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History & Theory of Planning: Origins of Modern City Planning

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History & Theory of Planning: Origins of Modern City Planning

  1. 1. PLAN 3022: Planning History & Theory Week 02: Origins of Modern City Planning / Reform Movements Anuradha Mukherji Assistant Professor of Urban and Regional Planning
  2. 2. 19th Century Slum City “Every room in these rotten and reeking tenements houses a family, often two. In one cellar a sanitary inspector reports finding a father, mother, three children, and four pigs! In another missionary found a man ill with small-pox, his wife just recovering from her eighth confinement, and the children running about half naked and covered with filth. Here are seven people living in one underground kitchen, and a little child lying dead in the same room. Elsewhere is a poor widow, her three children, and a child who has been dead thirteen days. Her husband, who was a cab driver, had shortly before committed suicide.” (Hall, 2014, p.17)
  3. 3. Industrialization & Urbanization Production centralized in cities as factories concentrate in urban areas. Factory system – needs raw materials, labor, markets Increased mechanization Intense use of resources – coal, iron ore, lumber, petroleum City of factory, smokestacks, steam engines
  4. 4. Pittsburg, Pennslyvania, 1902 This image is attributed to T.M. Fowler & James B. Moyer. (PD-US-1923)
  5. 5. Ohio Works of the Carnegie Steel Co., Youngstown, Ohio, 1910 These images are attributed to Haines Photo Co. @ 1919 (PD-US-1923) and Seattle Engineering Co. (PD-US-1923) Seattle Railroad, 1900
  6. 6. Industrialization & Urbanization By 1900, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia -- three cities with one million inhabitants Industrialization: Urbanization in industrial regions, corresponding often to the presence of railroads. Internal migration: From farms and small towns to the larger cities Overseas Migration
  7. 7. Overseas Immigration in New York Immigrants at Ellis Island, circa 1900. Photograph: Bettman/Corbis
  8. 8. Population Increase in New York Immigrants: Nearly three in five of the city’s population lived in tenement houses
  9. 9. Housing in New York Late 1800s Manhattan, New York Rapid urban growth in 19th century Nearly four-fifths of the ground covered in buildings Escalating land values forced cities to grow vertically: Density An ordinary street block (25 x 100 feet block) could house 4,000 people  In 1900 some 42,700 tenement housings housed more than 1.5 million people.
  10. 10. Crises in the Industrial City IMPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION New Agents – Factory & Railroad New Industries – Smelting & Manufacturing Rapid Increase of Urban Population Hazardous Environment - Massive Pollution • Water (residential & commercial waste) • Land (household & factory waste) • Air (smoke from coal consumption, factories Public Health Impacts – Contamination of Water, Land & Air Poor Housing – Lack of sanitation, lack of clean water, endemic disease
  11. 11. Urban Tenements – New York City This image is in the public domain (PD-US-1923)
  12. 12. Housing in New York HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES 1890 By Jacob A. Riis •Photographs of tenements in New York •Stimulus to housing and neighborhood reform
  13. 13. Housing in New York An Italian woman ‘rag-picker’ in her living space The cramped living condition's of the Irish immigrant's in 1889, New York
  14. 14. Housing in New York Tenements in NYC circa 1900 Tenement life; Photo by Jacob Riis 1910
  15. 15. Housing in New York Tenement – Yard In a seven-cent lodging house
  16. 16. Housing in New York: Dumbbell Tenement • Developed in a competition in 1879 • Multifamily housing widely built in New York • 24 families on to a lot 25-feet wide and 100-feet deep • 14 rooms on each floor • 10 out of 14 have no access to appropriate windows – openings to a lightless and airless lightwell (lack of light, air, and space)
  17. 17. Housing in New York: Dumbbell Tenement
  18. 18. Planning
  19. 19. Reform Movements • Problems arising from urban growth: Pressure for Reform • Sanitation and public health • The disappearance of urban open space • Housing quality and overcrowding • The ugliness and grimness of the nineteenth-century industrial city (aesthetics) • Traffic congestion • The problem of providing urban populations with adequate mobility
  20. 20. The Gilded Age & Progressive Era 4• Gilded Age (1870s – 1900s): Rapid economic growth and serious social problems • Influx of millions of European migrants • Expansion of industrialization • Railroads, factories, mining and finance increased in importance • Abject poverty as impoverished European migrants poured into America • Social and political upheavals after the 1873 and 1893 depressions • South after the American Civil War remains economically devastated. • Followed by Progressive Era (1890s – 1920s) – Social and Political reforms, in particular eradicate corruption in government.
  21. 21. 1901 Tenement Housing Act • Enforced all tenement houses constructed after the law • Cut lot coverage to 70% on interior lots and 90% on corner lots • Mandated separate bath for each apartment • Inner courts or rear yards for light and ventilation • Improved fire safety measures – all tenement erected thereafter (exceeding 60 feet in height) should be fireproof. • At least one window of specified dimensions required for every room, including the bathroom • Minimum size of rooms • Requirement for running water and water closets in each apartment in new tenement houses • Permits before occupying the house • Prohibited use of any part of the building as a house of prostitution • Set-up Tenement Housing Commission with a staff of inspection and enforcement powers
