father. (begin with a single-word modifier)
  22. 3. His baby brother could not stop crying, until Mother gave him his feeding bottle.(begin with a dependent clause) 4. A blue car passed by while I was standing by the gate.(begin with a verbal phrase) 5. Mali, the famous elephant, needs special care.(begin with a transposed appositive)
  23. C. Rewrite the following in paragraph from using a variety of sentences 1.Christina arranged the flowers in a tall ceramic vase; she put the long stemmed roses first; then she added the yellow chrysanthemums, then she inserted a few orchid stems; and lastly she finished the arrangement with a sprinkling of baby’s breaths here and there.
  24. 2. Dorina walked in hurried steps; a man had been following her since she stepped out of the LRT station; her heart was beating faster and faster; her hands were trembling; she couldn’t imagine what would have happen to her if the man would suddenly attack her.
  25. The Narrative, Descriptive, and Definition Essays
  26. Narrative Essay It tells a story, usually from the experiences and points of view of the writer. Narrative essays may use the conventions of storytelling; setting, character, plot and climax, which are filled with details to explain carefully and support a broader idea.
  27. Example: “The death of Grandmother Zabielska was the first one experienced by the children. Both their grandfathers had died long before. None of the children remembered them. She was the first person whom they knew, and whom they lived with. For that reason, her end came for them a kind of model death. It also explains how the seventy-second year, the age at which she died, came to mark them for a close in human life, just as the red line on the thermometer points to the normal temperature. The always believed that age died too young, while every additional year was a gift.”
  28. Descriptive Essay A genre of essay that describes a person, object, place, emotion, experience, situation, etc. Using illustrative language, the writer attempts to paint a vivid picture to its readers, set a certain tone, and create a desired mood.
  29. Example: A friend of mine is an herbalist who manage to keep one foot in the 16th century and the other in the 21st without ever missing a beat. Jeri knows, respects, and honors the mystery, magic, and the wonder of nature, which she refers to as “Mother.” When she collects herbs in the wild to create medicinals for herself, gathering the good that Mother has so generously bestowed on her, she becomes a willing participant in her own healing, her search for wholeness. When she chooses dill, tarragon, or rosemary to flavor a meal she’s cooking, she cooking, she contributes to her own nourishment, well-being, and pleasure. Her love of herbs is a tangible expression of self-nurturance.
  30. Definition Essay It aims to share a certain understanding about an idea. The point of this essay is to provide the readers a new and different way of looking at things. It provides an opportunity to show how some people’s sense of something may be inadequate or faulty, and that there could be a better understanding or idea to consider.
  31. Choose one of the topics suggested below and express your thoughts freely. A.A narrative essay about your most heart- breaking experience. B.A descriptive essay describing a most unusual acquaintance. C.A definition essay defining your understanding of the word compassion.
  32. Techniques in Selecting and Organizing Information.
  33. Developing an Outline
  34. Outline It is a system that helps you see whether your ideas connect well with one another, whether you have sufficient evidence to support points that you want to emphasize, and what order of ideas will work best in your essay or speech.
  35. A formal outline has four (4) uses. 1.Helps the writer to clarify his purpose and to organize his material to achieve that purpose. 2.Offers a convenient way of testing the proposed organization of an essay.
  36. Tips on how to create an outline 1. Identify the topic- What is it that you really want to write or talk about. 2. Identify the main categories- Ask yourself what are the main points that you want to emphasize. 3. Create the sub-categories- After identifying your main categories, think of sub-categories that will support each main point or idea.
  38. Topic Outline It is a systematic arrangement that consists of words and short phrases. It is useful when you want to arrange your ideas hierarchically to show which are the main points and which are the sub-points.
  39. TOPIC OUTLINE Thesis Statement Entrepreneurship is the answer to the worsening unemployment problem among our graduates. 1. What Entrepreneurship Offers A. The problem of unemployment. B. Entrepreneurship defined C. Benefits of Entrepreneurship D. Qualities of a Good Entrepreneur E. Successful Entrepreneur 2. Opportunities for Entrepreneurship A. Food Business B. Craft Business C. Services
  40. Sentence Outline It functions like a topic outline. However, instead of simplify identifying your main and sub-points using words and short phrases, sentences are used to express specific and complex details
  41. SENTENCE OUTLINE Thesis Statement Entrepreneurship is the answer to the worsening unemployment problem among our graduates. I. Entrepreneurship is a possible solution to the ever-growing number of unemployed in our country. A. Every year, thousand of new graduates add to the long list of the unemployed. B. Entrepreneurship is the science of using capital, human, and material resources to earn profits. C. Aside from the person himself, he can still hire other persons so they will get employed. D. A good entrepreneur has to be patient, resourceful, and people friendly. E. There are many successful entrepreneurs whose success stories can provide information.
