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ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE REPORT

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ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE REPORT

  1. 1. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 MINI PROJECT On ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE Affiliation SUBMITTED TO DR. T. JESSE JOEL Assistant Professor Department of Biosciences and Technology; School of Engineering and Technology; Karunya University SUBMITTED BY Name : C.ALVINO ROCK Reg. No: UR16CS158 Marks Awarded: (Out of 20) Date of Submission: 27-10-2016 BATCH – I 1 20
  2. 2. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE 2
  3. 3. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Abstract Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse and substance usedisorder, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes thesubstance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal oranti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well.[2] In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.[3] Drugs most often associated with this term alcohol,barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, methaqualone,opioids and substit uted amphetamines. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with theories including one of two: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a habit which if addiction develops, it manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease. Alcohol is the drug of choice among youth. Many young people are experiencing the consequences of drinking too much, at too early an age. As a result, underage drinking is a leading public health problem in this country. Each year, approximately 5,000 young people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking; this includes about 1,900 deaths from motor vehicle crashes, 1,600 as a result of homicides, 300 from suicide, as well as hundreds from other injuries such as falls, burns, and drownings (1–5). Yet drinking continues to be widespread among adolescents, as shown by nationwide surveys as well as studies in smaller populations. According to data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, an annual survey of U.S. youth, three-fourths of 12th graders, more than two-thirds of 10th graders, and about two in every five 8th graders have consumed alcohol. And when youth drink they tend to drink intensively, often consuming four to five drinks at one time. MTF data show that 11 percent of 8th graders, 22 percent of 10th graders, and 29 percent of 12th graders had engaged in heavy episodic (or “binge1 ”) drinking within the past two weeks The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration [BAC] to 0.08 grams percent or above. For the typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming five or more drinks [men], or four or more drinks [women], in about 2 hours.) 3
  4. 4. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 TABLE OF CONTENTS S. NO. CONTENTS PAGE. NO. 1 Chapter – I: Introduction 5 2 Synopsis 8 3 Justification of the Topic 9 4 Chapter – II: The Report 10 5 Chapter – III: Results/Outcome 20 6 Chapter – IV: Conclusion 27 7 Chapter – V: Summary/Discussion 29 8 References 32 4
  5. 5. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Chapter – I Introduction Here is no single age group of people more affected by alcohol and drugs than young people. In some ways it feels like it is an issue 5
  6. 6. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 everywhere: for you, your family and your friends. Plain and simple, try as you might, you cannot escape the issues of alcohol and drugs. Nationwide, alcohol and drugs affect each and every one of us, directly or indirectly: in our homes, in our families, in our school, in our dorm, in our community, town or city. FACT: More than 23 million people over the age of 12 are addicted to alcohol and other drugs affecting millions more people -- parents, family members, friends and neighbours. For some, one time or infrequent use of alcohol or drugs can result in tragedy: alcohol overdose (alcohol poisoning), an accident or fall when under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or an arrest associated with alcohol or drugs that may cost you your reputation and/or your freedom. For others, even though they may not use alcohol or drugs, they could become a victim of an alcohol or drug-related crime. And, for yet others, what may have started as occasional use can turn into an addiction that presents extraordinary health concerns with potentially grave and tragic consequences. Age of first use of alcohol and drugs Using alcohol and drugs before the brain has fully developed increases your risk for future addiction to alcohol and drugs dramatically. Young people who start drinking alcohol before age 15 are 5 times more likely to develop alcohol abuse or dependence than people who first used alcohol at age 21 or older. Research for drug use and drug addiction has found similar results. Family history of alcoholism or drug addiction 6