  22. 22. Municipal Reform •The Shame of the Cities (1904) by Lincoln Steffens •Attacked the blatant corruption of city governments •For “City Efficient” •The separation of politics from administration and the rule of the expert
  23. 23. Public Health – Parks Movement Background: • The general secretary of the United States Sanitary Commission during the Civic War • Dedicated to improving the sanitation of the Union Army's military camps and the health of Union soldiers
  24. 24. Public Health – Parks Movement “…(thus) stagnant air and insufficient sunlight and foliage to disinfect it had caused much of the higher mortality of cities in the past and still accounted for variations within many nineteenth- century urban settings – for example, between the “closer built parts” of Brooklyn and those sections with wider streets and numerous gardens.”
  25. 25. 2 Commissioners Plan (1807-11)
  26. 26. Central Park, New York City Olmsted’s Park / Parkway Design “Good ventilation makes a house healthier, so too would parkland serve to ventilate cities” Co-designed by Calvert Vaux, The Greensward Plan 770 acres of city-owned land Inspired parks in many other cities Rectangular shape: 1/2 mile east to west and about 2 1/2 miles north to south The foundational work in public parks
  27. 27. Central Park, New York City 4 First study of design for the Central Park. Woodcut, after Olmsted and Vaux's Greensward plan, 1858. (Description of a Plan for the Improvement of the Central Park, New York, 1868)
  28. 28. 5 One. To achieve natural and landscape beauty Two. To cater to the desperate need of urban neighborhoods for some relief from their congested environment by way of the provision of recreational areas.
  29. 29. Riverside (1868-1870) Olmsted’s Suburban Design Planning: The most effective preventives of disease • Co-designed by Calvert Vaux • A Chicago suburb • Close attention to fitting the street pattern to the topography  natural contour drainage • Consideration of sunlight and ventilation • Curvilinear street pattern • Preservation of open green space
  30. 30. Pre-Sanitary Reforms 4 • Discharged waste upon land adjoining their dwellings and shops. • Within their private lot and into the streets. • The sewers needed to be large enough for a man to enter for cleaning and repair. • Sewers system focused on carrying off storm water to prevent flooding not carrying away organic wastes. • No centralizing planning, a piecemeal approach.
  31. 31. Reform Movements 4 “The elements of popular discord are gathered in those wretchedly-constructed tenant-houses, where poverty, disease, and crime find an abode. Here disease in its most loathsome forms propagates itself. Unholy passions rule in the domestic circle. Every thing, within and without, tends to physical and moral degradation.” (New York Citizen’s Association’s 1865 report, p.xvi)
  32. 32. Sanitary Movement: Movement for Preventive Sanitation Edwin Chadwick • Argued against the British Poor Law Amendment Act (1834)’s purpose of public workhouses for “the lazy, shiftless poor” ??? • “it would be less expensive to promote and create a healthier environment for workers.” • Conducted a thorough survey to correlate class/income and population density with the incidence of disease
  33. 33. Sanitary map of the Town of Leeds Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain (1842)
  34. 34. Sanitary Reform in England 41842-1844. Edwin Chadwick: • Adopted the “water-carriage sewerage system” • A small, egg-shaped sewer • Sewage removed by gravity beyond the city limits. • Rainwater could wash street debris into the sewers and out of the city by paved, sloped, and guttered streets.
  35. 35. Sanitary Reform in United States 4• Borrowed directly from English experience: in Jersey City, in Chicago, and Brooklyn • An engineering art, Engineers as civic servants not as city planners Sanitary survey planning, New York City • Before Sanitary reform, Dr. Stephen Smith’s unsuccessful efforts against the slumlord. • First efforts in 1865, New York City • A report led by the Citizens’ Association of New York, the city’s wealthiest merchants group. • Collaborated work with physicians, engineers, and chemists. • Total 29 sanitary inspection districts with detailed report • Rational efforts: Investigating the diseases of a locale and the associated physical conditions and then formulating solutions
  36. 36. 1865 Citizens' Association of New York. Council of Hygiene and Public Health Report on the sanitary condition of the city
  37. 37. New York Five Points Area Currently Chinatown
  38. 38. Sanitary Reform in United States 4 1866 city-wide cleanup began First six month alone: • 160,000 tons from streets • 38,000 human excréments • 3 dead horse • 3,800 dead cats and dogs • 591 people died in Cholera outbreak (10 times less than the pervious outbreak 17 years before) • People started realizing the link between dirt and disease.
  39. 39. Sanitary Survey Planning 4 Memphis, Tennessee in 1879 • In 1878, a yellow fever epidemic: 5,150 out of 45,000 died. • The National Board of Health treated Memphis as a model of the technique (rational planning). • Comprehensive “Sanitary survey”(1879-1880), nine proposals • Sanitary reformers (surveyors) functioned as city planners (NOT planners)
  40. 40. Memphis’s Nine Proposals 4• Employment of a sanitary officer to superintend all sanitary work • Systematic ventilation and chilling of all city houses and their furnishings • Replacement of polluted wells and cisterns with a public water supply • Condemnation and destruction of numerous buildings ranging from shanties to large central city structures • Closing of privies and introductions of sewerage • Damming of the swamps and the park-development of its shoreline • Enactment of a sanitary code requiring the lifting of all buildings with floors less than two feet from the ground • Abatement of all nuisances discovered by the survey • The repaving of streets.

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