  42. II. One can seek and analyze the opportunities in the environment that can generate income. A. One can engage in various types of food business. B. One can buy-and-sell merchandise; or create- and-sell merchandise. C. If not, one can also render services to earn money.
  44. THESIS It is the assertion of the writer or the speaker about a certain topic. It declares something that must be proven, supported, or explained. It is a debatable or arguable claim.
  46. 1. It must be brief A thesis statement must be short, preferably about one or two sentences in length. Just emphasize your main argument.
  47. 2. It must be specific and precise. A thesis statement should be exact, not broad, and should draw only one interpretation. Abstract and vague statements can be problematic and may lead to confusion.
  48. 3. It must be restricted. It must limit the scope of the paper or speech to what can be discussed in detail only within the expected length.
  49. 4. It must be unified. Your statement must express only one idea and must lead to one strong point. Avoid listing several points without showing their connection.
  50. 5. It must be argumentative. A thesis statement interpret to make an assertion and present an argument. It must take a stand and not merely restate the topic.
  51. 6. It must be relevant. The thesis must be relevant or important to the topic or matter at hand.
  52. 7. It must be interesting. By reading or listening to your thesis statement, the audience decide whether they would pay attention to the rest of your statements or not. Thus, it must immediately capture the interest of your audience or reader.
  53. 8. It must be visible. It must be easily spotted and not hidden away from the readers. Usually, it is stated at the introductory paragraph- but not always.
  54. Consider the following statement. 1. The virus can be considered as the worst thing that can happen to your computer system. Therefore, you must devise ways to prevent the attack of these harmful elements.
  55. 2. The computer viruses can do a great damage to your computer system. This can be avoided by applying three unique mechanisms; self-replication, self-abstraction, and encryption.
  57. The Rhetorical Appeal Rhetoric – the art of persuasion, either in writing or in speaking. In order to be an effective writer or speaker, one must understand the three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
  58. Ethos ( Ethical Appeal) It is where the “rhetor” is perceived by the audience as a credible or not. Such credibility may come from the speaker’s or writer’s character education, expertise, and experience.
  59. Pathos (Pathetic Appeal) On the other hand, it is the appeal to emotions. It is a way of convincing or persuading the audience by evoking sympathy and other feelings such as sadness, pity, envy, indignation, etc.
  60. Logos (Logical Appeal) It is the use of logical arguments. Here, the speaker or writer persuades the audience by offering evidence or making a reasonable claim.
  61. How to Structure the Outline
  62. Parallelism It is the similarity of structure in the series of related phrases, words, and clauses.
  63. A.Ask a question B.Formulating a hypothesis C.Test the hypothesis D.Analysing the result
  64. A.Ask a question B.Formulate a hypothesis C.Test the hypothesis D.Analyze the result
  65. Coordination Enables the writer or speaker to maintain a consistent and coherent document. To follow this principle, you must arrange ideas according to importance or significance.
  66. A.Winter Sports B.Skiing C.Summer Sports D.Surfing
  67. A.Winter Sports 1.Skiing 2.Skating B. Summer Sports 1. Swimming 2. Surfing
  68. Subordination It is a principle in which ideas are arranged according to their level of significance. To indicate such order, the outline uses major and minor headings.
  69. A.Summer Sports 1.Swimming a. Procedure b. Benefits c. Risks 2. Surfing a. Procedure b. Benefits c. Risks
  70. Division It is separating or partitioning ideas into groups. To observe this principle, you must be consistent in using just one basis on how you will divide your ideas.
  71. Exercise A.The following is a list of possible topics for research. Choose any two of these subjects; and prepare a manageable outline using the principles of structuring the outline. movies songs athletics TV Programs universal business opportunities online games courses in college
  72. Writing Memoirs Memoir or memoire is a French word which means “memory” or “reminiscence.” it is a factual account of a person’s life. Although it usually falls under the category of autobiography, it is commonly used as its sub-genre.
  73. Autobiography It is a personal account of an individual’s life, while a biography is someone’s life story written by another person.
  74. Patterns of Development in Writing Across Disciplines
  75. A. Narration We follow this when we want to tell a story using the elements of a narrative text. When you tell a news story, you should narrate only the facts. You should not give opinions.
  76. B. Description The manner of expression using this style may vary, though generally it follows the pattern of statement, explanation, and example.
  77. C. Definition Just like description, the maximum components of the definition pattern are statement of thesis, explanation of the thesis, and examples of the thesis. But there are some variations.
  78. D. Exemplification and Clarification The most general statement in the essay usually comes first. The next step is to make its meaning more specific by explaining or clarifying it.
