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Copyright issues in digital media

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Copyright issues in digital media

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Copyright issues in digital media

  1. 1. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com COPYRIGHT ISSUES IN DIGITAL MEDIA FILMA VARGHESE TRADE MARK DEPARTMENT COPYRIGHT ISSUES IN DIGITAL MEDIACOPYRIGHT ISSUES IN DIGITAL MEDIACOPYRIGHT ISSUES IN DIGITAL MEDIA
  2. 2. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com INTRODUCTION • The emergence of digital technologies towards the concluding decades of the twentieth century raised a whole new set of challenges to copyright regimes. • The traditional notions of the basic concepts such as rights of reproduction and distribution have become inadequate and even irrelevant in the digital age. • All works can now be digitalized whether they comprise texts, images, sound or diagrams and once digitalized the various elements such as images are all 'equal' and can be merged, transformed, manipulated or mixed to create an endless variety of new works. • Earlier rights of reproduction distribution affected tangible physical copies only of a work. • The new technologies brought in non-material and distribution. Physical reproductions were replaced by digital reproduction, which was easy as well as cost effective.
  3. 3. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com OBJECTIVE OF THE COPYRIGHT LAW • The major objective of the copyright law is to strike out a balance between rights of the copyright holders and the general public. • To achieve its objective, copyright has been amended with time to time so as to meet the requirements posed by the technological advancements. • Indian Copyright Act has also been amended to counter the threats posed by the technological developments. The major changes in copyright legislation have been in response to advances in technology. Since the development of internet, there have been major Amendments to the Copyright Act every two or three years. • While protecting the Copyright owners these measures conflict with the legitimate rights of Copyright users. “The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but ‘[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts.’ • To this end, copyright assures authors the right to their original expression, but encourages others to build freely upon the ideas and information conveyed by a work. This result is neither unfair nor unfortunate. It is the means by which copyright advances the progress of science and art.”
  4. 4. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com PROMINENT COPYRIGHT ISSUES The prominent copyright issues in the digital era can be classified into three groups • GROUP 1: Issues relating to a whole new set of work namely computer programs, databases and multimedia works. • GROUP 2: Issues relating reproduction, distribution and communication to the public of a work through digital media • GROUP 3: Issues relating to management and administration of copyright in the digital environment
  5. 5. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com GROWING TECHNOLOGY AND DIGITIZATION With the advent of the digital environment, the access, use, duplication or modification of the original work has become really easy. Digital environment has created a platform for people for widespread cost effective distribution of the original works, posing serious threats to the interest of the creator. Threats posed by the digital environment to the copyrighted work are way too different from that in the normal course of physical world. To counter these threats innumerable techniques have been developed to make digital works difficult to copy, distribute and access without necessary permission. In effort to counter piracy, the media industry, including entertainment and Publishing is resorting to its own technological fixes such as Digital Rights Management, Technological Protection Measures and Broadcast Flags.
  6. 6. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Digital Right Management Digital Right Management includes techniques which have been developed to control duplication, modification and distribution of original works. The authors or the creators of the original works contend that DRM techniques are necessary in order to protect their interest by preventing free and unauthorized copying and distribution of their work. However there are few who support the view that DRM techniques pose unnecessary hurdles for the public and impede the way of innovation and creativity by not letting others from being motivated by the original work of others. Some of the DRM techniques are as follows:
  7. 7. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. ACCESS CONTROL AND COPY CONTROL Access and copy control software enables the creator to keep a check on the free and illegal exploitation of their work. These techniques ensure that only who pay, must enjoy a right over the product. Access controls are a category of software that is designed to prevent a user from getting a first copy of a work unless they have a license to do so. Copy controls are snippets of software that try to stop public from making a reproduction of work once they have obtained a copy. Access controls are relatively easy to implement. Example of this can be a website that requires customers to pay a fee before being offered a download. Copy controls avoid any manipulation of the original work.
