What is Bluetooth?
Goals Of Bluetooth
Bluetooth Sensor Network
Bluetooth is a radio frequency specification for short range,
point to point and point to multipoint voice and data transfer.
In spite of facilitating the replacement of cables, bluetooth
technology works as an universal medium to bridge the existing
data networks, a peripheral interface for existing devices and
provide a mechanism to form short ad hoc network of connected
devices away form fixed network infrastructures.
The Bluetooth name comes from the Danish Viking Harald Blåtand.
By Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba.
1998 - Bluetooth technology is officially introduced and the
BLUETOOTH Special Interest Group (SIG) is formed.
1999 - Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is introduced.
In June of 2010, the Bluetooth SIG Board of Directors adopted the
Bluetooth Core specification v4.0, which can be found inside the
iPhone 4S .
5. WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?
It is wireless protocol utilizing short range communication
Facilitates data transmission from fixed and/or mobile devices
creating personal area network(PAN).
PAN is used to link to the NIC card of the system.
Low cost device with small power consumption and reasonable
Suitable for small battery driven devices.
6. Bluetooth (contd.)
Eliminate wires and cables between both stationary and mobile
In Bluetooth,Connection can be initiated without user interaction.
Devices can be connected to multiple devices at the same time.
One complete Bluetooth data packet can be transmitted within each
625 msec hop slot.
8. BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATIONS
Transceivers and Receivers that can send and receive data because
they use radio waves.
MAC Address (Physical Address)
Burnt on the NIC card by the manufacturer.
To identify the user using the device.
A FHSS protocol
9. BLUETOOTH NETWORKS…
It is a collection of up to 8
devices that frequency hop
Out of which one is the master
device and other are slaves.
Slave devices use the masters
clock to synchronize their
10. POWER MODES IN PICONET
4 different power modes exist namely
Active- unit actively participates in
Sniff- slave units listen in on channels at
specific time decided by master.
Hold- every unit can take some time off
Park- slaves do not participate in piconet
but still maintains timing synchronization
13. BLUETOOTH LAYERS
Bluetooth Radio layer :
• This layer is roughly equivalent to the physical layer of the Internet model.
• It specifics details of the air interface, including frequency, frequency hopping,
modulation scheme, and transmission power.
• The Bluetooth Radio (layer) is the lowest defined layer of the Bluetooth
To transform bits to signal , sophisticated version of FSK is used called
GFSK. Bit 1 is represented by frequency deviation above the carrier.
14. Bluetooth Baseband Layer:
• It is equivalent to MAC sub layer in LANs.
• The access method is TDMA.
• The primary and secondary communicate with each other using time slots. The
time that one frequency is used ,a sender sends frame to secondary or secondary
sends frame to primary.
• It is concerned with connection establishment within a piconet, addressing, packet
format, timing and power control.
It uses a form of TDMA called TDD-TDMA(time division duplex TDMA).It is
a kind of half –duplex communication in which secondary and receiver send
and receive data but not at same time. Communication for each direction uses
15. • Frame format: A frame in the baseband can be of three types:
In a one-slot frame exchange 259microseconds is needed for hopping
and control mechanisms.
It occupies three slots. Length of frame is 1616 micro seconds.
3. Five –slot
It uses 259 bits for hopping i.e. length of frame is 2866bits.
Logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP)
It adapts upper layer protocols to the baseband layer and provides both
connectionless and connection-oriented services. Multiplexing can also
Bluetooth devices use a protocol called (FHSS) Frequency-Hopping Spread
Spectrum to avoid interference from other devices or networks .
Uses packet-switching to send data.
Bluetooth sends packets of data on a range of frequencies.
In each session one device is a master and the others are slaves.
The master device decides at which frequency data will travel.
Bluetooth hops 1600 Times per second
This technique allows devices to communicate with each other more
17. GOALS OF BLUETOOTH
Goals of Bluetooth are unification and harmony as well,
specifically enabling different devices to communicate
through a commonly accepted Standard.
Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHZ
frequency band and use frequency hopping spread spectrum
18. BLUETOOTH SENSOR NETWORK
Comprises of a no. of
small devices equipped
with sensing unit,
and power source.
19. SMART SENSOR NODE
Sensor n/w consists of several
smart sensor nodes and a
Each smart sensor node consists
of many sensors, a
microcontroller & a Bluetooth
Microcontroller is responsible
for smart node logic.
20. APPLICATIONS OF BLUETOOTH BASED
HEALTH MONITORING: Various sensors are attached to a
patients body to collect physiological data then stored or
forwarded i.e. in CT Scan, Ultrasound, ECG etc.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: Fire detection, water
pollution monitoring etc.
MILITARY And SECURITY: Monitoring soldiers in the field,
tracking enemy movements.
21. BLUETOOTH ISSUES
Scalability Issues: Only 8 nodes can be connected at a time so
dense n/w not possible. Slave to Slave direct communication not
Establishing a scatternet is very difficult due to frequency
Low Throughput: It is1mbps but with overheads it is 722 kbps
Very easy to use.
Connection is fast and simple.
More devices are Bluetooth capable.
Wireless (No Cables).
No Setup Needed.
Industry Wide Support.
23. Research Work
Currently a protocol is being researched that would
support large ad hoc networks.
Ultra wide band has been chosen by the Bluetooth Special
Interest Group as the future of Bluetooth Technology.
Many companies are designing impressive bluetooth
applications in demand.
Bluetooth is a new standard developed by a group of electronics
manufacturers, that will allow any sort of electronic equipment to
make it's own connections without wires, cables or any direct
action from user. It is a rapid growing technology that makes man
easy to transfer his electronic equipments from one place to
another. It is a technology that not yet completely developed.
Hope this will be achieved very soon.
25. Future Scope
Bluetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a basic
need of connectivity.
Latest version of bluetooth are improving both its security
New versions of bluetooth technology will meet the high-
speed and large range.