  7. 7. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Whether a person decides to use alcohol or drugs is a choice, influenced by their environment--peers, family, and availability. But, once a person uses alcohol or drugs, the risk of developing alcoholism or drug dependence is largely influenced by genetics. Alcoholism and drug dependence are not moral issues, are not a matter of choice or a lack of willpower. Plain and simple, people’s bodies respond to the effects of alcohol and drugs differently. If you have a family history of alcoholism or addiction, you are four times more likely to develop a problem. Alcohol and teens facts • Alcoholism is a substance-use disorder in which the sufferer has problems managing how much and how frequently they dring alcohol and its negative effects on their lives as a result. • The symptoms of alcoholism include tolerance to alcohol, withdrawal episodes, using more alcohol for longer periods of time, and problems managing life issues due to alcohol. • Alcoholism is caused by a number of individual, family, genetic, and social factors rather than by any one cause. • Although a number of genes play a role in the development of alcoholism, this is a disease in which other factors more strongly influence its occurrence. • Alcoholism is diagnosed by evaluating whether the individual shows a number of symptoms of problem drinking on a regular basis. • Alcoholism treatment is usually treated based on the stage of the addiction, ranging from management of risk factors and education to intensive residential treatment followed by long-term outpatient care and support. ALCOHOL DO TEENS USE Alcohol is the most frequently used drug by teenagers in the United States. Significant statistics regarding alcohol use in teens include that about half of junior high and senior high school students drink alcohol on a monthly basis, and 14% of teens have been intoxicated at least once in the past year. Nearly 8% of teens who drink say they drink at least five or more alcoholic drinks in a row (binge drink). 7
  8. 8. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Synopsis Being a teenager is often a confusing, challenging time, which can make teens vulnerable to falling into a destructive pattern of drug use. While most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun, there are negative effects that are a result of this use of alcohol or other drugs. Even if adolescent drug use does not necessarily lead to adult drug abuse, there are still risks and consequences of adolescent drug use. These negative effects usually include a drop in academic performance or interest, and strained relationships with family or friends. Adolescent substance abuse can greatly alter behavior, and a new preoccupation with drugs can crowd out activities that were previously important. Drug use can also change friendships as teens begin to associate more with fellow drug users, who encourage and support one another's drug use. For adolescents, these changes as a result of substance abuse signal a problem in the teen's environment, and should be seen as a call to action for parents, teachers, or friends to seek help for their loved one Most teens don't start using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem, and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun, there are negative effects that are a result of this use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops into a true addiction. Very few addicts recognize when they have crossed the line from casual use to addiction. Most teens don't think that they will become addicted, and simply use drugs or alcohol to have a good time and be more like their friends. When teens become addicted they lose friends, develop health problems, start to fail in school, experience memory loss, lose motivation, and alienate their family and friends with their negative behaviors and often unpredictable emotional swings. If you are a parent who is concerned about your teen, the signs to look for are declining interest in activities your teen once enjoyed, changes in school performance, and unpredictable mood swings that seem to be about more than just teen hormones 8
  9. 9. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Justification of the Topic The truth is that it's extremely difficult to kick the drug habit without going through a proper youth addiction treatment program. Addiction is a complicated issue that often goes much deeper than simple curiosity. That's why most drug treatment programs that deal with teen drug abuse also include individual therapy, group therapy and medical care and treatment as part of the program As children move from adolescence to young adulthood, they encounter dramatic physical, emotional, and lifestyle changes. Developmental transitions, such as puberty and increasing independence, have been associated with alcohol use. So in a sense, just being an adolescent may be a key risk factor not only for starting to drink but also for drinking dangerously. Risk-Taking—Research shows the brain keeps developing well into the twenties, during which time it continues to establish important communication connections and further refines its function. Scientists believe that this lengthy developmental period may help explain some of the behavior which is characteristic of adolescence—such as their propensity to seek out new and potentially dangerous situations. For some teens, thrill-seeking might include experimenting with alcohol. Developmental changes also offer a possible physiological explanation for why teens act so impulsively, often not recognizing that their actions—such as drinking—have consequences. Hereditary Factors—Some of the behavioral and physiological factors that converge to increase or decrease a person’s risk for alcohol problems, including tolerance to alcohol’s effects, may be directly linked to genetics. For example, being a child of an alcoholic or having several alcoholic family members places a person at greater risk for alcohol problems. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are between 4 and 10 times more likely to become alcoholics themselves than are children who have no close relatives with alcoholism (26). COAs also are more likely to begin drinking at a young age (27) and to progress to drinking problems more quickly (9). 9
