1. Importance of quality seeds in crop production, generation system of seed
multiplication in India and agencies involved in seed production
Special Officer (Seeds)
Seed Centre, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003
The focus of the Second Green Revolution or the so called "Evergreen Revolution" is on
ensuring food and nutritional security to the Indian population especially below poverty line
population which constitutes around 28% of the Indian population. With practically no more land
to farm and some depletion of the agricultural land, this miracle is not easy to achieve. Science
and technology have to play a big role. High productive seeds, private sector involvement and
expenditure on long stalled irrigation schemes are the keys to achieving higher production.
Hence a Second Green Revolution that maximizes productivity and generates income and
employment opportunities for the rural population is the need of the hour. As the most critical of
all farm inputs in agricultural production, SEED holds the key for increased productivity. Coupled
with biotechnology and other crop improvement technologies, seeds offer tremendous
opportunity for improving the productivity of Indian Agriculture.
What is a seed?
Botanically, seed is a mature ovule consisting of an embryonic plant, together with a
store of food, all surrounded by a protective coat.
Agriculturally, seed is an unit of dispersal. It is used to raise the crop.
Importance of seed
Seed is the vital input in crop production because through seed only the investment
made on other inputs like pesticide, fertilizer, irrigation and crop maintenance can be realized.
The seed required for raising the crop is quite small and its cost is also less compare to other
inputs, but the greater income farmer gets depends upon the quality of the small quantity of
seed he uses. By using good quality seed one can get 15 – 20% more yield than using poor
Good quality seed is the seed with required genetic and physical purity that is
accompanied with physiological soundness and health status.
Characteristics of good quality seed
• High genetic purity
2. • High pure seed percentage (physical purity)
• High germinability
• High vigour and stamina
• Higher field establishment
• Free from pest and disease
• Good shape, size, colour etc., according to the specification of variety
• Higher physical soundness and weight
• High longevity / shelf life/ storage capacity
• Optimum moisture content for storage
• High market value
Differences between seed and grain
It should be a viable one Need not be a viable one
It should have maximum genetic & physical
Should satisfy minimum seed certification
No such requirements
It should be completely treated with pesticide
/fungicide to protect seed against storage
pests and fungi
It should never be treated with any
chemicals, since used for consumption
Respiration rate and other physiological and
biological processes should be kept at low
level during storage
No such specifications
Should be compulsorily certified / truthful
No such condition in grain production
Should never be converted into grain unless
Can be converted as seed provided the
It should satisfy all the quality norms Not considered
In seed production adequate care is given from the purchase of seeds up to harvest
adopting proper seed and crop management techniques. Higher income and higher quality seed
for next sowing are the benefits of seed production.
Difference between seed and crop production
Seed production Crop production
Basic seed should be from an authentic
Any seed material can be used
Seed plot should be selected carefully for
better performance, as per edaphic and
Can be grown in any area
Needs isolation from other varieties Isolation is not necessary
Needs technical skill for maintenance of
Special technical skill is not required
Maintenance of genetic purity is important Genetic purity is not required
Roguing is compulsorily practiced Roguing is not practiced
Harvesting should be done at physiological/ Harvested at field maturity
3. harvestable maturity
Resultant seed should be vigorous and viable Question of viability does not arise
Importance is given to seed quality rather
than the yield
More importance is given to yield
Hence, Seed Science …..
Seed Science is a multidisciplinary science - Comprising of agronomy, physiology,
breeding, soilscience, microbiology, pathology, entomology and the economics.
Generation system of seed multiplication
Generation system of seed multiplication is nothing but the production of a particular
class of seed from specific class of seed up to certified seed stage. The choice of a proper seed
multiplication model is the key to further success of a seed programme. This basically depends
The rate of genetic deterioration
Seed multiplication ratio and
Total seed demand
Based on these factors different seed multiplication models may be derived for each
crop and the seed multiplication agency should decide how quickly the farmers can be supplied
with the seed of newly released varieties, after the nucleus seed stock has been handed over to
the concerned agency, so that it may replace the old varieties. In view of the basic factors, the
chain of seed multiplication models could be.,
a. Three - Generation model - Breeder seed - Foundation seed - Certified seed
b. Four - Generation model
Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I) Foundation seed (II) - Certified seed
c. Five - Generation model
Breeder seed - Foundation seed (I)- Foundation seed (II) -Certified seed (I) - Certified
For most of the often cross pollinated and cross pollinated crops 3 & 4 generation
models is usually suggested for seed multiplication. Example. Castor, Redgram, Jute,
Greengram, Rape, Mustard, Sesame, Sunflower and most of the vegetable crops.
