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The Swine Flu

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The Swine Flu

  1. 1. Since it was the first outbreak of swine flu a few days ago until now, things have worsened considerably. Find and answer 16 questions developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC), with everything you need to know about the swine flu. FROM : http://www.univision.com/content/content.jhtml?cid=1921847
  2. 2. How many swine influenza viruses are there? Like all influenza viruses, influenza viruses are constantly changing swine. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza viruses and human, as well as the swine influenza virus. When the influenza virus to infect other species of pigs, the viruses can be grouped (ie change your genes) and new viruses may arise from the mixing of influenza viruses from pigs with human or avian influenza. Over the years there have been various changes in swine influenza virus. At present, there are four main subtypes of influenza virus type A isolates from pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and H3N1. However, most influenza viruses isolated recently from pigs have been the H1N1 virus. What and how often attacks the man What is the swine flu? Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by the influenza virus type A, which causes common influenza outbreaks among animals. The swine influenza virus to pigs seriously ill, but death rates are low. These viruses can be spread among pigs throughout the year, but most of the outbreaks occur during late autumn and winter, like the outbreak in people. The virus of classical swine influenza (H1N1 influenza virus type A) was first isolated from a pig in 1930.
  3. 3. Do humans can become infected by swine influenza? The swine influenza virus does not usually infect humans. However, there have been sporadic cases of swine influenza infections in humans. Usually, these cases occur in people who have direct exposure to pigs (ie, children who come to fairs or pigs in the swine industry workers). In addition, there have been some documented cases of people who have infected the swine influenza virus to others. For example, in 1988, a suspected outbreak of infectious swine influenza in pigs in Wisconsin caused multiple infections in humans and, if not there was an outbreak in the community, we identified antibodies that tested HIV transmission from patient to patient care staff care that had close contact with him.
  4. 4. How often are swine influenza infections in humans? In the past, the CDC received reports of about one case of infection with swine influenza virus in humans or each two years in the United States, but in December 2005 to February 2009 have reported 12 cases Swine influenza infections in humans. What are the symptoms of swine influenza in humans? The symptoms of swine influenza in people are similar to those of seasonal influenza in humans and common among these include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and cough. Some people with swine influenza have also reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
  5. 5. Do people can get influenza from eating pork or pork products? No. The swine influenza virus is not transmitted by food. You can not get influenza from eating pork or pork products. There aren’t risks if you eat pork and its derivatives have been handled and cooked properly. If you cook pork to an internal temperature of about 71 ° C (160 ° F), eliminating swine influenza virus, as well as other bacteria and viruses. How is the swine flu? The influenza virus can be transmitted directly from pigs to people and people to pigs. Infections in humans by the influenza virus from pigs are more likely to occur in people who are in close contact with infected pigs, such as working in pig farms and those involved in the booths of pigs fair exhibits of farm animals. The transmission of swine influenza from person to person can also occur. It is believed that this transfer is equal to that of seasonal influenza in people, ie mainly from person to person when people infected with influenza cough or sneeze. People can become infected by touching something with virus influenza and then put their hands in their mouth or nose.
  6. 6. What information we have on the transmission of swine influenza from person to person? In September 1988, a healthy pregnant woman aged 32 was hospitalized for pneumonia and died 8 days later. The swine influenza virus H1N1 was detected. Four days before becoming ill, the patient had visited an exhibition of pigs at a county fair where he was a seudogripal widespread disease among pigs. In follow-up studies, 76 percent of exhibitors from pigs which were tested had antibodies to swine influenza infection found, although in this group there was no serious illness. Further studies indicated that one of three employees, healthcare personnel who had contact with seudogripal patient had mild disease and antibodies against swine influenza infection. How are diagnosed swine influenza infections in humans? To diagnose an infection with swine influenza type A, usually is due to collect a sample of respiratory secretions between the first 4 to 5 days of the disease appeared (when an infected person is most likely to spread the virus). However, some people, especially children, can spread the virus for 10 days or more. For the identification of swine influenza virus type A is necessary to send the sample to the CDC for laboratory test.