  10. 10. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Chapter – II Study Report 10
  11. 11. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 3.SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE a. SURVEY ON DRINKING Background Information 1. What was your age on your last birthday? ___________ < 14 ___________ 18-20 ___________ 15-17 ___________ 21+ 2. What is your sex? ___________ Male ___________ Female 3. What is your caste? ___________ BC ___________ MBC ___________ SC-ST ___________ FC 4. Where do you live? ________GANDHIPURAM__________PULIAKULAM _________SOWRIPALAYAM___________TOWNHALL Use of Alcohol 5. Have you ever had alcoholic beverages like beer, wine, wine coolers or liquor? ___________ Yes ______No (skip to question 18) 6. About how old were you the first time you drank alcohol, not counting sips you might have had as child from an older person’s drink? __5 ____10 _____15____20 YEARS old 7. How often do you drink alcohol? ________At least once a week ___________ At least once a month ___________ Less than once a month 8. Do you ever have five or more drinks of alcohol at a time? ___________ Yes ___________ No 9. If “Yes,” have you done this in the last month? ___________ Yes ___________ No 10.“Have you ever.... ?” (Check all that apply) ___________ Had family problems because you used alcohol ___________ Driven under the influence of alcohol Underage ___________ Been drunk at a party 11
  12. 12. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 ___________ Had an injury because you used alcohol. Perception of Alcohol Use by Other People 11.Most people my age who drink, do so because… (Check all that apply) ___________ They are sad or depressed and want to feel better about themselves ___________ They wish to rebel and defy their parents, teachers and other adult authorities ___________ They wish to fit in or be accepted by their friends or peers ___________ They are bored 12. Do you think alcohol use by underage youth is a... ___________ Serious problem ___________Not at all a problem ___________ 13.Within the past year, do you think heavy use of alcohol among people your age has.. ___________ Increased ___________ Decreased__________ Stayed the same 14.Who is responsible for contributing to the problem of alcohol use by youth under age 21? (Check all that apply) ___________ Parents___________ Public agencies ___________ bars and restaurants_______ Advertising 15.Do you think drinking and driving among youth is a… ___________ Serious problem ___________ Minor problem ___________ Not at all a problem 16.Do you know someone with an alcohol problem? ___________ Yes ___________ No 17. what was the DRUGISTS relationship to you? ___________ Relative ___________ Non-relative (e.g., friend) 18.Where is the primary source where people under the age of 21 obtain alcohol? (Select only one) ___________ Parent’s home ___________ Liquor store ___________ Bar/restaurant ___________ Friends/relatives 12
  13. 13. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 19.Which of the following approaches would you support to decrease alcohol use by youth under the legal drinking age of 21? (Check all that apply) ___________ New and/or stiffer penalties ___________ More law enforcement___________ More alcohol education in the mass media ___________ Alcohol-free teen night clubs 20.How druggists react with you? ________good__________bad b.SURVEY ON CIGARETTE SMOKING 1. How old are you? A. 10 years old B. 11 years C. 15 years old D. 18 years old 2. What is your sex? A. Female B. Male 3. What grade are you in? 9th / 10th / 11th / 12th 4. Are you INTERESTED? A. No B. Yes C.SOMETIMES D.RARE 5. What race or races do you consider yourself to be? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. American Indian or Alaska Native B. Asian C. Black or African American D. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 6. During the last 30 days, about how much money did you have each week to spend any way you want to? A. None B. Less than Rs100 C. Rs 1 to 500 D. Rs 600 to 1000 7. Have you ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs? A. Yes B. No 8. Do you think you will smoke a cigarette in the next year? A. Definitely yes B. Probably yes C. Probably not D. Definitely not 9. Do you think that you will try a cigarette soon? A. I have already tried smoking cigarettes B. Yes C. No 13