4. The four generally recognized classes of seeds are: Breeder's seed, Foundation seed,
Registered seed and Certified seed. The Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies
(AOSCA) has defined these seed classes as follows:
Classes of Seeds
This is the hundred percent genetically pure seed with physical purity and produced by
the original breeder/Institute / State Agriculture University (SAU) from basic nucleus seed stock.
A pedigree tag is issued by the producing breeder.
The progeny of nucleus seed multiplied in large area as per the indent of Department of
Agriculture and Cooperation (DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, under
supervision of plant breeder / institute / SAUs and monitored by a committee consisting of the
representatives of state seed certification agency, national / state seed corporations, ICAR
nominee and concerned breeder. This is also hundred percent genetically pure seed for
production of foundation seed. A golden yellow colour tag is issued for this category of seed by
the producing breeder.
The progeny of breeder seed produced by recognized seed producing agencies in public
and private sector, under the supervision of seed certification agencies in such a way that its
quality is maintained according to prescribed field and seed standards. A white colour tag is
issued for foundation seed by seed certification agencies.
The progeny of the foundation seed so handled as to maintain its genetic identity and
purity and approved and certified by a certifying agency. It should be of quality suitable to
produce certified seed.
The progeny of foundation seed produced by registered seed growers under the
supervision of seed certification agencies to maintain the seed quality as per minimum seed
certification standards. A blue colour tag is issued by seed certification agency for this category
of seed. Its production is so handled to maintain genetic identity and physical purity according to
standards specified for the crop being certified. It should have the minimum genetic purity of
99%. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed, provided this reproduction does not
exceed two generations beyond foundation seed and provided that if certification agency
determines the genetic and physical purity, if not be significantly altered. In case of highly self
5. pollinated crops certification of one further generation may be permitted. Certified seed
produced from certified seed shall be eligible for further seed increase under certification,
except in case of highly self pollinated crops, where certification of one further generation may
be permitted. Certification tags issued once for certified seed not eligible for further seed
increase under certification.
For paddy and wheat , certified seed produced from certified seed is eligible for
certification by NSC up to two generations from foundation seed
Foundation seed - Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II)
For barley, garden pea ,ground nut, soyabean, certified seed produced from certified
seed is eligible for certification up to 3 generations from foundation seed
Foundation seed - Certified seed (I) - Certified seed (II) - Certified seed (III)
Certification of certified seed produced from certified seed is not permitted for crops other than
those listed above.
7. 3GenerationSystem 4 Generationsystem 5 generationsystem
Foundation - I
Foundation Seed -II
Foundation Seed - I
Certified Seed - I
Foundaton Seed- II
CertifiedSeed - II
Five generation system is followed only when multiplication is very poor
there should be heavy demand
should be of Self – Pollinated Crop
8. Agencies involved in seed production
Agency Class of seed Quality control system
Concerned breeder or
or Breeder himself
(No specified tag)
Concerned breeder or
or Seed Technologist
(Golden yellow tag)
Breeder seed monitoring
team-field inspection to
check genetic purity-(Grow
State Department of
Agrl., National seeds
Central and State
State Seed Certification
and testing to check
minimum required physical
purity and other quality
State Department of
Agrl., National seeds
Central and State
(Azure blue tag)
State Seed Certification
and testing to check
minimum required physical
purity and other quality
Farmer / Producer
TRUTHFUL LABELED SEED
(Opel green tag)
Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)
Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) is the quantity of quality seed that have replaced the
actual seed requirement of the location that are normally produced by the farmer using their
SRR = x / y x 100
Where x = Quantity of actual quality seed sown / used in an area /
y = Quantity of quality seed (certified) required for the entire
production area / location
This replacement rate can give an idea on how much certified (quality) seed is being
used. The seed replacement rate in India is around 15 – 20% which may vary with crop
9. varieties. However, it will be 100% for hybrid seeds. This SRR gives an idea on how much
certified seed is being used as a base seed for production of crops by farmers which will
indirectly stresses or expose the requirement of quality seed for further production.
