b. Begin with a single-word modifier.
Leah Happily received her reward.
Happily, Leah received her reward.
c. Begin with a dependent clause.
He cleaned the porch after the rain
After the rain has stopped, he clean
d. Begin the sentence with a verbal phrase
Dorina suddenly remembered her mother’s
advice as she was mulling over her problem.
Mulling over her problem, Dorina suddenly
remembered her mother’s advice.
e. Begin with a transposed appositive.
“I walked with Heroes,” Gen. Carlos P. Romulo’s
autobiography, talks about how he had served
several presidents of the Philippines.
Gen. Carlos P. Romulo’s autobiography, “I
walked with Heroes,” talks about how he had
served several presidents of the Philippines.
2. Vary the Lengths of the Sentences
Remember to use a variety of
short, long, and average
sentences to keep your readers
3. Do not overuse the words and and so.
Use a variety of sentence structure.
We had to work on our project at school last
Saturday morning, and I knew that it would be
difficult to get up early on Saturday, so I went to
my bed early, and still I overslept, so I could
have stayed up late on Friday night.
Because we had to work on our project at
school last Saturday morning, I went to bed
early on Friday night knowing that it would be
difficult to get up early on Saturday.
Nevertheless, I could have stayed up late on
Friday, for I overslept the next morning.
4. Vary types of sentences. Using inverted
sentences once in a while could add variety
to a group of sentences in natural order.
All through the forest ran the small wild
5. Use balanced sentences.
I like indoor activities; he likes outdoor
Learn to read, and read to learn.
6. Use elliptical sentences, especially
when writing about dialogues.
Hurry up! Follow me!
7. Use the position of words in a sentence
to gain emphasis and variety
The weather is certainly too hot for a
hiking activity today.
Certainly, the weather is too hot for
a hiking activity today
8. Use the principle of climax in a
The money that was collected
helped pay for her rent, buy some
groceries, and pay for her operation
to restore her sight.
A. Rewrite the following to attain unity.
1.The captain of our team is a Senior
Student, and his name is Ramonchito.
2.He was leaving the classroom and he
heard his name being called.
3. Mr. Delos Santos attended the national
conference, and he is the principal of our
4. My brother attends college at the University
of the East, and he is eighteen years old.
5. Last week, I read Julius Caesar again, and
it was written by William Shakespeare
B. Rewrite the following sentences to vary their
beginning, according to the given directions in the
1.We heard a loud thunderclap during
(begin with a prepositional phrase)
2. The boy rushed excitedly to his
(begin with a single-word modifier)
3. His baby brother could not stop crying, until
Mother gave him his feeding bottle.(begin with a
4. A blue car passed by while I was standing
by the gate.(begin with a verbal phrase)
5. Mali, the famous elephant, needs special
care.(begin with a transposed appositive)
C. Rewrite the following in paragraph from
using a variety of sentences
1.Christina arranged the flowers in a tall
ceramic vase; she put the long stemmed
roses first; then she added the yellow
chrysanthemums, then she inserted a few
orchid stems; and lastly she finished the
arrangement with a sprinkling of baby’s
breaths here and there.
2. Dorina walked in hurried steps; a man
had been following her since she
stepped out of the LRT station; her heart
was beating faster and faster; her hands
were trembling; she couldn’t imagine
what would have happen to her if the
man would suddenly attack her.
It tells a story, usually from the experiences
and points of view of the writer. Narrative
essays may use the conventions of
storytelling; setting, character, plot and
climax, which are filled with details to explain
carefully and support a broader idea.
“The death of Grandmother Zabielska was the first one
experienced by the children. Both their grandfathers had died
long before. None of the children remembered them. She was
the first person whom they knew, and whom they lived with.
For that reason, her end came for them a kind of model death.
It also explains how the seventy-second year, the age at which
she died, came to mark them for a close in human life, just as
the red line on the thermometer points to the normal
temperature. The always believed that age died too young,
while every additional year was a gift.”
A genre of essay that describes a
person, object, place, emotion,
experience, situation, etc. Using
illustrative language, the writer attempts
to paint a vivid picture to its readers, set
a certain tone, and create a desired
A friend of mine is an herbalist who manage to keep one foot in
the 16th century and the other in the 21st without ever missing a
beat. Jeri knows, respects, and honors the mystery, magic, and
the wonder of nature, which she refers to as “Mother.” When
she collects herbs in the wild to create medicinals for herself,
gathering the good that Mother has so generously bestowed on
her, she becomes a willing participant in her own healing, her
search for wholeness. When she chooses dill, tarragon, or
rosemary to flavor a meal she’s cooking, she cooking, she
contributes to her own nourishment, well-being, and pleasure.