  7. 7. What medications exist to treat people infected with swine influenza? Four different antiviral drugs that are approved in the United States for the treatment of influenza: amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Although most of the swine influenza viruses have been sensitive to the four types of drugs, the seven most recent viruses of swine influenza Asylees people are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Currently, the CDC recommends the use oseltamivir or zanamivir for the prevention and treatment of infection by the virus of swine influenza. You can find more information on recommendations for treatment on site www.cdc.gov / flu / swine / recommendations.htm. What other cases of swine influenza outbreaks are there? Probably the best known case is the outbreak of swine flu among soldiers at Fort Dix, New Jersey, in 1976. This virus caused pneumonia, proven by x-rays, at least 4 soldiers and 1 death, all these patients previously enjoyed good health. The virus is transmitted to close contacts in an environment of basic training, and no transmission occurred outside the group of basic training. It is believed that the virus remained there one month and gone. Unknown source of the virus, the exact date of admission to Fort Dix, the factors that limited its transmission and duration. The Fort Dix outbreak may have been caused by the entry of a virus from one animal to a human population under stress in close contact with people with overcrowded facilities and during the winter. The swine influenza virus type A contained a soldier at Fort Dix was named A / New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1). The swine influenza virus H1N1 is equal to the H1N1 influenza virus in humans? No. The influenza virus H1N1 swine are antigenically very different from the H1N1 virus in humans, therefore the seasonal influenza vaccines for people they do not provide protection against swine influenza virus H1N1.
  8. 8. How is the swine influenza in pigs? It is believed that the swine influenza virus is transmitted mainly through close contact between pigs and possibly contaminated objects that are moving between infected and healthy pigs. Herds of pigs with swine influenza infections continued and that the flocks are vaccinated against this disease can be sporadic disease may be asymptomatic or only mild symptoms of infection. What are the signs of swine influenza in pigs? The signs of swine influenza may be the sudden onset of fever, depression, cough (grunt), secretions from the nose and eyes, sneezing, difficulty breathing, swelling or redness of eyes and loss of interest in food.
  9. 9. How often is the swine influenza in pigs? The swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2 are endemic among pig populations in the United States and is an industry that deals on a regular basis. Outbreaks among pigs normally present in the cold months (late autumn and winter) and sometimes with the addition of a new pig herds vulnerable. Studies have shown that the H1N1 swine influenza is common among populations of pigs around the world and that 25 percent of the animals have antibody evidence of infection. Studies in the United States have shown that 30 percent of the population of pigs tested have evidence of antibodies for H1N1 infection. To be more precise, has established the presence of antibodies to H1N1 infection in 51 percent of pigs in the north of the central region of the United States. Infections in people by the virus of the H1N1 swine influenza are rare. At present, there is no way to differentiate in pigs produced antibodies in reaction to the vaccination of antibodies generated by infection with swine influenza H1N1. Although swine influenza virus H1N1 have been found in pig populations since at least 1930, swine influenza virus H3N2 began to appear among the pigs in the United States until 1998. The H3N2 virus first entered the pig populations by humans. The current influenza virus H3N2 swine are closely associated with the H3N2 virus in humans. Is there a vaccine for swine flu? There are vaccines that are administered to pigs for prevention of swine influenza. However, there is no vaccine to protect people against swine influenza. It is possible that the seasonal influenza vaccine provides partial protection against H3N2 virus but not against the H1N1 virus of swine influenza.
  10. 10. Oseltamivir (INN) (pronounced /ɒsəlˈtæmɨvɪr/) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B infection. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. It acts as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase, preventing progeny virions from emerging from infected cells. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. It is a prodrug, which is hydrolysed hepatically to the active metabolite, the free carboxylate of oseltamivir (GS4071). It was developed by US-based Gilead Sciences and is currently marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche (Roche) under the trade name Tamiflu. In Japan, it is marketed by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., which is more than 50% owned by Roche. Oseltamivir is generally available by prescription only. Roche estimates that 50 million people have been treated with oseltamivir.[1] The majority of these have been in Japan, where an estimated 35 million have been treated.[2] With increasing fears about the potential for a new influenza pandemic, oseltamivir has received substantial media attention. Governments, corporations, and even some private individuals are stockpiling the drug. Production is currently sufficient to meet the demand for seasonal influenza and for government stockpiling. It is possible that shortages could recur in the event of an actual influenza pandemic. 1.^ "Roche update on Tamiflu for pandemic influenza preparedness". Roche Media News. 2007-04-26. http://www.roche.com/med-cor-2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. "Tamiflu has now been used in over 50 million influenza patients worldwide" 2.^ Tomoko Otake (2007-03-20). "Tragedy swirls around Tamiflu". The Japan Times Online. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi- bin/fs20070320a3.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. "oseltamivir phosphate ... is enormously popular in Japan, where a total of 35 million people have taken it" From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oseltamivir