Seed multiplication ratio
It is the ratio of seed produced from single seed. i.e. many seeds are produced from a
single seed. It varies with crop based on its genetic ability. But can be altered by environment
and management factors.
Seed multiplication ratio = Seed Yield / Seed Rate
S.No Seed crop Multiplication ratio
1. Paddy 152
2. Wheat 49
3. Barley 26
4. Maize hybrid 248
5. Maize variety 115
6. Jowar hybrid 179
7. Jowar variety 94
8. Bajra hybrid 380
9. Bajra variety 175
10. Ragi 420
11. Gram & Peas 24
12. Pigeon peas 150
13. Other pulses 125
14. Groundnut 18
15. Brassica 200
16. Sesamum 200
17. Linseed 42
18. Other oil crops (73-100)
19. Cotton 46
20. Jute 120
21. Fodder 75
Seed production system in India
10. The new policy on seed development (NPSD), established in 1988 with the objective of
augmenting productivity and output quality, stimulated major growth in the industry as it
attracted a lot of investment in seed business from major domestic seed companies. Given the
growth of the sector in recent years, India has the potential to become the foremost player in the
seed export business in the developing world with prospective markets in Asia, Africa and South
Indian seed programme includes the participation of Central and State government,
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), State Agricultural Universities (SAU) system,
public sector, cooperative sector and private sector institutions.
Giant public sector includes national level corporations i.e. National Seed Corporation
(NSC) and State Farms Corporation of India (SFCI), 28 State Seed Corporation (SSCs). For
quality control and certification, there are 21 State Seed Certification Agencies (SSCA) and 107
State Seed Testing Laboratories (SSTLs) existing in India. These corporations engage
principally in production and marketing of seeds of high yielding and hybrid varieties developed
by the public sector mainly high volume low value seeds.
Although private seed companies such as Poacha and Sutton have been established
since the pre-independence era, accelerated growth of the private sector began only after the
introduction of the new seed policy in 1988 which favoured for a liberal business climate.
Currently there are over 550 private seed companies, together with a few multinational
companies, and these tent to focus on low volume, high value crops with the principle effort
being placed on creating hybrid seeds for oilseeds, maize, cotton and vegetable crops. The
private sector accounts for more than 60-70 per cent of the market in terms of market turnover
whereas the public sector has the greater share in terms of volume sales. The private
companies are categorized as:
Seed Giant – Monsanto, PHI, Bayer, Syngenta etc.
Mid Size growing Companies – Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd, MAHYCO, Advanta India Ltd.,
JK Agri Genetics Ltd., US Agri Seeds, Shriram Bioseed Genetics Ltd. etc.
Mid Size Constant Market Share Companies – Krishidhan Seeds, Ganga Kaveri
Seeds, Ajeet Seeds, CP India Ltd etc.
Small Size Companies – Yashosa Seeds, Doctor Seeds etc.
11. Organizations involved with seed production and research
NSC - National Seed Corporation
SFCI - State Farms Corporation of India
NSP - National Seed Project
SSC - State Seed Corporation
UKS&TDC - Uttar Pradesh Seed and Tarai Development Corporation
SSCA - State Seed Certification Agency
National Seed Corporation
National Seeds Corporation (NSC) is a Schedule ‘B’-Miniratna Category-I company
wholly owned by Government of India under the administrative control of Ministry of Agriculture.
NSC was established in 1963 to undertake production of foundation and certified seeds. At
present, it is undertaking production of certified seeds of nearly 600 varieties of 60 crops
through its registered seed growers. There are about 8000 registered seed growers all over the
country who are undertaking the seed production programmes in different agro-climatic
conditions. The turnover of the Corporation for the F.Y. 2013-14 was 738.75 crores.
There are 10 Regional Offices, 5 Farms and 73 Area Offices/Sub-Units of the
Corporation spread all over the country. In the seed production, emphasis is given for
production of oil seeds, pulses and hybrids including vegetables. NSC has established strict
Quality Control procedure to ensure supply of quality seed to farmers.