  8. 8. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. ENCYPTION SCHEMES Encryption Schemes allow creators to prevent any unauthorized access to their original work. Encryption of content is a way to determine the authorized user in the digital environment. Encryption involves digital scrambling of the bits that make up content to prevent the content from being seen clearly until it is decrypted. Only authorized users have the keys to decrypt the work. DIGITAL WATERMARKS Digital Watermarks are the best techniques that help authors to trace the source of a work and any unauthorized duplication or distribution of their original work. The unique watermark embedded in the original work can link the use to the original work and any unauthorized copying or use can be traced.
  9. 9. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. Special features are embedded into the content that are not visible as such, but which can be read by a detection device so that it knows whether the content being played or used is authorized and where the source of the content was originated. Such information can provide data on the author, rights, distribution, etc. It can also contain copy control information and instructions. There are other various technological protection measures by way of which the infringement of copyright work can be prevented and the interest of the authors can be secured. However in spite of these techniques large number of data is copied and distributed on the digital environment posing adverse effects on the rights of the creators.
  10. 10. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com PROVISIONS UNDER INDIAN COPYRIGHT LAW Many techniques have been developed to protect the original work like digital watermarking, access and copy controls etc. However, despite the fact that these techniques have been incorporated in the legislations, regulation and protection of original works in the digital environment remains a goal that is yet to be achieved. It is very important that ideas should be available to the general public so that the flow of creativity must not be blocked. However creators and authors must always be incentivized for their efforts. Hence the interest of both must be kept in mind while enacting and implementing DRM techniques.
  11. 11. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. Strengthening of Border Measures Section 53, dealing with importation of infringing copies, has been substituted with a new section providing detailed border measures to strengthen enforcement of rights by making provision to control import of infringing copies by the Customs Department, disposal of infringing copies and presumption of authorship under civil remedies. Protection of Technological Measures The new section 65A, introduced for protection of technological protection measures (TPM) used by a copyright owner to protect his rights on the work, makes circumvention of it a criminal offence punishable with imprisonment.
  12. 12. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. As a result, any person who circumvents an effective technological measure applied for the protection of any of the rights, with the intention of infringing such rights, shall be punishable with imprisonment, which may extend to two years and shall also be liable to fine. The rationale is to prevent the possibility of high rate infringement (digital piracy) in the digital media. This amendment also clarifies the problem of circumvention impacting the public interest on access to work facilitated by the copyright laws. Sub-section (2) permits circumvention for specified uses. Digital Rights Management Information Section 65B has been introduced to provide protection of rights management information, which has been defined under clause (xa) of section 2.
  13. 13. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com CONTINUED…. This amendment is intended to prevent the removal of the rights management information without authority and distributing any work, fixed performance or phonogram, after removal of rights management information. As a result, any unauthorized and intentional removal or alteration of any rights management information is a criminal offence punishable with imprisonment, which may extend to two years and fine. The rationale of the protection emanates from the practice in the digital world of managing the rights through online contracts governing the terms and conditions of use. The protection of technological measures and rights management information were introduced in WCT and WPPT as effective measures to prevent infringement of copyright in digital environment. The introduction of Sections 65A and 65B is expected to help the film, music and publishing industry in fighting piracy.
  14. 14. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com Few DRM provisions were introduced in the Indian Copyright law by the way of an amendment in 2012. Section 65A and 65B were added to the Indian Copyright Act, 1957. These DRM provisions under the Indian law are not as extensive and exhaustive as US laws. Being blamed for the poor protection and enforcement policies, it is high time India should stringently follow these provisions of digital rights management and keep a check on copyright infringement in the digital environment. However it is pertinent to note that a balance must always be maintained between copyright holders and general users. CONCLUSION
  15. 15. CHENNAI 3rd Floor, ‘Creative Enclave’, 148-150, Luz Church Road, Mylapore, Chennai - 600 004. Tel: +91 - 44 - 2498 4821 BANGALORE Suite 920, Level 9, Raheja Towers, 26-27, M G Road, Bangalore - 560 001. Tel: +91 - 80 - 6546 2400 COIMBATORE BB1, Park Avenue, # 48, Race Course Road, Coimbatore - 641018. Tel: +91 - 422 – 6552921 EMAIL info@altacit.com WEBSITE www.altacit.com THANK YOU

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