The FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Assessment), Evaluation of Failure Modes and Effect, is a methodology to evaluate the various possibilities of failure of a concept, system, process, machine, product or service. The scope of FMEA has changed over the time. Today incorporate the criticality assessment, before named FMECA. Over a structured matrix each failure mode has assigned probability rates concerning the severity of the failure consequences, the occurrence of such failure and the existing detection capability of the failure mode or related causes. These probability rates are based on a scale between 0 and 10. The overall probability of the failure mode is calculated by the product of the three ratios, getting the RPN (Risk Potential Number), establishing the risk level. The risk levels are prioritized and the FMEA team established actions in order to reduce one or more factors and decrease the criticality.
The FMEA allows deep knowledge of the systems, processes and products, prevents the occurrence of faults and reduces the impact of non-compliance. Lead objectively to structure and establish operation procedures for critical maintenance programs, provide inputs for process and products controlling plans, focused on prevention and cost optimization. The structuring of the various failure modes assists on contingency, securing and troubleshooting plans design.
As an application tool with simple and safe return, by processes and products reliability, it promotes organizational culture of continuous improvement, process and activities simplification allowing a safe base to Lean projects. Safety Engineering Maintenance and Reliability Centered programs used, for example, in aeronautical and automobile industries, use FMEA to mitigate the risk on certification systems.
The aim of this work is to get systematized information on FMEA and promote a simple and accessible way for no experts on FMEA development.
In organizations with processes already installed the P-FMEA is one that can bring a greater impact and kick-wins, once it goes across all products and services.