NSC has established 5 Quality Control Laboratories, one each at New Delhi,
Secunderabad, Bhopal, Kolkata and Pune to undertake seed testing to check the quality of
seeds. Besides, production and distribution of quality seeds, NSC is also involved in the
production of Tissue Culture Plants like Banana. It also undertakes supply of seedlings/saplings
of fruit crops through procurement from the MOU Partners. Seed marketing is carried out
through three channels namely sale through dealers/ distributors, Govt.
State Farms Corporation of India
The SFCI was established in 1969 under the Companies Act, 1956 to set up and run
agricultural farms, primarily for the production of seeds of food grains, fibre cops, oilseeds,
plantation crops, fruits and vegetables in various parts of the country. The corporation operates
large-scale farms in all the State where State Seeds Corporations have been set up (except
Maharashtra). It participates in each State Seeds Corporation as a share holders growers: Project
12. regarding production of foundation and certified seeds on behalf of National Seed Corporation
and State Seeds Corporations and acts as a consultant for farm development plan of the
Agricultural Universities and other institutions.
Seeds are produced on 12 central government farms under the control of SFCI. Some of
these are Suratgarh and Jestar farms in Rajasthan, Jhasugartha farm in Odisha, Jalandhar farm
in Punjab; Hisar in Hariyana, Raichur farm in Karnataka, Mizo Hills in Assam and Cannanore
farm in Kerala.
National Seed Programme
Following the recommendations of Seed Review Team (1968) and National Commission
on Agriculture (NCA) (1971, 1976) the Government of India decided in late 1974 to reorganize
and expand the seed industry and launch a National Seed Programme with the assistance from
the World Bank. NSP- Phase l was implemented in 1975-76 with the actual production starting
in 1976. During the first phase, State Seed Corporations were established in four state namely,
Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. This programme was further expanded
during phase ll and State Seed Corporations were established in another five states, namely,
Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha.
The World Bank assisted in strengthening the Indian seed programme in the country by
launching NSP with financial assistance of US $ 52.7million and subsequently NSP II in the
following year with financial assistance of US $ 34.9 million. The ICAR launched an All India
Coordinated Research Project on seed called National Seed Project in 1979-80 at 14 centres in
Seed Technology Research and an equal number of Breeder Seed Production Centres. Another
related Coordinated Project called 'Seed Borne Diseases' was also launched in 1980 at 8
centres, which was later on merged with NSP in June 1991 for better resource utilization and
also to avoid the overlapping of the programmes. The seed programme of the country was
further strengthened with NSP- Phase IIl State Seed Corporations were established in another
four States, namely, Assam, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat which not only
supported the ICAR and SAUs but also Department of Agriculture, Seed Corporations, Seed
Certification Agencies and Private Seed Industries to a great extent in production, processing
and in providing quality seeds to the country.
At present, the Breeder Seed Production (BSP) programme is operating at 36 centres
and Seed Technology Research (STR) at 23 centres under National Seed Project at various
SAUs and ICAR institutes in the country.
State Seed Corporation
13. State Seed Corporations have been established in 14 States to widen the networke of
production and distribution channels for certified seeds in the country on the lines of Tarai
Development Corporation. In Rajasthan, the State Seed Corporation was established on March
28, 1978. The main functions of State Seed Corporations are: (i) Production, (ii) Processing, (iii)
Storage and (iv) Marketing of certified seeds. They are not responsible for the production of
breeder and foundation seeds.
Andhra Pradesh State Seeds Development Corpn. Ltd.
Karnataka State Seeds Corporation Ltd
Rajasthan State Seeds Corporation Ltd.
Punjab State Seeds Corporation Ltd.
Gujarat State Seeds Corporation Ltd.
Haryana Seeds Development Corporation Ltd.
Uttaranchal Seeds and Tarai Development Corpn. Ltd.
West Bengal State Seeds Corp. Ltd.
MP Seeds & Farms Development Corpn .Ltd.
Orissa State Seeds Corporation Ltd
Bihar Rajya Beej Nigam Ltd.
Maharashtra State Seed Corporation Ltd.
Assam State Seeds Corporation Ltd.
U.P. Seeds Development Corporation
State Seed Certification Agency
The purpose of seed certification is to maintain and make available to the public, through
certification, high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kind and varieties so grown
and distributed as to ensure genetic identity and genetic purity. Seed certification is also
designed to achieve prescribed standards. Certification shall be conducted by the certification
agency notified under section 8 of the seed Acts, 1966. Seed of only those varieties which are
notified under section 5 of the Seed Act, 1966 shall be eligible for certification. There are
24 state certification agencies involved in seed certification.