Her love of herbs is a tangible expression of self-nurturance.
It aims to share a certain understanding
about an idea. The point of this essay is to
provide the readers a new and different way
of looking at things. It provides an opportunity
to show how some people’s sense of
something may be inadequate or faulty, and
that there could be a better understanding or
idea to consider.
Choose one of the topics suggested below and express
your thoughts freely.
A.A narrative essay about your most heart-
B.A descriptive essay describing a most
C.A definition essay defining your
understanding of the word compassion.
It is a system that helps you see whether
your ideas connect well with one another,
whether you have sufficient evidence to
support points that you want to
emphasize, and what order of ideas will
work best in your essay or speech.
A formal outline has four (4) uses.
1.Helps the writer to clarify his purpose and
to organize his material to achieve that
2.Offers a convenient way of testing the
proposed organization of an essay.
Tips on how to create an outline
1. Identify the topic- What is it that you really
want to write or talk about.
2. Identify the main categories- Ask yourself
what are the main points that you want to
3. Create the sub-categories- After identifying
your main categories, think of sub-categories that
will support each main point or idea.
It is a systematic arrangement that
consists of words and short phrases.
It is useful when you want to arrange
your ideas hierarchically to show
which are the main points and which
are the sub-points.
Entrepreneurship is the answer to the worsening unemployment
problem among our graduates.
1. What Entrepreneurship Offers
A. The problem of unemployment.
B. Entrepreneurship defined
C. Benefits of Entrepreneurship
D. Qualities of a Good Entrepreneur
E. Successful Entrepreneur
2. Opportunities for Entrepreneurship
A. Food Business
B. Craft Business
It functions like a topic outline.
However, instead of simplify
identifying your main and sub-points
using words and short phrases,
sentences are used to express
specific and complex details
Entrepreneurship is the answer to the worsening unemployment
problem among our graduates.
I. Entrepreneurship is a possible solution to the ever-growing number of
unemployed in our country.
A. Every year, thousand of new graduates add to the long list of the unemployed.
B. Entrepreneurship is the science of using capital, human, and material resources to
C. Aside from the person himself, he can still hire other persons so they will get
D. A good entrepreneur has to be patient, resourceful, and people friendly.
E. There are many successful entrepreneurs whose success stories can provide
II. One can seek and analyze the opportunities in
the environment that can generate income.
A. One can engage in various types of food
B. One can buy-and-sell merchandise; or
create- and-sell merchandise.
C. If not, one can also render services to earn
1. It must be brief
A thesis statement must be
short, preferably about one or two
sentences in length. Just
emphasize your main argument.
2. It must be specific and precise.
A thesis statement should be exact,
not broad, and should draw only one
interpretation. Abstract and vague
statements can be problematic and
may lead to confusion.
3. It must be restricted.
It must limit the scope of the
paper or speech to what can
be discussed in detail only
within the expected length.
4. It must be unified.
Your statement must express
only one idea and must lead to
one strong point. Avoid listing
several points without showing
5. It must be argumentative.
A thesis statement interpret to
make an assertion and present
an argument. It must take a stand
and not merely restate the topic.
6. It must be relevant.
The thesis must be
relevant or important to the
topic or matter at hand.
7. It must be interesting.
By reading or listening to your thesis
statement, the audience decide
whether they would pay attention to
the rest of your statements or not.
Thus, it must immediately capture
the interest of your audience or
8. It must be visible.
It must be easily spotted and not
hidden away from the readers.
Usually, it is stated at the
introductory paragraph- but not
Consider the following statement.
1. The virus can be considered as
the worst thing that can happen to
your computer system. Therefore,
you must devise ways to prevent the
attack of these harmful elements.
2. The computer viruses can do a
great damage to your computer
system. This can be avoided by
applying three unique
self-abstraction, and encryption.
The Rhetorical Appeal
Rhetoric – the art of persuasion,
either in writing or in speaking. In
order to be an effective writer or
speaker, one must understand
the three main forms of rhetoric:
Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
Ethos ( Ethical Appeal)
It is where the “rhetor” is perceived
by the audience as a credible or not.
Such credibility may come from the
speaker’s or writer’s character
education, expertise, and
Pathos (Pathetic Appeal)
On the other hand, it is the appeal to
emotions. It is a way of convincing or
persuading the audience by evoking
sympathy and other feelings such as
sadness, pity, envy, indignation, etc.
Logos (Logical Appeal)
It is the use of logical arguments.