  14. 14. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 10. If one of your best friends were to offer you a cigarette, would you smoke it? A. Definitely yes B. Probably yes C. Probably not D. Definitely not 11. How old were you when you first tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs? A. I have never smoked cigarettes, not even one or two puffs B. 18 years old or younger C.1 9 years old D. 10 years 12. About how many cigarettes have you smoked in your entire life? A. I have never smoked cigarettes, not even one or two puffs B. 1 or more puffs but never a whole cigarette C. 1 cigarette D. 2 to 5 cigarettes pack 13. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigarettes? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 5 days D. 6 to 9 days 14. During the past 30 days, on the days you smoked, how many cigarettes did you smoke per day? A. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days B. Less than 1 cigarette per day C. 1 cigarette per day D. 2 to 5 cigarettes per day E. 6to 10 cigarettes per day F. 11 to 20 cigarettes per day G. More than 20 cigarettes per day 15. When was the last time you smoked a cigarette, even one or two puffs? (PLEASE CHOOSE THE FIRST ANSWER THAT FITS) A. I have never smoked cigarettes, not even one or two puffs B. Earlier today C. Not today but sometime during the past 7 days D. Not during the past 7 days but sometime during the past 30 days 16. During the past 30 days, what brand of cigarettes did you usually smoke? (CHOOSE ONLY ONE ANSWER) A. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days B. I did not smoke a usual brand C. American Spirit D. Camel 17. Menthol cigarettes are cigarettes that taste like mint. During the past 30 days, were the cigarettes that you usually smoked menthol? A. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days B. Yes C. No D. Not sure 18. During the past 30 days, how did you get your own cigarettes? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days B. I bought them myself C. I had someone else buy them for me D. I borrowed or bummed them 14
  15. 15. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 19. During the past 30 days, where did you buy your own cigarettes? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not buy cigarettes during the past 30 days B. A gas station C. A convenience store D. A grocery store 20. During the past 30 days, did anyone refuse to sell you cigarettes because of your age? A. I did not try to buy cigarettes during the past 30 days B. Yes C. No 21. Have you ever tried smoking cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars, even one or two puffs? A. Yes B. No 22. How old were you when you first tried smoking a cigar, cigarillo, or little cigar, even one or two puffs? A. I have never smoked cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars, not even one or two puffs B. 8 years old or younger C. 9 years old D. 10 years old 23. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 5 days D. 6 to 9 days 24. During the past 30 days, how did you get your own cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not smoke cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars during the past 30 days B. I bought them myself C. I had someone else buy them for me D. I borrowed or bummed them E. 25. During the past 30 days, where did you buy your own cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not buy cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars during the past 30 days B. A gas station C. A convenience store D. A grocery store 26. Have you ever used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip, such as Redman, Levi Garrett, Beechnut, Skoal, Skoal Bandits, or Copenhagen, even just a small amount? A. Yes B. No 27. How old were you when you used chewing tobaccos, snuff, or dip for the first time? A. I have never used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip B. 8 years old or younger C. 9 years old D. 10 years old 15
  16. 16. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 28. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you use chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 5 days D. 6 to 9 days E. 10 to 19 days F. 20 to 29 days G. All 30 days KOI 1.14.01, 1.14.02, & 3.14.01 29. During the past 30 days, how did you get your own chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not use chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip during the past 30 days B. I bought it myself C. I had someone else buy it for me D. I borrowed or bummed it 30. During the past 30 days, where did you buy your own chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not buy chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip during the past 30 days B. A gas station C. A convenience store D. A grocery store 31. Have you ever tried smoking tobacco in a pipe, even one or two puffs? A. Yes B. No 32. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke tobacco in a pipe? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 5 days D. 6 to 9 days 33. Have you ever tried smoking any of the following, even one or two puffs: A. I have never smoked bidis (small brown cigarettes wrapped in a leaf) or kreteks (clove cigarettes) B. Bidis C. Kreteks D. I have tried both bidis and kreteks 34. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke bidis? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 9 days D. 10 to 19 days 35. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke clove cigarettes? A. 0 days B. 1 or 2 days C. 3 to 9 days D. 10 to 19 days 36. Which of the following tobacco products have you ever tried, even just one time? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. Roll- your-own cigarettes B. Flavored cigarettes, such as Camel Crush C. Clove cigars D. Flavored little cigars 37. In the past 30 days, which of the following products have you used on at least one day? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) 16