Indian Seed Industry - Current Status and Future Growth
Indian seed Industry, is one of the most mature and vibrant one in the world currently
occupying the 6th
position with nearly 9000 Crore turnover. During the past 5 years, the Indian
Seed Industry has been growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 12%
14. compared to global growth of 6-7%. In value terms the major growth has come from the
increased adoption of Bt cotton hybrids, single cross corn hybrids and hybrid vegetables. The
volume growth has mainly come through increased Seed Replacement Rate in crops like Paddy
and Wheat. Indian seed industry is undergoing wide ranging transformation including increased
role of private seed companies, entry of MNCs, joint ventures of Indian companies with
multinational seed companies and consolidations. Indian Seed Industry is poised to grow at a
CAGR of 17% for next 4 years.
India today has a critical mass and level of growth that it could use not only to cater to
the growing domestic requirement but also to make a concerted effort for global trade under
provisions of GATT and FAO. Furthermore, India is endowed with second largest area of
farmland, and the largest area of irrigated land, in the world and with its huge germplasm
diversity, its seed industry is well placed to serve both domestic and international markets.
Indian seed market
The requirement of certified / quality seeds is assessed by State Governments on the
basis of the area sown under different crop varieties, area covered by hybrid and self-pollinated
varieties as well as the seed replacement rate achieved. The availability of seed is ascertained
by the State Departments of Agriculture on the basis of the production of seed in government
farms and production of seeds by State Seeds Corporations and other agencies. The
Government of India periodically assesses the requirement and availability of seeds through
detailed interaction with State Governments and seed producing agencies in the bi-annual
Zonal Seed Review Meetings and the National Kharif and Rabi Conferences. The Department
of Agriculture and Cooperation facilitates tie-up arrangements with seed producing agencies to
ensure that the requirement of seeds is met to the maximum extent possible.
The extent of production and availability of breeder, foundation and certified seed in the
country is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Production and availability of Breeder, Foundation and Certified seeds
91.96 94.41 102.00 118.85 123.38 110.20 82.29
Lakh Qtls 8.22 9.69 10.50 17.53 21.86 16.17 17.43
Lakh Qtls 179.05 215.81 257.11 277.34 294.85 313.44 301.39
Source: Department of Agriculture & cooperation, New Delhi.
The production of breeder seeds and foundation seeds increased from 2007-2008 to
2011-2012. There was a decline in breeder seed production during 2012-2013 to 2013-2014.
The quantity of quality seeds distributed increased from179.05 lakh tonnes in 2007-2008 to
301.39 lakh tonnes in 2013-2014. It reflects the change in the farmers practice and they
continue to prefer good quality certified seeds. The crop wise requirement and availability of
certified quality seeds in India during 2011-2012 to 2013-2014 is presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Crop-wise Requirement and Availability of Certified/Quality Seed in India
(Qty. in Lakh quintal)
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Wheat 108.22 117.83 108.2 112.23 112.53 108.35
Paddy 82.56 91.6 78 80.32 82.37 89.95
Maize 10.82 13.63 10.64 11.39 10.42 10.59
Jowar 2.44 2.66 2.74 3.17 2.8 3.59
Bajra 2.97 3.37 2.64 2.96 2.52 3.49
Ragi 0.3 0.3 0.34 0.37 0.32 0.34
Barley 1.68 1.8 1.93 2.35 2.05 2.81
Other - - - - 0.05 0.05
Kodo 0.01 0 0.01 - - -
Cereals Total 209.01 231.2 204.5 212.79 213.07 219.18
Gram 14.22 16.63 16.32 15.14 17.07 20.1
Lentil 1.13 0.95 1.04 0.74 1.46 1.42
Peas 1.5 1.36 1.83 1.6 1.80 1.64
Urd 2.44 3.37 2.41 3.33 2.48 3.82
(Qty. in Lakh quintal)
2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
Moong 2.2 2.3 2.24 2.53 1.93 2.65
Arhar 2.71 3.55 2.16 2.27 2.58 2.52
Cowpea 0.23 0.16 0.21 0.2 0.27 0.3