  79. E. Comparison and Contrast Sometimes a subject can best be explained if compared with another subject to which the reader is more familiar. Aside from comparison, the use of contrast may also help in explanation.
  80. F. Causes and Effects When the thesis states an effect of some cause, the best explanation is usually one that shows how the effect came about.
  81. G. Problems and Solution In developing a written text with this pattern, the problems are normally cited at the beginning; and the author presents a discussion of his proposed solution or solutions.
  82. Characteristics of a Well-written Text
  83. A. Completeness The written text must be able to achieve its purpose. In the case of an essay, an effective essay explicitly explains its thesis- complete with supporting details.
  84. B. Unity A unified paragraph makes a clear reading. The discussion of the topic starts with the beginning sentence and ends with the last. A unified paragraph sticks to the purpose for which it is written.
  85. C. Orderly Movement of Ideas. The orderly movement of ideas refer to the relationships of the sentences in the paragraph. There are five types of orderly relationships of the sentence.
  86. 1. Time or Chronological Relationships Events are presented in the natural order by which they occur, like --- first, second, next, and so on until the last.
  87. 2. Space Relationships This is very effective when reporting an observation. The description shows movement or action – from a designated beginning to a logical or natural progression.
  88. 3. Particular to General One example is the presentation of evidences or proofs which lead to a conclusion or a general statement. The particular details are enumerated before the pronouncement of the thesis.
  89. 4. General to Particular This is the opposite of the earlier one mentioned. The writer begins with a general statement, and then moves on the details or proofs of the statement.
  90. 5. Cause-Effect Relationships The writer may state the causes first, and then the subsequent effects of the incident. Or, the writer may enumerate first all the events that happened– and then, collate them all to point towards the underlying cause.
  91. D. Coherence and Cohesion Cohesion is the connection of the sentences and ideas in you text. Coherence, on the other hand, is the overall understandability of what you say or write. It refers to the logic of ideas and how such text is presented rather than the language used to explain them.
  92. Anaphoric and Cataphoric References
  93. Anaphoric Reference It is a reference to something that has already been mentioned in the text or speech. An example of this refers to the use of pronouns which refer to a previously mentioned noun.
  94. Example: Buddhists do not worship any God. They do not worship Buddha but perceive him as someone who has attained what they are also striving to attain, Nirvana. They follow a set of principles to become more self- disciplined and live their lives the way Buddha did.
  95. Cataphoric Reference It is a reference to ideas or elements introduced later in the next or speech.
  96. Example They are self-disciplined and practice dedicated meditation. These people are known as Buddhists.
  97. Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy
  98. A. Claim of Fact It asserts the existence of something based on facts and data. It also attempts to define, classify, and make inferences. Factual claims are generally “objective” and proofs used require reliable authority, accurate and recent data, and clearly defined terms.
  99. Example: “…according to the Internet World statistics, there are approximately 2, 267, 233, 742 Internet users worldwide in 2012…”
  100. Another example “…today, many people use the Internet as their main source of entertainment and socialization…”
  101. Example “… You can bet that many of those Internet users only go online to heck their Facebook accounts…”
  102. B. Claim of Value It attempts to prove that there are things that are more or less valuable and desirable. It involves judgements, calculation, and appraisals. In this type of claim, standards of evaluation must be well established, and abstract values must be clarified through examples.
  103. Examples 1. “This (Facebook) has also been a very effective way to advertise business pursuits, look for job opportunities, validate the credibility of a certain individual or organization, be informed about important world phenomenon, search for great leisure places, find a great educational opportunity and many more.”
  104. Examples 2. “This has been one of the most fastest ways to chat and communicate with people all over the world.”
  105. They may also be expressed in the negative. “… Cyberbullying and prostitution have caused many people pain and suffering. Sometimes, opportunities for genuine face to face interaction are sacrificed, and precious time is wasted.”
  106. C. Claim of Policy Asserts that certain policies must be instituted as solutions to particular problems. It usually entails sub claims of fact and value. Here, the proposed action must be clear and well-justified. The plan must also be workable and the benefits of the proposition must
  107. Examples 1. “… in the end, it is till up to us whether to use social media to our advantage or allow it to destroy us … “
  108. Example 2. “…Pornography, cyberbullying, and other online scams will not affect us if we do not allow it to enter into our online lives…”
  109. B. Hypertext and Hypermedia Hypertext is a non-linear way to present information and is usually accomplished using “links”. Such links help the readers navigate further information about the topic being discussed and may also lead to other links that can direct the readers to various options.
  110. Hypermedia Links are not limited to text or documents but may also incorporate other forms of multimedia such as pictures, sounds and videos that could stimulate more senses.