  17. 17. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 A. Roll-your-own cigarettes B. Flavored cigarettes, such as Camel Crush C. Clove cigars D. Flavored little cigars 38. How easy would it be for you to get tobacco products if you wanted some? A. Very easy B. Somewhat easy C. Not easy at all 39. Do you believe that tobacco companies try to get young people under 18 to use tobacco products? A. Yes B. No The next questions will ask about your thoughts about getting tobacco products and if you think tobacco companies are trying to get young people to use tobacco 40. When you are using the Internet, how often do you see ads for tobacco products? A. I do not use the Internet B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 41. When you read newspapers or magazines, how often do you see ads or promotions for cigarettes and other tobacco products? A. I do not read newspapers or magazines B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 42. During the past 30 days, did you receive coupons from a tobacco company through… (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not receive coupons from a tobacco company B. The mail C. E-mail D. The Internet 43. During the past 30 days, did you receive ads from a tobacco company through… (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not receive ads from a tobacco company B. The Mail C. E-mail D. The Internet 44. When you go to a convenience store, supermarket, or gas station, how often do you see ads or promotions for cigarettes and other tobacco products? A. I never go to a convenience store, supermarket, or gas station B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 45. During the past 30 days, how often did you see an ad for cigarettes or smokeless tobacco that was outdoors on a billboard or could be seen from outside a store? A. I did not see an ad for cigarettes or smokeless tobacco during the past 30 days B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 17
  18. 18. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 46. When you watch TV or go to the movies, how often do you see actors and actresses using cigarettes or other tobacco products? A. I do not watch TV or go to the movies B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 47. What is the name of the cigarette brand of your favorite cigarette ad? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. American Spirit B. Camel C. GPC, Basic, or Doral D. Kool 48. A warning label tells you if a product is harmful to you and can be either a picture or words. During the past 30 days, how often did you see a warning label on a cigarette pack? A. I did not see a cigarette pack during the past 30 days B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 49. During the past 30 days, how often did you see a warning label on a smokeless tobacco product? A. I did not see a smokeless tobacco product during the past 30 days B. Never C. Rarely D. Sometimes 50. During the past 12 months, did you buy or receive anything that has a tobacco company name or picture on it? A. Yes B. No Some cigarettes or other tobacco companies make items like sports gear, T-shirts, lighters, hats, jackets,suglassess, or ther items that people can buy or receive for free. 51. How likely is it that you would ever use or wear something--such as a lighter, T-shirt, hat, or sunglasses --that has a tobacco company name or picture on it? A. Very likely B. Somewhat likely C. Somewhat unlikely D. Very unlikely 52. During the past 12 months, did any doctor, dentist, or nurse ask you if you use tobacco of any kind? A. I did not see a doctor, dentist, or nurse during the past 12 months B. Yes C. No 53. During the past 12 months, did any doctor, dentist, or nurse advise you not to use tobacco of any kind? A. I did not see a doctor, dentist, or nurse during the past 12 months B. Yes C. No 54. Do you want to stop smoking cigarettes for good? A. I do not smoke now B. Yes C. No 18
  19. 19. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 55. I plan to stop smoking cigarettes for good within the next… (PLEASE CHOOSE THE FIRST ANSWER THAT FITS) A. I do not smoke now B. 7 days C. 30 days D. 6 months 56. During the past 12 months, how many times have you stopped smoking for one day or longer because you were trying to quit smoking cigarettes for good? A. I did not smoke during the past 12 months B. I did not try to quit during the past 12 months C. 1 time D. 2 times 57. When you last tried to quit for good, how long did you stay off cigarettes? (PLEASE CHOOSE THE FIRST ANSWER THAT FITS) A. I have never smoked cigarettes B. I have never tried to quit C. Less than a day D. 1 to 7 days 58. Are you seriously thinking about quitting the use of all tobacco? A. I have never used tobacco B. Yes, within the next 30 days C. Yes, within the next 6 months D. Yes, within longer than 6 months 59. In the past 12 months, did you do any of the following to help you quit using tobacco of any kind for good? (You can CHOOSE ONE ANSWER or MORE THAN ONE ANSWER) A. I did not use tobacco of any kind during the past 12 months B. I did not try to quit during the past 12 months C. Attended a program at my school D. Attended a program in the community 60. During the past 7 days, on how many days did someone smoke tobacco products in your home while you were there?] A. 0 days B. 1 day C. 2 days D. 3 days 19
  20. 20. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Chapter – III Results/Outcome 20