Moth 0.15 0.09 0.2 0.23 0.21 0.17
Rajmash 0.04 0.03 0.11 0.11 - -
H. Gram 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.08 - -
Lythyrus 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.01 - -
Other 0.04 0.04 - - 0.28 0.28
Kehsari - - 0.04 0.04 - -
Pulses Total 24.73 28.54 26.65 26.28 28.08 32.9
Groundnut 29.2 33.69 23.66 25.73 29.62 30.22
Rape/Must 1.26 1.24 2.44 2.64 2.61 2.74
16. Toria 0.17 0.21 - - - -
Raya 1.09 1.2 - - - -
Til 0.26 0.26 0.29 0.3 0.29 0.31
Sunflower 0.72 0.98 0.67 0.68 0.54 0.6
Soyabean 30.03 34.44 31 38.28 33 36.95
Linseed 0.04 0.04 0.09 0.02 0.06 0.03
Castor 0.5 0.65 0.63 0.7 0.63 0.73
Safflower 0.1 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.12 0.12
Niger / Others 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03
Oilseeds Total 63.42 72.84 58.92 68.51 66.88 71.73
Cotton 2.35 2.67 2.41 2.72 2.21 2.46
Jute 0.4 0.48 0.36 0.37 0.32 0.14
Mesta / Other 0 0 - - 0.21 0.25
Fibre Total 2.75 3.15 2.77 3.09 2.74 2.86
Potato 29.97 17.34 21.62 17.32 22.91 18.95
0.54 0.56 0.73 0.59 1.59 1.7
Grand Total 330.41 353.62 315.19 328.58 335.26 347.31
In India, imports and exports of seeds are regulated based on The New Policy on Seed
Development, 1988. Under the existing export- import policy, seeds are classified into following
1. Seeds in the restricted list of export
2. Seeds in the restricted list of import
Seed export restrictions have been mostly removed. However, restrictions still apply on
export of seeds of jute, onion, cotton, castor, fodder, etc., as well as wild plant germplasm for
biodiversity reasons in India (GOI Circular, 1988). The restricted categories of seeds export are
allowed under license issued by the Director General of Foreign Trade, on recommendations
from the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation of the Government of India (GOI). Export of
seeds requires advance planning and intensive marketing efforts. India’s present export of fruits
and vegetables seeds decreased in volume but increased with value (Table 3).
Table 3: Export of Fruits & Vegetables Seeds in India
Year Qty. Value (Rs. Lakh)
2012-13 17,168.03 34,772.43
2013-14 17,816.75 41,053.74
2014-15 12,499.32 42,703.83
Source: APEDA, 2013, DGCIS Annual Export
All seed consignments must be accompanied by an import permit and a phytosanitary
certificate with additional declarations as the case may be. Permits are issued to those
importers who are registered with the NSC.
17. Getting imported seed through Plant Protection and Quarantine offices can be difficult
and companies say it all depends on the officer in charge. Seed could be retained for thirty days
or more for inspection and clearance, but in practice this has become a minimum period. For
imports of germplasm, NBPGR is authorized to issue permits. However, they retain samples of
all imported seed material to enrich their germplasm collection.
The Indian seed industry, over the years, has evolved by adopting and innovating
scientific advancements in variety development with quality seed production. Indian seed
industry has evolved to become the sixth largest in the world. This has made tremendous
contribution to increase productivity The seed regulations are to be implemented strictly to
ensure supply of quality seeds and to protect the farmers from spurious seeds with IPR.
Government has to reduce limits on import and export of quality seeds and planting materials.
Direct Investments are allowed and encouraged as a result several multinational seed
companies entered into seed business in India and the policy stimulated appreciable
investments by private individuals, Indian Corporate and MNCs in the Indian seed sector with
strong R&D base for product development with more emphasis on high value hybrids. There is
large scope for growth of seed industry as the quality seed requirements in many crops has not
Agrawal, R.L., 2008, Seed Technology, Second Edition, Oxford and IBH Publication, New Delhi,
APEDA, 2013. Exports from India of Fruit and Vegetable Seeds.
6. http://aginnovation.org/malawi/workshop/Progression-of-Indian-Seed- Industry_Mr.