Here, the speaker or writer
persuades the audience by
offering evidence or making a
It is separating or partitioning
ideas into groups. To observe this
principle, you must be consistent
in using just one basis on how
you will divide your ideas.
A.The following is a list of possible topics for
research. Choose any two of these subjects; and
prepare a manageable outline using the principles
of structuring the outline.
athletics TV Programs
universal business opportunities
online games courses in college
Memoir or memoire is a French word
which means “memory” or
“reminiscence.” it is a factual account of
a person’s life. Although it usually falls
under the category of autobiography, it is
commonly used as its sub-genre.
It is a personal account of an
individual’s life, while a biography
is someone’s life story written by
E. Comparison and Contrast
Sometimes a subject can best be
explained if compared with another
subject to which the reader is more
familiar. Aside from comparison, the
use of contrast may also help in
F. Causes and Effects
When the thesis states an effect
of some cause, the best
explanation is usually one that
shows how the effect came
G. Problems and Solution
In developing a written text with this
pattern, the problems are normally
cited at the beginning; and the
author presents a discussion of his
proposed solution or solutions.
The written text must be able to
achieve its purpose. In the case
of an essay, an effective essay
explicitly explains its thesis-
complete with supporting details.
A unified paragraph makes a clear
reading. The discussion of the topic
starts with the beginning sentence
and ends with the last. A unified
paragraph sticks to the purpose for
which it is written.
C. Orderly Movement of Ideas.
The orderly movement of ideas
refer to the relationships of the
sentences in the paragraph.
There are five types of orderly
relationships of the sentence.
1. Time or Chronological
Events are presented in the
natural order by which they occur,
like --- first, second, next, and so
on until the last.
2. Space Relationships
This is very effective when reporting
an observation. The description
shows movement or action – from a
designated beginning to a logical or
3. Particular to General
One example is the presentation of
evidences or proofs which lead to a
conclusion or a general statement.
The particular details are
enumerated before the
pronouncement of the thesis.
4. General to Particular
This is the opposite of the earlier
one mentioned. The writer begins
with a general statement, and
then moves on the details or
proofs of the statement.
5. Cause-Effect Relationships
The writer may state the causes first,
and then the subsequent effects of the
incident. Or, the writer may enumerate
first all the events that happened– and
then, collate them all to point towards the
D. Coherence and Cohesion
Cohesion is the connection of the
sentences and ideas in you text.
Coherence, on the other hand, is the
overall understandability of what you say
or write. It refers to the logic of ideas and
how such text is presented rather than
the language used to explain them.
It is a reference to something that
has already been mentioned in the
text or speech. An example of this
refers to the use of pronouns which
refer to a previously mentioned
Buddhists do not worship any God.
They do not worship Buddha but
perceive him as someone who has
attained what they are also striving to
attain, Nirvana. They follow a set of
principles to become more self-
disciplined and live their lives the way
A. Claim of Fact
It asserts the existence of something
based on facts and data. It also attempts
to define, classify, and make inferences.
Factual claims are generally “objective”
and proofs used require reliable authority,
accurate and recent data, and clearly
“… You can bet that many of
those Internet users only go
online to heck their Facebook
B. Claim of Value
It attempts to prove that there are things
that are more or less valuable and
desirable. It involves judgements,
calculation, and appraisals. In this type of
claim, standards of evaluation must be
well established, and abstract values must
be clarified through examples.
1. “This (Facebook) has also been a very
effective way to advertise business pursuits,
look for job opportunities, validate the
credibility of a certain individual or
organization, be informed about important
world phenomenon, search for great leisure
places, find a great educational opportunity
and many more.”
2. “This has been one of the
most fastest ways to chat and
communicate with people all
over the world.”
They may also be expressed in the
“… Cyberbullying and prostitution have
caused many people pain and suffering.
Sometimes, opportunities for genuine
face to face interaction are sacrificed,
and precious time is wasted.”
C. Claim of Policy
Asserts that certain policies must be
instituted as solutions to particular
problems. It usually entails sub claims of
fact and value. Here, the proposed action
must be clear and well-justified. The plan
must also be workable and the benefits of
the proposition must
1. “… in the end, it is till up
to us whether to use social
media to our advantage or
allow it to destroy us … “
B. Hypertext and Hypermedia
Hypertext is a non-linear way to present
information and is usually accomplished
using “links”. Such links help the readers
navigate further information about the topic
being discussed and may also lead to
other links that can direct the readers to
Links are not limited to text or
documents but may also
incorporate other forms of
multimedia such as pictures,
sounds and videos that could
stimulate more senses.