  21. 21. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 (i)TOP 8 REASONS WHY TEENS TRY There is no single reason for teenage drug use and alcohol use. Dr. Neil I. Bernstein In How to Keep Your Teenager Out of Trouble and What to Do if You Can’t, Dr. Neil I. Bernstein details some of the core issues and influences behind teenage drug and alcohol use. Popular Media — Forty-seven percent of teens agreed that movies and TV shows make drugs seem like an OK thing to do, according to a 2011 study. Not surprisingly, 12- to 17-year-olds who viewed three or more “R” rated movies per month were seven times more likely to smoke cigarettes, six times more likely to use marijuana, and five times more likely to drink alcohol, compared to those who hadn’t watched “R” rated films (Amy Khan 2005). Escape and Self-Medication — When teens are unhappy and can’t find a healthy outlet for their frustration or a trusted confidant, they may turn to chemicals for solace.. Boredom — Teens who can’t tolerate being alone, have trouble keeping themselves occupied, or crave excitement are prime candidates for substance abuse. Not only do alcohol and marijuana give them something to do, but those substances help fill the internal void they feel. Further, they provide a common ground for interacting with like-minded teens, a way to instantly bond with a group of kids. Rebellion — Different rebellious teens choose different substances to use based on their personalities. Alcohol is the drug of choice for the angry teenager because it frees him to behave aggressively. Lack of Confidence — Many shy teenagers who lack confidence report that they’ll do things under the influence of alcohol or drugs that they might not otherwise. This is part of the appeal of drugs and alcohol even for relatively self-confident teens 21
  22. 22. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 (ii)PARENTS AND TEENS  PARENTS RESPOND Don't panic. Now is not the time for that. It's the time for taking action. The most important thing to remember once you discover that your teen is abusing drugs is that there is help available. There are support groups in many major cities to help parents cope with their teens, and they also educate parents on adolescent drug abuse and what you can do to help. And don't play the blame game. It's easy to point fingers and assign blame. It's even easier to accept the weight of the entire problem on your shoulders. Talk to your teen and listen to what he or she has to say about school, drugs and anything at all your teen wants to discuss. You need to do this even if what your teen is telling you is painful to hear. Not only does this let your teen know that you'll be there no matter what, but it also helps your teen feel a little less alone in the fight to overcome addiction. If you do suspect your teen is abusing drugs, it’s important to get them into treatment as soon as possible. Across the board, the sooner an individual gets help, the more likely it is that they will sustain a full recovery. Per CASA, 90 percent of addicts started abusing substances before they turned 18 years old. If teens can get into treatment early, it’s more likely that they can avoid turning into addicts down the road. Consider turning to a drug addiction rehabilitation facility that offers specialized treatment programs for youth drug abuse. The more experience they have dealing with teens, the better it will be for your teenand help your teen begin the path to recovery.  ILLICIT DRUG USE AND TODAY'S TEENS While illicit drug use seems to be on the decline, according o the National Institute on Drug Abuse, teens continue to abuse illicit substances in light of the known dangers. In fact, in 2014, past year abuse of illicit drugs for all grades was 27.2 %. If your teen is abusing marijuana, ecstasy or any other illicit or prescription drugs, we can help your teen kick the habit and get back to a life that's free of addiction. 22
  23. 23. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 (iii)DESCRIPTION AND TREATMENT  PRESCRIPTION DRUG ABUSE AMONG TEENS While alcohol and marijuana are the drugs most commonly abused by teens, the American Academy of Pediatrics reports that prescription drugs follow in third place. Teens can often get their hands on prescription drugs more easily than street drugs; they simply go into their family members’ or friends’ medicine cabinets and pilfer a few pills. Teens also often feel that prescription drugs are somehow safer than street drugs because they are initially prescribed by a doctor. In fact, prescription painkillers can be just as addictive and damaging to one’s health as heroin. Many teens begin taking prescription drugs because they feel it's a safer choice than using illicit drugs. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health findings in 2009 and 2010, of the people over the age of 12 who admitted to using prescription drugs for non-medical purposes in recent months, 50 percent reported receiving prescription drugs from friends or family members free of charge. Many teens cite easy access to prescription medication as one of the reasons they prefer them over illicit drugs today. But one of the biggest considerations among teens may be the fact that the social stigma associated with prescription drug abuse is much lower than with illicit drugs. THE DIFFERENCE IN TEEN DRUG TREATMENT In teen-specific rehab programs, patients will be surrounded by other teens who are struggling with similar drug abuse issues. In group therapy, they can learn from others’ experiences and offer support. Since peer pressure plays such a big role in the teen drug scene, teens can make new friends and tap into positive peer pressure, helping them to resist relapse when they exit formal treatment.Academics are also a core component of any teen drug treatment program. This ensures that teens in treatment don’t fall further behind on their schoolwork while they are getting the help they need for drug abuse issues. 23
  24. 24. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 (IV)TRUE STORY: SAVANNAH 1. Tuesday, October 2nd, 2012 2. I was only ten when my drug use started. Both of my parents are active addicts, so it was my mom who got me into it. She’s always acted like a teenager, more like a friend than a mom, and she gave me pills for the first time. I was living with her back then and I started using consistently—taking a bunch of pills, smoking weed, and drinking a lot. The pills were my main thing: Percocet, Vicodin, a lot of downers. I struggled with depression and my parents’ physical and verbal abuse, so then I started abusing myself with the drugs, cutting, bulimia, anorexia, and the guys I kept bringing in and out of my life. I started acting out like your typical teenage drug addict, stealing and sneaking out at night, but it was all pointless because my mom was high all the time and didn’t even notice. 3. By age 13 I was living in a shelter with mom and my youngest sister. The cops found me there and took me back to my dad’s. He was very abusive and his own drug of choice was uppers, so I started doing a lot of coke, meth, and ecstasy those next three years. Those became my drugs of choice. In July of 2009 I ran away from where I was living with my dad in south Texas. I don’t 24
  25. 25. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 remember all of it, just that I took Xanax, woke up in downtown Houston, and never went home again. At that point I didn’t have a “drug of choice” anymore—it was just whatever anybody had, whatever was in your hand. 4. In Houston I contacted an old using buddy and started staying with her and her mom. Her mom and my mom used to get high together, so when I was living with them we’d all get high together. A few weeks later my grandparents found me and got custody of me, so I moved in with them. The very next day I snuck out, bought a bunch of drugs and did them all: coke, pills, liquid codeine…all this crazy stuff. I wound up at a park where I went into the bathroom because I felt like I was going to have a seizure. That’s when I caught my reflection in the mirror and nearly jumped out of my skin. My eyes were sunken in, I was black and blue, I had cuts all over…I didn’t recognize myself. I literally thought it was someone else in the bathroom with me, that’s how bad it was, and I was terrified—I thought it was a monster. I realize now that I hadn’t looked myself in the eyes ever since I’d started getting high. 5. When I went outside the cops were there; they tackled me and sent me to juvenile hall, where I failed every drug test imaginable. I remember the lady doing my intake—she looked at me and her eyes were so sad, like she was thinking, “What on earth have you been doing to yourself?” The next day I met my Probation Officer, and of all the POs in Montgomery County I got a notoriously hard- ass one. She told me that she was going to flip a coin; if I got heads I got to go to Phoenix House, if I got tails I went to a psychiatric program. I happened to land on heads. 6. I started treatment at the Houston Outpatient and Prevention program, and I met my counselor, Rudy. I’d get so angry at him, yelling, like “Why do you even care!? I don’t understand why you’re even bothering!” But Rudy said, “I’m not going to give up on you,” and he didn’t. Not even when I relapsed. Not even when I got arrested and sent back to juvie. There I was: 15 years old, without any friends or family, and I just wanted more than anything to overdose on heroin and die. That’s when I finally got on my knees and prayed. I don’t think I actually said anything, 25
  26. 26. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 and if I did I don’t remember it. But I got this overwhelming sense that even though my lawyer, my PO, Rudy, my friends, and my family could all give up on me…God wouldn’t. So I wasn’t going to give up on myself. 7. I’m not a religious person, but that moment was my first experience of spirituality. And that same day, Rudy came to visit me. I was SO happy to see him because for the first time I felt like I actually had a chance. I was like “Rudy! Guess what?! I realized I’m an alcoholic and a drug addict!” And he was like, “I’m glad you finally figured that out.” Rudy really went to bat for me about going back to treatment, and I got back in. I finished my treatment at Phoenix House and participated in theCornerstone Recovery program as well. I’ve been sober since 2009, coming up on three years in October. 8. Since I’ve gotten sober I’ve had my mom come in and out of treatment and my life, my sister too. I’ve lost a lot of family and more friends than I can count to this disease of addiction. But at least I haven’t lost myself. Sure, I’ve had bad moments—I went through a breakup around the same time that a close friend of mine died, but I didn’t let that send me back out there to using. Nothing’s been easy, but recovery is the best thing that’s ever happened to me. 26
  27. 27. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Chapter – IV Conclusion 27
  28. 28. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Today, alcohol is widely available and aggressively promoted throughout society. And alcohol use continues to be regarded, by many people, as a normal part of growing up. Yet underage drinking is dangerous, not only for the drinker but also for society, as evident by the number of alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes, homicides, suicides, and other injuries. Environmental interventions are among the recommendations included in the recent National Research Council (NRC) and Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on underage drinking (71). These interventions are intended to reduce commercial and social availability of alcohol and/or reduce driving while intoxicated. People who begin drinking early in life run the risk of developing serious alcohol problems, including alcoholism, later in life. They also are at greater risk for a variety of adverse consequences, including risky sexual activity and poor performance in school. Identifying adolescents at greatest risk can help stop problems before they develop. And innovative, comprehensive approaches to prevention, such as Project Northland, are showing success in reducing experimentation with alcohol as well as the problems that accompany alcohol use by young people. 28
  29. 29. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Chapter – V Summary/Discussion HOW TEENS ARE EXPOSED TO DRUGS AND ALCOHOL ARTICLE SUMMARY 29
  30. 30. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 Curiosity: They want to know what it feels like to be drunk, intoxicated, or high. • Peer pressure: Their friends are doing it or pressuring them to do the same. • Acceptance: Their parents or role models are doing it and they want to feel accepted by those they look up to. • Defiance: They want to rebel against rules placed on them. • Risk-taking behaviors: They want to send out a call for help. PEER PRESSURE At any age, people want to be liked and accepted by those around them. This is especially true for adolescents and teens who are going through a process of transformation from childhood into adulthood. They are still discovering who they are, and through the confusion that often causes, want all the more to be accepted by their peers. Imagine you find yourself with someone you trust and admire. You are handed a bong, a bottle, or some pills and offered a place in the crowd. Even the most upstanding student may be tempted to try…just this once. Teens give into 30
  31. 31. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 peer pressure for many reasons, including: • Fear of rejection. • Not wanting to be made fun of. • Not wanting to lose a friend. • Not wanting to hurt someone's feelings. • The desire to appear grown up. • The desire to appear in control. • Not having a clear picture of what they want. • Not understanding how to avoid or handle a situation. In an attempt to understand why teens are so likely to give into peer pressure, NIDA conducted a research study on how. 31
  32. 32. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 References Article from Book • Books: Anthony, J.C. and K.R. Petronis. “Early onset drug use and risk of later drug problems.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 40:9–15. • Blincoe, L., A. Seay, E. Zaloshnja, T. Miller, E. Romano, S. Luchter, et al. “The economic impact of motor vehicle crashes, 2000.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 2002.http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov. • Brook, J.S., P. Cohen, and D.W. Brook. “Longitudinal study of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and substance use.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry37(3):322–330, 1998. • Brook, J.S., Z. Rosen, and D.W. Brook. “The effect of early marijuana use on later anxiety and depressive symptoms.” NYS Psychologist 35–39, January 2001. • California Office of Traffic Safety. Annual Report of Fatal and Injury Motor Vehicle Traffic In the Know Zone. www.intheknowzone.com (accessed October 1, 2007). • Johnston, L.D., P.M. O’Malley, and J.F. Bacman. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use, Overview of Key Findings. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health: 2003. • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Drug-Impaired Driving. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov (accessed October 28, 2007). • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “National Survey of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behaviors, 2001”www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/traffic-tech2003/TT280.pdf (accessed October 12, 2007). • National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know.” National Institutes of Health: Revised November 1998. • National Institute on Drug Abuse. “NIDA Research Report: Inhalant Abuse, 2005.” National Institutes of Health: 2005. • Office of National Drug Control Policy. “Marijuana and Kids: Steer Clear of Pot Fact Sheet.”www.mediacampaign.org/steerclear/factsheet.html#go17(accessed December 1, 2007). • Quinlan K.P., R.D. Brewer, P. Siegel, D.A. Sleet, A.H. Mokdad, R.A. Shults, N. Flowers. “Alcohol- impaired driving among U.S. adults, 1993–2002,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine28(4):345–350. • Rodriguez de Fonseca, F. et al. “Activation of corticotrophin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal.” Science 276(5321): 2,050–2,064. Article from Internet World Wide Web: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov. www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/drving.htm http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5302a1.htm 32
  33. 33. TEEN ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE UR16CS158 www.intheknowzone.com 33

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